Adolescent pregnancy.Most sexually experienced teenagers try to prevent pregnancy, and most young contraceptive users succeed in doing so. Nevertheless, 1 million adolescent women--12% of all women aged 15-19 and 21% of those who have had sexual intercourse--become pregnant every year. (150)
Pregnancy Rates: Up or Down?
Over the last two decades, adolescent pregnancy adolescent pregnancy See Teenage pregnancy. rates have gone both up and down, depending on how they are calculated (Figure 30, page 41). Reflecting the dramatic rise in the proportion of adolescent women who have had sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
or coitus or copulation
Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system). during this period, the rate among all teenage women aged 15-19 increased 23% between 1972 and 1990, and is now at its highest level in nearly 20 years. (151)
Pregnancy rates among all adolescent women, however, do not present an accurate picture of pregnancy levels among teenagers, because some adolescents are not sexually experienced and therefore are not exposed to the risk of pregnancy. The more important trend, therefore, is the pregnancy rate among sexually experienced teenagers. That rate has declined 19% among 15-19-year-olds in the last two decades (152)--an encouraging indication that sexually experienced adolescents are using contraceptives more effectively than did their counterparts in the past.
Age and Race as Factors
Nearly two-thirds of teenage pregnancies occur among 18-19-year-old women. (153) The proportion of sexually experienced teenagers who become pregnant increases with age, because as they get older, adolescents generally have intercourse more frequently and are more likely to be fertile and to want to get pregnant (154) (Figure 31, page 42).
* Among sexually experienced teenagers, about 9% of 14-year-olds, 18% of 15-17-year-olds and 22% of 18-19-year-olds become pregnant each year.
* The rate for 18-19-year-olds is only slightly lower than that for 20-24-year-olds.
Pregnancy rates also vary considerably by race and ethnicity. (155)
*Black teenagers have a higher pregnancy rate than their Hispanic and white peers: Some 19% of all black women aged 15-19 become pregnant each year, compared with 13% of Hispanics and 8% of whites.
*The higher rate among blacks is only partly due to the fact that they are more likely than whites to be sexually experienced. Even among those who have had intercourse, blacks are considerably more likely than whites and Hispanics to become pregnant, presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. because they are less likely to use a contraceptive or to use it effectively.
Since pregnancy data have been collected almost exclusively for women, it is easy to ignore male involvement. However, young women typically marry men who are three or more years older than they are, (156) so it is likely that the male partners of pregnant teenagers are also older than the women.
*Only 26% of the men involved in the pregnancies among women under age 18 are estimated to have been that young; 35% are aged 18-19, and 39% are at least 20. (157)
*These comparisons suggest that while 18% of 15-17-year-old women who have had intercourse become pregnant each year, only about 4% of sexually experienced men who are that young make a partner pregnant. (158)
Adolescent men may be less likely than adolescent women to be involved in a pregnancy, because many are having sex with even younger women, who are still experiencing lower fecundity fecundity /fe·cun·di·ty/ (fe-kun´dit-e)
1. in demography, the physiological ability to reproduce, as opposed to fertility.
2. ability to produce offspring rapidly and in large numbers. in the years immediately following menarche menarche /me·nar·che/ (me-nahr´ke) establishment or beginning of the menstrual function.menar´cheal
The first menstrual period, usually during puberty. , or because they are much less likely than young women to have sex frequently. Alternatively, the reports that higher proportions of young men than women have sex could be false.
Whatever the explanation, it cannot be assumed that the men involved in teenage pregnancies are comparable to the pregnant women. Nor can adolescent pregnancy continue to be viewed strictly as a teenage phenomenon. Age differences between partners raise concerns about how persuasive young women can be in insisting that their partners use condoms and how effective disease and pregnancy prevention programs can be if they focus only on teenagers and ignore their older partners.
Many of the milestones along the path to adulthood--completing education, finding full-time employment and getting married--now typically occur in the late teenage years or, more commonly, in the early 20s. On the other hand, a quarter of all young women have been pregnant by the time they turn 18, and half have had a pregnancy by age 21. (169)
* Young black women and teenagers who are poor or low-income are especially likely to become pregnant early in life.
* Typically, there is a gap of three years between first intercourse and first pregnancy among poor and low-income teenagers, compared with a gap of four and a half years among higher income adolescents.
* Similarly, blacks and Hispanics generally become pregnant less than three years after becoming sexually experienced, while whites wait more than four years. (160)
Some 85% of teenage pregnancies are unintended. (161) Teenagers are not alone in experiencing high rates of unintended pregnancy, however; 55% of pregnancies among older women are unintended. As a result, teenagers account for only about a quarter of all accidental pregnancies annually. (162)
* Pregnancies among higher income teenagers are more likely to be unintended than are those among poor and low-income adolescents; among older women, by contrast, those with higher incomes are less likely to have an unintended pregnancy than are those who are poor or low-income. (163)
* Hispanic teenagers who become pregnant are somewhat more likely than blacks or whites to have wanted to get pregnant or at least not to have cared whether or not they became pregnant. (164)
* Whether an adolescent intends to become pregnant is strongly affected by whether she is married (Figure 82, page 48). Even among married teenagers, however, most pregnancies are unintended. And since so few teenagers are married, 60% of intended pregnancies among women under age 20 occur among unmarried (165)
Pregnancy rates among sexually experienced teenagers have declined substantially over the last two decades, but because the proportion of teenagers who are sexually experienced has grown, the overall teenage pregnancy teenage pregnancy Adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy Social medicine Pregnancy by a ♀, age 13 to 19; TP is usually understood to occur in a ♀ who has not completed her core education–secondary school, has few or no marketable skills, is rate has increased. One million young women become pregnant annually, the vast majority unintentionally. Older teenagers and adolescents who are poor or black are more likely to get pregnant than are their younger, more advantaged and white counterparts. The way in which teenagers resolve their pregnancies also differs by age, income status, race and ethnicity, and marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state. .
