Actinidic archaea and viroids related hepato-gastrointestinal syndrome.INTRODUCTION
Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) along with the root wilt disease of coconut is endemic to Kerala with its radioactive actinide actinide
Any of the series of 15 consecutive chemical elements in the periodic table from actinium to lawrencium (atomic numbers 89–103). All are radioactive heavy metals; and only the first four (actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium) occur in nature in beach sands. Actinides like cerium cerium (sēr`ēəm) [from the asteroid Ceres], metallic chemical element; symbol Ce; at. no. 58; at. wt. 140.12; m.p. 799°C;; b.p. 3,426°C;; sp. gr. 6.77 at 25°C;; valence +3 or +4. producing intracellular magnesium deficiency due to cerium-magnesium exchange sites in the cell membrane has been implicated in the etiology of EMF . Endogenous digoxin digoxin: see digitalis. , a steroidal glycoside which functions as a membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor has also been related to its etiology due to the intracellular magnesium deficiency it produces . Organisms like phytoplasmas and viroids have also been demonstrated to play a role in the etiology of these diseases [3,4]. Endogenous digoxin has been related to the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), condition characterized by frequently alternating constipation and diarrhea in the absence of any disease process. It is usually accompanied by abdominal pain, especially in the lower left quadrant, bloating, and flatulence. and peptic ulcer disease Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
A stomach disorder marked by corrosion of the stomach lining due to the acid in the digestive juices.
Mentioned in: Indigestion
peptic ulcer disease See Duodenal ulcer, Gastric ulcer, GERD. . The possibility of endogenous digoxin synthesis by actinide based primitive organism like archaea archaea: see Archaebacteria.
A group of prokaryotes whose members differ from bacteria, the most prominent prokaryotes, in certain physical, physiological, and genetic features. The archaea may be aquatic or terrestrial microorganisms. with a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism was considered [5,6,7]. Davies has put forward the concept of a shadow biosphere of organisms with alternate biochemistry present in earth itself . An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease states is described .
Materials and Methods
Informed consent of the subjects and the approval of the ethics committee were obtained for the study. The following groups were included in the study:-cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. There were 10 patients in each group and each patient had an age and sex matched healthy control selected randomly from the general population. The blood samples were drawn in the fasting state before treatment was initiated. Plasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma + phosphate buffered saline Phosphate buffer saline (abbreviated PBS) is a buffer solution commonly used in biochemistry. It is a salty solution containing sodium chloride, sodium phosphate and potassium phosphate. The buffer helps to maintain a constant pH. , (II) same as I + cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II + cerium 0.1 mg/ml, (IV) same as II + ciprofloxacin and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Cholesterol substrate was prepared as described by Richmond . Aliquots were withdrawn at zero time immediately after mixing and after incubation at 37[degrees]C for 1 hour. The following estimations were carried out:-Cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Any of a class of carcinogenic organic molecules that consist of three or more rings containing carbon and hydrogen and that are commonly produced by fossil fuel combustion. , hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate pyruvate /py·ru·vate/ (pi´roo-vat) a salt, ester, or anion of pyruvic acid. Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis and may be metabolized to lactate or to acetyl CoA.
n. , ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase reductase /re·duc·tase/ (-tas) a term used in the names of some of the oxidoreductases, usually specifically those catalyzing reactions important solely for reduction of a metabolite. , digoxin and bile acids [10,11,12,13]. Cytochrome F420 was estimated flourimetrically (excitation wavelength 420 nm and emission wavelength 520 nm). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon was estimated by measuring hydrogen peroxide liberated by using glucose reagent. The statistical analysis was done by ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there .
The parameters checked as indicated above were:-cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase, digoxin and bile acids. Plasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of cerium increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics to the patient's plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of cerium increased their levels but the extent of change was more in patient's sera as compared to controls. The results are expressed in tables 1-7 as percentage change in the parameters after 1 hour incubation as compared to the values at zero time.
