Advances in cancer immunotherapy.
Ever since cancer and its relationship to the immune system were recognized, there has been interest in using the body's immune system to combat malignant disease. Substantial strides have been made recently, although they have not been applied as actively in otolaryngology as they have in other fields. Nevertheless, otolaryngologists should be familiar with the exciting progress that has been made in cancer immunotherapy.
Immune stimulation has been successful in causing regression of metastatic Metastatic
The term used to describe a secondary cancer, or one that has spread from one area of the body to another.
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pertaining to or of the nature of a metastasis. carcinoma in humans. It is now possible to produce recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2). This cytokine Cytokine
Any of a group of soluble proteins that are released by a cell to send messages which are delivered to the same cell (autocrine), an adjacent cell (paracrine), or a distant cell (endocrine). ordinarily is produced by helper T lymphocytes, and it is important in the regulation of immune reactions. IL-2 has caused regression of metastatic renal carcinoma and metastatic melanoma. In addition, genes involved in coding cancer antigens have been identified, along with the immunogenic im·mu·no·gen·ic
Producing an immune response.
producing immunity; evoking an immune response. peptides associated with these antigens. Consequently, it has become possible to create immune recognition of cancer antigens through immunization immunization: see immunity; vaccination. and through adoptive transfer of antitumor an·ti·tu·mor also an·ti·tu·mor·al
Counteracting or preventing the formation of malignant tumors; anticancer.
Adj. 1. lymphocytes into a lymphodepleted host.
The progress in the treatment of melanoma and other cancers through immunotherapy has been exciting, and most encouraging. While there has been less success in generating clinically effective antitumor immune cells against the squamous cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma
A carcinoma that arises from squamous epithelium and is the most common form of skin cancer. Also called cancroid, epidermoid carcinoma. seen most commonly in otolaryngology patients, these preliminary successes certainly are encouraging. Any otolaryngologist caring for patients with malignant disease would be well advised to remain current in this important field. A recent article by Stephen A. Rosenberg, MD, PhD, and the references cited in that article are recommended for the otolaryngologist interested in reviewing the state of the art. (1)
(1.) Rosenberg SA. Development of effective immunotherapy for the treatment of patients with cancer. J Am Coll Surg 2004; 198:685-96.
ROBERT T. SATALOFF, MD, DMA (1) (Digital Media Adapter) See digital media hub.
(2) (Document Management Alliance) A specification that provides a common interface for accessing and searching document databases.
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