(150.) AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) A machine intelligence that resembles that of a human being. Considered impossible by many, most artificial intelligence (AI) research, projects and products deal with specific applications such as industrial robots, playing chess, , 1993b; Henshaw, Koonin, and Smith, 1991, Table 4, p. 78; Hollmann, 1993.
In addition, each year, some 20-year-olds who conceived when they were 19 have abortions, miscarriages or births (approximately 185,000 in 1990). In this report, pregnancies are classified by the woman's age at the time of the birth, abortion or miscarriage, not by her age at the time of conception.
(151.) Henshaw, 1993.
Pregnancies among women under 15 account for fewer than 3 percent of all pregnancies among teenagers. Between 1987 and 1990, the pregnancy rate increased less than 1% for all women under 14, rose 5% for 15-17 year-old women, and climbed 8% for women aged 18-19 and 20-24
(152.) Henshaw, 1993.
Rates among sexually experienced women aged 15-17 were lower in 1990 than in any previous year for which data were collected; they were lower for 18-19-year- old women for all years except 1987, 1988 and 1989.
(153.) Henshaw, 1993.
Overall, 62% of teenage pregnancies in 1990 occurred among women aged 18-19, compared with 58% in 1972. Between 1972 and 1990, the number of pregnancies among women under age 15 remained between 28,000 and 32,000; the number among 15-17-year-olds declined from 389,000 to 363,000, while the number among older teenagers increased from 561,000 to 649,000.
(154.) AGI, 1993b; Henshaw, 1993.
The proportion of women who become pregnant is much smaller among younger teenagers than among older adolescents. Fewer than 2% of all 14-year-olds become pregnant each year, compared with 7% of 15-17-year-olds, 17% of those aged 18-19 and 20% of 20-24-year-olds.
(155.) AGI, 1993b.
Every year, 32% of sexually experienced black teenage women, compared with 26% of Hispanics and 15% of whites, become pregnant.
(156.) NCHS NCHS National Center for Health Statistics
NCHS Naperville Central High School (Illinois)
NCHS North Central High School
NCHS Natrona County High School (Wyoming)
NCHS National Center for Health Services , 1990b, Table 1-10, pp. 1-14.
(157.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p.86.
(158.) AGI, 1993d: AGI, 1993e: Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86; Hollmann, 1993; Sonenstein, Pleck and Ku, 1989, Table 1, p. 153.
(159.) Forrest, 1993, p. 108.
(160.) AGI, 1993b.
Because of differences in how young women resolve their pregnancies, the median gap between conception and first birth is almost five years among white women, compared with only three years among blacks and two years among Hispanics.
(161.) AGI, 1993d; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86. Only women aged 25-34 have more intended pregnancies than unintended ones. Pregnancies ending in miscarriage are excluded from the calculations.
(162.) AGI, 1993d; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86. Pregnancies ending in miscarriage are excluded from the calculations.
(163.) AGI, 1993d; ACT 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.
Among pregnant women 15-19 in 1988, 93% of higher income teenagers had gotten pregnant accidentally, compared with 83% of poor teenagers and 79% of low-income adolescents. By contrast, 35% of pregnancies among higher income women aged 25-29 were unintended, compared with 72% and 53%, respectively, among poor and low-income women in that age-group.
(164.) AGI, 1993d; AGI, 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p.86.
Of the 135,000 annual intended pregnancies among women under age 20, 21% are among blacks and 19% are among Hispanic teenagers. In contrast, blacks account for 29% of all unintended teenage pregnancies, but Hispanics account for only 13%.
(165.) AGI, 1993d; AGI 1993e; Henshaw, 1992, Table 1, p. 86.
Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI), "Polities of Sex Halts Youth Survey," Family Planning family planning
Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources. Perspectives, 23:197, 1991.
AGI, tabulations of data from the March 1992 Current Population Survey, 1993a.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth, 1993b.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a biannual survey of adolescent health risk and health protective behaviors such as smoking, drinking, drug use, diet, and physical activity conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. , 1993c.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, 1993d.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1987 AGI Abortion Patient Survey, 1993e.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1987 National Survey of Families and Households, 1993f.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey--Child Supplement, 1993g.
AGI, tabulations of data from the 1988 National Survey of Adolescent Males, 1993h.
Anderson, E., Street Wise, University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including , Chicago, 1990.
Anderson, J. et al., "HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. Among High School Students," Family Planning Perspectives, 22:252-255, 1990.
Aral, S. O. and M. E. Guinan, "Women and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases
Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely ," in K. K. Holmes et al., eds., Sexually Transmitted Diseases, McGraw-Hill, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , 1984, pp. 85-89.
Atwater, E., Adolescence, third ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992.
Axinn, W. G. and A. Thornton, "Mothers, Children, and Cohabitation A living arrangement in which an unmarried couple lives together in a long-term relationship that resembles a marriage.
Couples cohabit, rather than marry, for a variety of reasons. They may want to test their compatibility before they commit to a legal union. : The Intergenerational in·ter·gen·er·a·tion·al
Being or occurring between generations: "These social-insurance programs are intergenerational and all Effects of Attitudes and Behavior," American Sociological Review, 58:233-246, 1993.
Bachrach, C. A., K. S. Stolley and K. A. London, "Relinquishment of Premarital Births: Evidence from National Survey Data," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:27-32, 1992.
Bachu, A., "Fertility of American Women: June 1990," Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 454, 1991.
Barth, R. P. et al., "Enhancing Social and Cognitive Skills," in B. C. Miller et al., eds., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif., 1992, pp. 53-82.