There was increase in cytochrome F420 indicating archaeal growth in cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. The archaea can synthesise and use cholesterol as a carbon and energy source [14,15]. The archaeal origin of the enzyme activities was indicated by antibiotic induced suppression. The study indicates the presence of actinide based archaea with an alternate actinide based enzymes or metalloenzymes in the system as indicated by cerium induced increase in enzyme activities . There was also an increase in archaeal HMG CoA reductase activity indicating increased cholesterol synthesis by the archaeal mevalonate pathway. The archaeal beta hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase activity indicating digoxin synthesis and archaeal cholesterol hydroxylase activity indicating bile acid synthesis were increased . The archaeal cholesterol oxidase activity was increased resulting in generation of pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide . The pyruvate gets converted to glutamate and ammonia by the GABA GABA ?.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
A neurotransmitter that slows down the activity of nerve cells in the brain. shunt pathway. The archaeal aromatization a·ro·ma·tize
tr.v. a·ro·ma·tized, a·ro·ma·tiz·ing, a·ro·ma·tiz·es
1. To make aromatic or fragrant: swirled the wine to aromatize it.
2. of cholesterol generating PAH, serotonin and dopamine was also detected . The archaeal glycolytic hexokinase activity and archaeal extracellular ATP synthase activity were increased. The archaea can undergo magnetite and calcium carbonate mineralization and can exist as calcified Calcified
Hardened by calcium deposits.
Mentioned in: Heart Valve Repair nanoforms . There was an increase in free RNA indicating self replicating RNA viroids and free DNA indicating generation of viroid viroid, microscopic infectious agent, much smaller than a virus, that infects higher plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, chrysanthemums, and cucumbers, causing stunted or distorted growth and sometimes death. It can be transmitted by pollen, seed, or farm implements. complementary DNA strands by archaeal reverse transcriptase activity. The actinides modulate RNA folding and catalyse its ribozymal action. Digoxin can cut and paste To move an object from one location to another. When the operation is complete, there is nothing left in the original location. It may refer to relocating files from one folder to another or to relocating selected text or images from one document to another. the viroidal strands by modulating RNA splicing generating RNA viroidal diversity. The viroids are evolutionarily escaped archaeal group I introns which have retrotransposition and self splicing qualities . Archaeal pyruvate can produce histone deacetylase inhibition resulting in endogenous retroviral (HERV) reverse transcriptase and integrase expression. This can integrate the RNA viroidal complementary DNA into the noncoding region of eukaryotic eukaryotic /eu·kary·ot·ic/ (u?kar-e-ot´ik) pertaining to a eukaryon or to a eukaryote.
pertaining to eukaryosis.
see cell. non coding DNA using HERV integrase as has been described for borna and ebola viruses . The noncoding DNA is lengthened by integrating RNA viroidal complementary DNA with the integration going on as a continuing event. The archaea genome can also get integrated into human genome using integrase as has been described for trypanosomes . The integrated viroids and archaea can undergo vertical transmission and can exist as genomic parasites [20,21]. This increases the length and alters the grammar of the noncoding region producing memes or memory of acquired characters. The viroidal complementary DNA can function as jumping genes producing a dynamic genome important in HLA gene expression. This modulation of HLA gene expression by viroidal complementary DNA can result in immune activation. The RNA viroids can regulate mrna function by RNA interference . The phenomena of RNA interference can modulate T cell and B cell function and euchromatin/heterochromatin expression. RNA viroidal mRNA interference related immune activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease.
The presence of muramic acid, HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol oxidase activity inhibited by antibiotics indicates the presence of bacteria with mevalonate pathway. The bacterial with mevalonate pathway include streptococcus, staphylococcus, actinomycetes, listeria, coxiella and borrelia . The bacteria and archaea with mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism had a evolutionarily advantage and constitutes the isoprenoidal clade clade Cladus, subtype Genetics A branch of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor; a single phylogenetic group or line. See Inheritance, Species. organism with the archaea evolving into mevalonate pathway gram positive and gram negative organism through horizontal gene transfer “HGT” redirects here. For other uses, see HGT (disambiguation).