Bennett, J., Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Population Affairs, Memorandum to Regional Health Administrators, Washington, D.C., June 25, 1993.
Berger, D. K. et al., "Influence of Family Planning Counseling in an Adolescent Clinic on Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use," Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 8:436-440, 1987.
Bezilla, R., ed., America's Youth 1977-1988, The Gallup Organization, Princeton, 1988.
Billy, J. O. C. et al. "The Sexual Behavior of Men in the United States," Family Planning Perspectives, 25:52-60, 1993.
Blum, R. W. and M. D. Resnick, "Adolescent Sexual Decision-Making: Contraception, Pregnancy, Abortion, Motherhood," Pediatric pediatric /pe·di·at·ric/ (pe?de-at´rik) pertaining to the health of children.
Of or relating to pediatrics. Annals, 11:797-805, 1982.
Bloom, D. et al., LEAP: Implementing a Welfare Initiative to Improve School Attendance Among Teenage Parents, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, 1991.
Bongaarts, J. and R. Potter, Biology and Behavior: An Analysis of the Proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.
immediate; nearest. Determinants, Academic Press, New York, 1983.
Brindis, C. D., Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, Health Promotion Resource Center, Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Palo Alto, Calif., 1991.
Britton, P. O., D. De Maruo and A. E. Gambrell, "HIV/AIDS Education: SIECUS SIECUS Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States Study on HIV/AIDS Education for Schools Finds States Make Progress, but Work Remains," SIECUS Report, 21(2):1-8, 1992/1993.
Bumpass, L. L., "What's Happening to the Family? Interactions Between Demographic and Institutional Change," Demography, 27:483-498, 1990.
Bumpass, L. L. and J. A. Sweet, "National Estimates of Cohabitation," Demography, 26:615-625, 1989.
Cassell, C., Swept Away, Simon & Schuster Simon & Schuster
U.S. publishing company. It was founded in 1924 by Richard L. Simon (1899–1960) and M. Lincoln Schuster (1897–1970), whose initial project, the original crossword-puzzle book, was a best-seller. , New York, 1984.
Cassese, J., "The Invisible Bridge: Child Abuse and the Risk of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. Infection in Childhood," SIECUS Report, 21(4):1-7, 1993.
Cates Jr., W. and K. M. Stone, "Family Planning, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contraceptive Choice: A Literature Update--Part I," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:75-84, 1992a.
Cates Jr., W. and K. M. Stone, "Family Planning, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contraceptive Choice: A Literature Update--Part II," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:122-128, 1992b.
Center for Population Options, Teenage Pregnancy and Too-Early Childbearing: Public Costs, Personal Consequences, Washington, D.C., 1992.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. (CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.
CDC - Control Data Corporation ), "Current Tobacco, Alcohol, Marijuana and Cocaine Use Among High School Students--United States, 1990," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 5 June 1981 issue of the MMWR published the cases of five men in what turned out to be the first report of AIDS. , 40:659-663, 1991a.
CDC, "Perceptions About Sexual Behavior: Findings from a National Sex Knowledge Survey--United States, 1989," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 40:255-259, 1991b.
CDC, Division of STD/HIV Prevention 1991 Annual Report, Atlanta, 1992.
CDC, Division of STD/HIV Prevention 1992 Annual Report, Atlanta, 1993.
CDC, "Characteristics of Women Receiving Family Planning Services at Title X Clinics--United States, 1991," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 43:31-34, 1994.
Chadwick, B. A. and T. B. Heaton, ads., Statistical Handbook of the American Family, Oryx oryx (ôr`ĭks), name for several small, horselike antelopes, genus Oryx, found in deserts and arid scrublands of Africa and Arabia. They feed on grasses and scrub and can go without water for long periods. Press, Phoenix, 1992.
Chamie, M. et al., "Factors Affecting Adolescents' Use of Family Planning Clinics," Family Planning Perspectives, 14:126-139, 1982.
Chapin, J., American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, personal communication, June 23, 1993.
Cheng, T. L. et al., "Confidentiality in Health Care: A Survey of Knowledge, Perceptions, and Attitudes Among High School Students," Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. , 269:1404-1407, 1993.
Cooksey, E. C. "Factors in the Resolution of Adolescent Premarital Pregnancies," Demography, 27:207-218, 1990.
Crimmins, E. M., R. A. Easterlin and Y. Saito, "Preference Changes Among American Youth: Family, Work, and Goods Aspirations, 1976-85," Population and Development Review, 17:115-133, 1991.
Daley, D. and R. B. Gold, "Public Funding for Contraceptive, Sterilization sterilization
Any surgical procedure intended to end fertility permanently (see contraception). Such operations remove or interrupt the anatomical pathways through which the cells involved in fertilization travel (see reproductive system). and Abortion Services, Fiscal Year 1992," Family Planning Perspectives, 25:244-251, 1993.
Dawson, D. A., "The Effects of Sex Education on Sexual Behavior," Family Planning Perspectives, 18:162-170, 1986.
Donovan, P., Our Daughters' Decisions: The Conflict in State Law on Abortion and Other issues, AGI, New York, 1992.
Donovan, P., Testing Positive: Sexually Transmitted Disease sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease, term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, and the Public Health Response, AGI, New York, 1993.
Dryfoos, J. G., "School-Based Health Clinics: Three Years of Experience," Family Planning Perspectives, 20:192-200, 1988.
Dryfoos, J. G., Adolescents-at-Risk Prevalence and Prevention, Oxford University Press, New York, 1990.
Edwards, L. E. et al., "Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Services in High School Clinics," Family Planning Perspectives, 12:6-14, 1980.
Effler, P. et al, "High Prevalence of Chlamydia chlamydia (kləmĭd`ēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci, in Female Adolescents Reporting Only One Lifetime Sex Partner," paper presented at the 32nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (print-ISSN 0066-4804, CODEN AMACCQ; canceled ISSN 0074-9923, canceled CODEN AACHAX) is an academic journal published by the American Society for Microbiology. , Anaheim, Calif., Oct. 11-14, 1992.
Eisen, M. and G. L. Zeilman, "A Health Benefits Field Experiment: Teen Talk," in B. C. Miller et al., eds., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif., 1992, pp. 220-264.
Elam, S. M., L. C. Rose and A. M. Gallup, 25th Annual Gallup/Phi Delta Kappa Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools, conducted for Phi Delta Kappa Phi Delta Kappa is an international professional organization for educators. Journal
The Phi Delta Kappan is a professional journal for education, published by Phi Delta Kappa. International, Bloomington, Ind., Oct. 1993.
Emans, S. J. et al., "Adolescents' Compliance with the Use of Oral Contraceptives," Journal of the American Medical Association, 257:3377-3381, 1987.
Federer, L., Youth Indicators, 1991. Trends in the Well-Being of American Youth, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C., 1991.
Ferguson, J., "Youth at the Threshold At the Threshold, whose son Lil E. Tee won the 1992 Kentucky Derby for W. Cal Partee, died March 23 of a stroke at Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine in West Lafayette, Ind. The 21-year-old stallion stood at Wayne Houston's Stoney Creek Horse Farm near Mooreland, Ind. of the 21st Century: The Demographic Situation," Journal of Adolescent Health, 14:638-644, 1993.
Food and Drug Administration, Fertility and Maternal Health Drug Advisory Committee vote, Washington, D.C., May 20, 1993.
Forrest, J. D., "Timing of Reproductive Life Stages," Obstetrics and Gynecology, 82:105-111, 1993.
Forrest, J. D. "Thirtysomething and Beyond," paper presented at the Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and The Rockefeller Foundation Conference on Opportunities in Contraception: Research and Development, Bethesda, Md., February 1992.
Forrest, J. D., R. B. Gold and A. M. Kenney, The Need, Availability and Financing of Reproductive Health Services, AGI, New York, 1989.
Forrest, J. D., A. I. Hermalin and S. K. Henshaw, "The Impact of Family Planning Clinic family planning clinic n → clínica de planificación familiar
family planning clinic n → centre m de planning familial
Programs on Adolescent Pregnancy," Family Planning Perspectives, 13:109-116, 1981.
Forrest, J. D. and J. Silverman, "What Public School Teachers Teach About Preventing Pregnancy, AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:65-72, 1989.
Forrest, J. D. and S. Singh, "The Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of American Women, 1982-1988," Family Planning Perspectives, 22:206-214, 1990.
Frost, J. J., "The Availability and Accessibility of the Contraceptive Implant from Family Planning Agencies in the United States, 1991-1992," Fancily Planning Perspectives, 26:4-10, 1994.
Furstenberg Jr., F. F., J. Brooks-Gunn and S. P. Morgan, "Adolescent Mothers and Their Children in Later Life," Family Planning Perspectives, 19:142-151, 1987a.
Furstenberg Jr., F. F., J. Brooks-Gunn and S. P. Morgan, Adolescent Mothers in Later Life, Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). , New York, 1987b.
Furstenberg Jr., F. F., K. Moore and 3. Peterson, "Sex Education and Sexual Experience Among Adolescents," American Journal of Public Health, 75:1331-1332, 1985.
Gambrell, A. E. and L. M. Kanter, "The Far Right and Fear-Based Abstinence-Only Programs," SIECUS Report, 21(2):16-18, 1992/1993.
George H. Gallup International Institute, The Religions Life of Young Americans: A Compendium of Surveys on the Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Teen-agers and Young Adults, Princeton, 1992.
Grady, W. R. et al., "Condom Characteristics: The Perceptions and Preferences of Men in the United States," Family Planning Perspectives, 25:67-73, 1993.
Greeley, A. M., R. T. Michael and T. W. Smith. "A Most Monogamous People: Americans and Their Sexual Partners," National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, 1989.
Haffner, D. W., "1992 Report Card on the States: Sexual Rights in America," SIECUS Report, 20(3):1-7, 1992.
Hanson, S. L., "Involving Families in Programs for Pregnant Teens: Consequences for Teens and Their Families," Family Relations, 41:303-311, 1992.
Hardy, J., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, is a highly regarded medical school and biomedical research institute in the United States. , personal communication, May 19, 1992.
Harlap, S., K. Kost and J. D. Forrest, Preventing Pregnancy, Protecting Health. A New Look at Birth Control Choices in the United Stales, AGI, New York, 1991.
Harris/Scholastic Research, Hostile Hallways: The AAUW Survey on Sexual Harassment sexual harassment, in law, verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature, aimed at a particular person or group of people, especially in the workplace or in academic or other institutional settings, that is actionable, as in tort or under equal-opportunity statutes. in America's Schools, American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1993.
Hayes, Cheryl D., ed., Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy and Childbearing, Vol. 1, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1987.
Henshaw, S. K., "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States," Family Planning Perspectives, 23:246-252,263, 1991.
Henshaw, S. K. "Abortion Trends in 1987 and 1988: Age and Race," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:85-86, 1992.
Henshaw, S. K., "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993.
Henshaw, S. K., L. M. Koonin and 3. C. Smith, "Characteristics of U.S. Women Having Abortions, 1987," Family Planning Perspectives, 23:75-81, 1991.
Henshaw, S. K. and K. Kost, "Parental Involvement in Minors' Abortions Decisions," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:196-207,213, 1992.
Henshaw, S. K. and A. Torres, "Family Planning Agencies: Services, Policies and Funding," Fancily Planning Perspectives, 26:52-59,82, 1994.