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. of viroidal and virus genes . The isoprenoidal clade prokaryotes develop into other groups of prokaryotes via viroidal/virus as well as eukaryotic horizontal gene transfer producing bacterial speciation. The RNA viroids and its complementary DNA developed into cholesterol enveloped RNA and DNA viruses like herpes, retrovirus retrovirus, type of RNA virus that, unlike other RNA viruses, reproduces by transcribing itself into DNA. An enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows a retrovirus's RNA to act as the template for this RNA-to-DNA transcription. , influenza virus, borna virus, cytomegalo virus and Ebstein Barr virus by recombining with eukaryotic and human genes resulting in viral speciation. Bacterial and viral species are ill defined and fuzzy with all of them forming one common genetic pool with frequent horizontal gene transfer and recombination. Thus the multi and unicellular eukaryote eukaryote (ykâr`ē-ōt'), a cell or organism composed of cells that have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts; see cell, in biology) and genetic with its genes serves the purpose of prokaryotic pro·kar·y·ote also pro·car·y·ote
An organism of the kingdom Monera (or Prokaryotae), comprising the bacteria and cyanobacteria, characterized by the absence of a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that and viral speciation. The multicellular eukaryote developed so that their endosymbiotic archaeal colonies could survive and forage better. The multicellular eukaryotes are like bacterial biofilms. The archaea and bacteria with a mevalonate pathway uses the extracellular RNA viroids and DNA viroids for quorum sensing and in the generation of symbiotic biofilm Biofilm
An adhesive substance, the glycocalyx, and the bacterial community which it envelops at the interface of a liquid and a surface. When a liquid is in contact with an inert surface, any bacteria within the liquid are attracted to the surface and adhere like structures which develop into multicellular eukaryotes [26,27]. The endosymbiotic archaea and bacteria with mevalonate pathway still uses the RNA viroids and DNA viroids for the regulation of muticellular eukaryote. Pollution is induced by the primitive nanoarchaea and mevalonate pathway bacteria synthesised PAH and methane leading on to redox redox (rē`dŏks): see oxidation and reduction. stress. Redox stress leads to sodium potassium ATPase inhibition, inward movement of plasma membrane cholesterol, defective SREBP sensing, increased cholesterol synthesis and nanoarchaeal/mevalonate pathway bacterial growth . Redox stress leads on to viroidal and archaeal multiplication. Redox stress can also lead to HERV reverse transcriptase and integrase expression. The noncoding DNA is formed of integrating RNA viroidal complementary DNA and archaea with the integration going on as a continuing event. The archaeal pox like dsDNA virus forms evolutionarily the nucleus. The integrated viroidal, archaeal and mevalonate pathway bacterial sequences can undergo vertical transmission and can exist as genomic parasites. The genomic integrated archaea, mevalonate pathway bacteria and viroids form a genomic reserve of bacteria and viruses which can recombine re·com·bine
To undergo or cause genetic recombination; form new combinations. with human and eukaryotic genes producing bacterial and viral speciation. Bacteria and viruses have been related to the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease [29,30]. Helicobacter pylori has been related to the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease . Mollicutes, atypical mycobacteria and enterobacteria en·ter·o·bac·te·ri·um
n. pl. en·ter·o·bac·te·ri·a
Any of various gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae that includes some pathogens of plants and animals, such as the colon bacillus and salmonella. has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease inflammatory bowel disease
n. Abbr. IBD
Any of several incurable and debilitating diseases of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by inflammation and obstruction of parts of the intestine. [29,30]. Gut bacteria and endotoxinemia contributes to the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver . Gut bacteria also plays a role in irritable bowel syndrome . The change in the length and grammar of the noncoding region produces eukaryotic speciation and individuality . Changes in the length of noncoding region especially human endogenous retroviruses can lead onto autoimmune diseases . The integration of nanoarchaea, mevalonate pathway prokaryotes and viroids in to the eukaryotic and human genome produces a chimera which can multiply producing biofilm like multicellular structures having a mixed archaeal, viroidal, prokaryotic and eukaryotic characters which is a regression from the multicellular eukaryotic tissue This results in a new neuronal, metabolic, immune and tissue phenotype or microchimeras leading to human diseases like cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. The microchimeras formed can lead to autoantigens, immune activation and autoimmune pathology. Autoimmunity has been described in inflammatory bowel disease .