Henshaw, S. K. and J. Van Vort, "Teenage Abortion, Birth and Pregnancy Statistics: An Update," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:85-88, 1989.
Henshaw, S. K. and 3. Van Vort, "Abortion Services in the United States, 1987 and 1988," Family Planning Perspectives, 22:102-108, 1990.
Hofferth, S. L., tabulations of data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, 1986.
Hofferth, S. L., "Social and Economic Consequences of Teenage Childbearing," in S. L. Hofferth and C. D. Hayes, eds., Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbearing, Vol. II, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. 123-144.
Hofferth, S. L. and C. D. Hayes, eds., Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy and Childbearing, Vol. II, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1987.
Hofferth, S. L., J. R. Kahn and W. Baldwin, "Premarital Sexual Activity Among U.S. Teenage Women over the Past Three Decades," Family Planning Perspectives, 19:46-53, 1987.
Hoffman, S.D., tabulations of data from the 1987 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1993.
Hoffman, S.D., E. M. Foster and F. F. Furstenberg Jr., "Reevaluating the Costa of Teenage Childbearing," Demography, 30:1-13, 1998.
Hollmann, F. W., "Estimates of the Population of the United States by Age, Sex, and Race," U.S. Bureau of the Census Noun 1. Bureau of the Census - the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States
Census Bureau , Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1095, 1993.
Howard, M. and J. B. McCabe "Helping Teenagers Postpone Sexual Involvement," Family Planning Perspectives, 22:21-26, 1990.
Howard, M. and J. B. McCabe, "An Information and Skills Approach for Younger Teens: Postponing Sexual Involvement Program," in B. C. Miller et al., eds., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif., 1992, pp. 83-109.
Institute for Health Policy, Substance Abuse: The Nation's Number One Health Problem, Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass., 1993.
Jones, E. F. et al., Teenage Pregnancy in Industrialized Countries, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1986.
Jones, E. F. and J. D. Forrest, "Contraceptive Failure Rates Based on the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:12-19, 1992.
Kalmuss, D. S. and P. B. Namerow, "The Mediators of Educational Attainment Among Early Childbearers," paper presented at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Conference on the Outcomes of Early Childbearing, Bethesda, Md., May 18-19, 1992.
Kates, N., "Buying Time: The Dollar-a-Day Program," John F. Kennedy School of Government The John F. Kennedy School of Government, colloquially known as the Kennedy School of Government (KSG) or simply the Kennedy School, is a public policy school and one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. , Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1990.
Kenney, A. M., S. Guardado and L. Brown, "Sex Education and AIDS Education in the Schools: What States and Large School Districts Are Doing," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:56-64, 1989.
Kestelman, P. and J. Trussell, "Efficacy of Simultaneous Use of Condoms and Spermicides," Family Planning Perspectives, 23:226-232, 1991.
Kidman, C., "Non-Consensual Sexual Experience & HIV Education: An Educator's View," SIECUS Report, 21(4):9-12, 1993.
Kirby, D., Sexuality Education: An Evaluation of Programs and Their Effects, Network, Santa Cruz, Calif., 1984.
Kirby, D. and C. Waszak, "School-Based Clinics," in B. C. Miner et al., ads., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif. 1992, pp. 185-219.
Kirby, D. et al., "The Effects of School-Based Health Clinics in St. Paul on School-Wide Birthrates," Fancily Planning Perspectives, 25:12-16, 1993.
Kirby, D. et al., "School-Based Programs to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Review of Effectiveness," Public Health Reports, 109:339-360, 1994.
Kominski, R. and A. Adams, "Educational Attainment in the United States The educational attainment of the US population is similar to that of many other industrialized countries with the vast majority of the population having completed secondary education and a rising number of college graduates that outnumber high school dropouts. : March 1991 and 1990," Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 462, 1992.
Korenbrot, C. C. et al., "Birth Weight Outcomes in a Teenage Pregnancy Case Management Project," Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 10:97-104, 1989.
Kost, K. and J. D. Forrest, "American Women's Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases," Fancily Planning Perspectives, 24:244-254, 1992.
Ku, L., F. L. Sonenstein and J. H. Pleck, "The Association of AIDS Education and Sex Education with Sexual Behavior and Condom Use Among Teenage Men," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:100-106, 1992.
Ku, L., F. L. Sonenstein and J. H. Pleck, "The Dynamics of Young Men's Condom Use During and Across Relationships," paper presented at the National Institute of Child, Health and Human Development Conference on Behavioral Research on the Role of Condoms in Reproductive Health, Bethesda, Md., May 10, 1993.
Lapham, S. and J. del Pinal, Persons of Hispanic Origin in the United States, 1990, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Ethnic and Hispanic Statistics Branch, Washington, D.C., 1993.
Leitman, R., E. Kramer and H. Taylor, "A Survey of Condom Programs," in S. E. Samuels and M. D. Smith, eds., Condoms in the Schools, Henry J. Kaiser Henry John Kaiser (May 9, 1882—August 24, 1967) was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. Early life
Beginning as a cashier in a dry-goods shop in Utica, New York, Kaiser moved many times as he pursued the Family Foundation, Menlo Park, Calif., 1993.
Leridon, H., Human Fertility: The Basic Components, J. F. Helzner, trans., University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977.
Lester, G. H., "Child Support and Alimony alimony, in law, allowance for support that an individual pays to his or her former spouse, usually as part of a divorce settlement. It is based on the common law right of a wife to be supported by her husband, but in the United States, the Supreme Court in 1979 : 1987," Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 167, 1990.
Levenson, P. M., J. K. Morrow Jr., and B. J. Pfefferbaum, "A Comparison of Adolescent, Physician, Teacher, and School Nurse Views," Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 5:254-260,1984.
Louis Harris and Associates, Sexual Material on American Network Television During the 1987-88 Season, survey conducted for Planned Parenthood Planned Parenthood
A service mark used for an organization that provides family planning services. Federation of America, Jan. 26, 1988.
Makinson, C., "The Health Consequences of Teenage Fertility," Family Planning Perspectives, 17:132-139, 1985.
Marini, M. M., "Sex Differences in Earnings in the United States," Annual Review of Sociology, 15:343-380, 1989.
Marsiglie, W. and F. L. Mott, "The Impact of Sex Education on Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use and Premarital Pregnancy Among American Teenagers," Family Planning Perspectives, 18:151-162, 1986.
Martin, T. C. and L. L. Bumpass, "Recent Trends in Marital Disruption," Demography, 26:37-51, 1989.
MeKinney, D. H. and G. L. Peak, School-Based and School-Linked Health Centers: Update 1992, Center for Population Options, Washington, D.C., 1994.
McLaughlin, S. D., D. L. Manninen and L. D. Winges, "Do Adolescents Who Relinquish Their Children Fare Better or Worse Than Those Who Raise Them?" Family Planning Perspectives, 20:25-32, 1988.
Moore, K. A., Facts at a Glance, Child Trends, Washington, D.C., 1993.
Moore, K. A., C. W. Nerd and J. L. Peterson,
"Nonvoluntary Sexual Activity Among Adolescents," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:110-114, 1989.
Moore, K. A., C. W. Nord and J. L. Peterson, tabulations of data from the 1987 National Survey of Children, 1993.
Moore, K. A. and T. M, Steif, Changes in Marriage and Fertility Behavior: Behavior Versus Attitudes of Young Adults, Child Trends, Washington, D.C., 1989.
Morrison, D. R. and A. J. Cherlin, "The Divorce Process and Young Children's Well-Being: A Prospective Analysis," paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Denver, May 1, 1992.
Moscicki, A. et al., "Differences in Biologic Maturation, Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease Between Adolescents with and Without Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia cervical in·tra·ep·i·the·li·al neoplasia
Dysplastic changes beginning at the squamocolumnar junction in the uterine cervix that may be precursor to squamous cell carcinoma. ," Journal of Pediatrics, 115:487-493,1989.
Moscicki, A. et al,, "Human Papillomavirus human papillomavirus (HPV), any of a family of more than 60 viruses that cause various growths, including plantar warts and genital warts, a sexually transmitted disease. Detectable warts can be or removed, usually by chemicals, freezing, or laser, but often recur. Infection in Sexually Active Adolescent Females: Prevalence and Risk Factors," Pediatric Research, 28:507-513,1990.
Mosher, W. D., "Infertility Trends Among U.S. Couples: 1965-1976," Family Planning Perspectives, 14:22-27, 1982.
Moss, A. J. et al., "Recent Trends in Adolescent Smoking, Smoking-Uptake Correlates, and Expectations About the Future," Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 221, 1992.
Murray, C., "The Coming White Underclass," Wall Street Journal, Oct. 29, 1993.
Nathanson, C. A., Dangerous Passage: The Social Control of Sexuality in Women's Adolescence, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1991.
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Vital Statistics of the United States, 1965, Vol. I--Natality, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1967.
NCHS, "Advance Report of Final Natality na·tal·i·ty
The ratio of births to the general population; the birth rate.
the birth rate. Statistics, 1988," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 39, No. 4, Supplement, Aug. 15, 1990a.
NCHS, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1986. Vol. III--Marriage and Divorce, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1990b.
NCHS, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1988. Vol. II--Mortality. Part A, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991.
NCHS, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41, No. 9, Supplement, Feb. 25, 1993a.
NCHS, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1991," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 42, No. 3, Supplement, Sept. 9, 1993b.
Nicholson, H. J. and L. T. Postrado, "A Comprehensive Age-Phased Approach: Girls Incorporated," in B. C. Miller et al., ads., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif., 1992, pp. 110-138.
Oakley, D., tabulations of data from the University of Michigan (body, education) University of Michigan - A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries. Feb. 1987-Apr. 1989 survey on initial clients at three family planning clinics, Detroit, 1993.
Olsen, J. A. et al., "The Effects of Three Abstinence Sex Education Programs on Student Attitudes Toward Sexual Activity," Adolescence, 26:631-641, 1991.
Opinion Research Corp., "Teen Sexual Attitudes," prepared for CBS/Good Housekeeping, Jan. 5,1993.
Ostergard, D. R., "The Effect of Age, Gravidity gravidity Obstetrics The state of being, or having been, pregnant. Cf Gravity. , and Parity on the Location of the Cervical Squamocolumnar Junction as Determined by Colposcopy Colposcopy Definition
Colposcopy is a procedure that allows a physician to take a closer look at a woman's cervix and vagina using a special instrument called a colposcope. It is used to check for precancerous or abnormal areas. ," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 129:59-60, 1977.
Osterman, P. Getting Started: The Youth Labor Market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience , MIT MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1980.
Paone, D. and W. Chavkin, "From the Private Family Domain to the Public Health Forum: Sexual Abuse, Women and Risk of HIV Infection," SIECUS Report, 21(4):13-16, 1993.
Philliber, S. and J. P. Allen, "Life Options and Community Service: Teen Outreach Program," in B. C. Miller at al., eds., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif., 1992, pp. 139-155.
Pleck, J. H., F. L. Sonenstein and L. C. Ku, "Adolescent Males' Condom Use: Relationships Between Perceived Cost-Benefits and Consistency," Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53:733-745, 1991.
Polit, D. F., "Effects of a Comprehensive Program for Teenage Parents: Five Years After Project Redirection," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:164-169, 187, 1989.