Archaea and RNA viroid can bind the TLR receptor induce NFKB producing immune activation and cytokine TNF alpha secretion. The archaeal DXP and mevalonate pathway metabolites can bind [lambda][delta] TCR and digoxin induced calcium signalling can activate NFKB producing chronic immune activation [2,33]. The archaeal cholesterol aromatase generated PAH can produce immune activation. The archaea and viroid induced chronic immune activation and generation of superantigens can lead on to autoimmune disease and immune activation. Immune activation has been related to the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease [29,30].
The archaea and viroids can regulate the nervous system including the NMDA synaptic transmission . NMDA can be activated by digoxin induced calcium oscillations, PAH and viroid induced RNA interference . The cholesterol ring oxidase generated pyruvate can be converted by the GABA shunt pathway to glutamate. The archaeal cholesterol aromatase can generate serotonin . Glutamatergic and serotoninergic transmission can lead to immune activation which is important in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. Monoamine neurotransmitters and glutamate have been implicated in abnormal gut motility motility /mo·til·i·ty/ (mo-til´ite) the ability to move spontaneously.mo´tile
Motility is spontaneous movement. of irritable bowel syndrome. The higher degree of integration of the archaea into the genome produces increased digoxin synthesis producing right hemispheric dominance and lesser degree producing left hemispheric dominance . Right hemispheric dominance can lead to cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease .
Archaea, viroids and digoxin can induce the host AKT PI3K, AMPK, HIF alpha and NFKB producing the Warburg metabolic phenotype . The increased glycolytic hexokinase activity, decrease in blood ATP, leakage of cytochrome C, increase in serum pyruvate and decrease in acetyl CoA indicates the generation of the Warburg phenotype. There is induction of glycolysis glycolysis (glīkŏl`ĭsĭs), term given to the metabolic pathway utilized by most microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) and by all "higher" animals (including humans) for the degradation of glucose. , inhibition of PDH activity and mitochondrial mitochondrial
pertaining to mitochondria.
a unique set of tRNAs, mRNAs, rRNAs, transcribed from mitochondrial DNA by a mitochondrial-specific RNA polymerase, that account for about 4% of the total cell RNA that dysfunction resulting in inefficient energetics. The lymphocytes depend on glycolysis for their energy needs. The increased glycolysis induced by the Warburg phenotype leads to immune activation. Lactic acid generated by increased glycolysis leads to immune stimulation. Immune activation as noted before is important in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. Cholesterol oxidase activity, increased glycolysis related NADPH oxidase activity, bacterial porphyrin induced redox stress and mitochondrial dysfunction generates free radicals important in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. The accumulated pyruvate enters the gaba shunt pathway and is converted to citrate which is acted upon by citrate lyase lyase /ly·ase/ (li´as) any of a class of enzymes that remove groups from their substrates (other than by hydrolysis or oxidation), leaving double bonds, or that conversely add groups to double bonds. and converted to acetyl CoA, used for cholesterol synthesis34. The pyruvate can be converted to glutamate and ammonia which is oxidised by archaea for energy needs. The increased cholesterol substrate leads to increased archaeal growth and digoxin synthesis leading to metabolic channelling to the mevalonate pathway. The archaeal cholesterol catabolism can deplete the lymphocytic cell membranes of cholesterol resulting in alteration of lymphocytic cell membrane microdomains related receptors producing immune activation. Hyperdigoxinemia is important in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease . Digoxin can increase lymphocytic intracellular calcium which leads on to induction of NFKB and immune activation . The archaeal bile acids can bind GPCR and modulate D2 regulating the conversion of T4 to T3. T3 activates uncoupling proteins reducing redox stress. Bile acids can also activate NRF 1/2 inducing NQO1, GST, HOI reducing redox stress. Bile acids can bind PXR inducing the bile acid shunt pathway of cholesterol detoxification. Bile acids can bind macrophage GPCR and VDR producing immunosuppression and inhibiting NFKB. This helps to modulate the archaea and viroid induced chronic immune activation. Bile acids are thus protective compounds and put a break on the archaea and viroid induced changes. Thus the actinide, viroid and mevalonate pathway bacteria induced metabolic, genetic, immune and neuronal transmission changes can lead onto cirrhosis liver, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease.