Polit, D. F. and J. R. Kahn, "Early Subsequent Pregnancy Among Economically Disadvantaged Teenage Mothers," American Journal of Public Health, 76:167-171, 1986.
Rabin, J. M., V. Seltzer and S. Pollack, "The Benefits of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Program," American Journal of Gyuecologic Health, 6(3):66-74, 1992.
Ralph, N. and A. Edgington, "An Evaluation of an Adolescent Family Planning Program," Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 4:158-162, 1988.
Randall, T., "Adolescents May Experience Home, School Abuse; Their Future Draws Researchers' Concern," Journal of the American Medical Association, 267:3127-3131, 1992.
Reiss, I. L. "Sexual Pluralism: Ending America's Sexual Crisis," SIECUS Report, 19(3):5-9, 1991.
Roper, W. L., H. B. Peterson and J. W. Curran, "Commentary: Condoms and HIV/STD Prevention--Clarifying the Massage," American Journal of Public Health, 83:501-503,1990.
Saluter, A. F., "Marital Status and Living Arrangements, March 1991," Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 461, 1992.
Saracco, A. et al., "Man-to-Woman Sexual Transmission of HIV: Longitudinal Study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. of 343 Steady Partners of Infected Men," Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency immune deficiency
See immunodeficiency. Syndromes, 6:497-502, 1993.
Schachter, J., "Why We Need a Program for the Control of Chlamydia Trachomatis Chlamydia tra·cho·ma·tis
A species of Chlamydia that causes trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, nonspecific urethritis, and proctitis in humans. ," New England Journal of Medicine The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is an English-language peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. It is one of the most popular and widely-read peer-reviewed general medical journals in the world. , 320:802-804, 1989.
Shafer, M. and R. L. Sweet, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infection of the female reproductive organs, usually resulting from infection with the bacteria that cause chlamydia or gonorrhea. in Adolescent Females," Adolescent Medicine adolescent medicine
The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of youth between 13 and 21 years of age. Also called ephebiatrics, hebiatrics. : State of the Art Reviews, 1:545-564, 1990.
Silverman, J. and A. Torres, Barriers to Contraceptive Services, AGI, New York, 1987.
Singh, S., J. D. Forrest and A. Torras, Prenatal Care prenatal care,
n the health care provided the mother and fetus before childbirth. in the United Stales: A State and County Inventory, Vol. 1, AGI, New York, 1989.
Smith, T. W., "A Methodological Review of Sexual Behavior Questions on the 1988 and 1989 GSS (storage) GSS - Group-Sweeping Scheduling. ," GSS Methodological Report, No. 65, National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, 1988.
Sonenstein, F. L., J. H. Pleck and L. C. Ku, "Sexual Activity, Condom Use and AIDS Awareness Among Adolescent Males," Family Planning Perspectives, 21:152-158, 1989.
Sonenstein, F. L., J. H. Pleck and L. C. Ku, "Levels of Sexual Activity Among Adolescent Males in the United States," Family Planning Perspectives, 23:162-167,1991.
Steinberg, L. "Jumping Off the Work Experience
Bandwagon," Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 11:183-205, 1982.
Stipp, H., "New Ways to Reach Children," American Demographics, Aug. 1993, pp. 50-56.
Stout, J. W., and F. P. Rivara, "Schools and Sex Education: Does It Work?" Pediatrics, 83:375-379, 1989.
Tanfer, K., tabulations of data from the 1991 National Survey of Men, 1993.
Thomson, E., S. S. McLanahan and R. B. Curtin, "Family Structure, Gender and Parental Socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. ," Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54:368-378, 1992.
Torres, A. and J. D. Forrest, "Why Do Women Have Abortions?" Family Planning Perspectives, 20:169-176, 1988.
Trent, K. and S. J. South, "Sociodemographic Status, Parental Background, Childhood Family Structure, and Attitudes Toward Family Formation," Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54:427-439, 1992.
Trudell, B. and M. Whatley, "Sex Respect: A Problematic Public School Sexuality Curriculum," Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 17:125-140, 1991.
Udry, J. R. and J. O. G. Billy, "Initiation of Coitus coitus /co·i·tus/ (ko´it-us) sexual connection per vaginam between male and female.co´ital
coitus incomple´tus , coitus interrup´tus in Early Adolescence," American Sociological Review, 52:841-855, 1987.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Poverty in the United States Poverty in the United States refers to people whose annual family income is less than a "poverty line" set by the U.S. government. Poverty is a condition in which a person or community is deprived of, or lacks the essentials for, a minimum standard of well being and life. : 1987," Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 163, 1989.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, "United States Population Estimates, by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin, 1980-1988," Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1045, 1990.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Marital Status and Living Arrangements: March, 1990," Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 450, 1991.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States The Statistical Abstract of the United States is a publication of the United States Census Bureau, an agency of the United States Department of Commerce. Published annually since 1878, the statistics describe social and economic conditions in the United States. : 1992, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1992.
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Adolescent Health--Vol. II: Background and the Effectiveness of Selected Prevention and Treatment Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991.
Upchurch, D. M. and J. McCarthy, "The Timing of First Birth and High School Completion," American Sociological Review, 55:224-234, 1990.
Vincent, M. L., A. F. Clearie and M. D. Schluchter, "Reducing Adolescent Pregnancy Through School and Community-Based Education," Journal of the American Medical Association, 257:3382-3386, 1987.
Wallace, H. M., J. Weeks and A. Medina, "Services for Pregnant Teenagers in the Large Cities of the United States, 1970-1980," Journal of the American Medical Association, 248:2270-2273, 1982.
Walter, H. J. and R. D. Vaughn, "AIDS Risk Reduction Among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban High School Students," Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:725-762, 1993.
Warrick, L. et al., "Educational Outcomes in Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Programs: Results from a Demonstration," Family Planning Perspectives, 25:148-155, 1993.
Wasserheit, J. N., "Epidemiological Synergy: Inter-relationship Between Human Immunodeficiency Virus human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A transmissible retrovirus that causes AIDS in humans. Infection and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases," Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 19:61-77, 1992.
Wilson, W. J., The Truly Disadvantaged, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1987.
Winter, L. and L. Breckenmaker, "Tailoring Family Planning Services to the Special Needs of Adolescents," Family Planning Perspectives, 23:24-30, 1991.
Wu, L. L. and B. C. Martinson, "Family Structure and the Risk of a Premarital Birth," American Sociological Review, 58:210-232, 1993.
Zabin, L. S., "School-Linked Health Services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract : The Johns Hopkins Program," in B. C. Miller et al., eds., Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif., 1992, pp. 156-184.
Zabin, L. S., M. B. Hirsch and J. A. Boscia, "Differential Characteristics of Adolescent Pregnancy Test Patients: Abortion, Childbearing and Negative Test Groups," Care, 11:107-113, 1990.
Zabin, L. S. et al., "Evaluation of a Pregnancy Prevention Program for Urban Teenagers," Family Planning Perspectives, 18:119-126, 1986.
Zellman, G. L., "Public School Programs for Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood: An Assessment," Family Planning Perspectives, 14:15-21, 1982.
Zelnik, M. and Y. J. Kim, "Sex Education and Its Association with Teenage Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use," Family Planning Perspectives, 14:117-125, 1982.
Zierler, S. et al., "Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Risk of HIV Infection," American Journal of Public Health, 81:572-575, 1991.
FIGURE 30 DECLINE AND RISE IN PREGNANCY RATES Over the last two decades, the pregnancy rate among teenage women who have had intercourse has declined; however, since proportionately more adolescents are having intercourse, the pregnancy rate among all teenage women has increased. Sexually exper- All women ienced women 1972 95 254 1973 96 250 1974 99 247 1975 101 243 1976 101 235 1977 105 241 1978 105 240 1979 109 246 1980 111 247 1981 110 242 1982 110 238 1983 109 230 1984 108 223 1985 109 221 1986 107 212 1987 107 206 1988 111 208 1989 115 207 1990 117 207 Source: Births, 1972-1990: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Robert of Final Natality Statistics," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vols. 23-41, Supplements, 1974-1993. Abortions, 1973-1988: S. K. Henshaw and J. Van Vort, eds., Abortion Factbook, 1992 Edition: Readings, Trends, and State and Local Data to 1988, AGI, New York, 1992, Table 1, pp. 172-173; 1972, 1989-1990: S. K. Henshaw, U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics." AGI, New York, 1993. Sexual experience data: E. F. Jones et al., Teenage Prenancy in Industrialized Countries, Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 1986, Table 3.5, p. 47; J. 0. Forrest and S. Singh, The Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of American Women, 1982-1988," Family Planning Perspectives, 22:206-214,1990, Tables 1 and 3, pp. 207 and 208. Notes: births, abortions and miscarriages. Miscarriages are estimated as 20% of births and 10% of abortions. Sexually experienced women:The sexually experienced population was estimated by interpolating from sexual behavior data for 1971,1976,1982 and 1988. Data were extmpolated for 1989 and 1990 using the 1982-1988 trend. Note: Table made from line graph FIGURE 31 RISE WITH AGE The oldest sexually experienced teenagers are the most likely to become pregnant. Pregnancies per 1,000 sexually experienced women, 1990 14 and younger 93 15-17 184 18-19 222 20-24 233 Sources: Births: National center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1990," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41, No. 9, Supplement, 1993, Table 2, p. 18. Abortion, 1990: S.K. Henshaw, "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics," AGI, New York, 1993. Sexual activity data: 14 and younger: AGI tabulations of data from the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey; 15-24: J.D. Forrest and S. Singh, "The Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of American Women, 1982-1988," Family Planning Perspectives, 22:206-214, 1990, Tables 1 and 3, pp. 207 and 208. Notes: Pregnancy: Pregnancies are defined as the sum of births, abortions and miscarriages. Miscarriages are estimated as 20% of births and 10% of abortions. Sexually experienced women: The sexually experienced population was estimated using the 1982-1988 trend. To estimate sexual experience for women under 15 years of age, data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) were used. Because the YRBS reports higher levels of sexual activity than the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), YRBS estimates were deflated on the basis of the radio of YRBS to NSFG figures on proportions of 18-year-old women who have had intercourse. Note: Table made from bar graph FIGURE 32 DO THEY WANT TO GET PREGNANT? Pregnancies among married teenagers are about five times as likely as those among unmarried teenagers to be intended. Pregnancy outcomes Pregnancy outcomes among married women among unmarried women aged 19 and younger, aged 19 and younger 1988: 180,000 1988: 716,000 Abortion 17% 50% Intended birth 33% 7% Unintended birth 50% 43% Sources: Number of births: National Center for Health Statistics, "Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics, 1988," Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 39, No.4, Supplement, 1990, Table 2, p. 16. Distribution of intended and unintended births: AGI tabulations of data from the 1988 National Maternal and infant Health Survey. Abortions: S. K. Henshaw, L M. Koonin and J. C. Smith, "Characteristics of U.S. Women Having Abortions, 1987," Family Planning Perspectives, 23:75-81, 1991, Table 3, p. 77; S. K. Henshaw, "Abortion Trends in 1987 and 1988: Age and Race," Family Planning Perspectives, 24:85-87, 1992, Table 1, p. 69. Note: Pregnancies do not include miscarriages. The 1987 distribution of marital status among women having abortions was applied to the 1988 number of abortions. Note: Table made from pie chart