PUD: Peptic ulcer disease
UC: Ulcerative colitis
IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome
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Ravikumar Kurup A., (1) *; Parameswara Achutha Kurup (1)
(1) Professor of Metabolic Medicine and Neurology, The Metabolic Disorders Research Centre, India
* Corresponding author.
Address: The Metabolic Disorders Research Centre, TC 4/1525, Gouri Sadan, Kattu Road, North of Cliff House, Kowdiar PO, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
Received 17 September 2011; accepted 19 November 2011
Table 1 Effect of Cerium and Antibiotics on Muramic Acid and Serotonin Muramic acid % Muramic acid % (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy+Cipro) Group Mean [+ or -] SD Mean [+ or -] SD Normal 4.41 0.15 18.63 0.12 Cirrhosis 23.11 1.82 66.96 3.79 PUD 23.43 1.59 65.71 4.01 UC 23.81 1.45 66.85 3.72 IBS 23.28 1.95 66.02 3.90 F value 403.394 680.284 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 5 HT % 5 HT % (Increase without Doxy) (Decrease with Doxy) Group Mean [+ or -] SD Mean [+ or -] SD Normal 4.34 0.15 18.24 0.37 Cirrhosis 23.13 1.78 64.88 4.96 PUD 22.92 1.71 65.58 4.74 UC 22.83 1.96 63.42 5.10 IBS 22.79 1.79 62.70 5.05 F value 348.867 364.999 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Table 2 Effect of Cerium and Antibiotics on Free DNA and RNA DNA % change DNA % change (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.37 0.15 18.39 0.38 Cirrhosis 22.78 1.94 63.06 6.20 PUD 23.07 1.50 62.99 5.27 UC 23.28 1.93 61.81 2.75 IBS 23.61 1.53 67.77 3.23 F value 337.577 356.621 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 RNA % change RNA % change (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.37 0.13 18.38 0.48 Cirrhosis 22.91 1.69 66.23 3.44 PUD 23.32 1.92 66.07 4.11 UC 22.89 1.85 66.33 3.73 IBS 22.94 1.88 65.84 4.20 F value 427.828 654.453 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Table 3 Effect of Cerium and Antibiotics on HMG CoA Reductase and PAH HMG CoA R % change HMG CoA R % change (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.30 0.20 18.35 0.35 Cirrhosis 23.29 1.67 59.19 7.18 PUD 23.56 1.83 63.61 6.60 UC 23.24 1.79 63.55 8.01 IBS 23.66 1.47 66.11 6.52 F value 319.332 199.553 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 PAH % change PAH % change (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.45 0.14 18.25 0.72 Cirrhosis 23.39 1.63 65.88 5.01 PUD 23.06 1.56 64.49 4.64 UC 23.49 1.48 64.96 5.02 IBS 23.32 1.46 62.95 7.18 F value 391.318 257.996 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Table 4 Effect of Cerium and Antibiotics on Digoxin and Bile Acids Digoxin (ng/ml) Digoxin (ng/ml) (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy+Cipro) Normal 0.11 0.00 0.054 0.003 Cirrhosis 0.50 0.06 0.206 0.034 PUD 0.50 0.05 0.223 0.025 UC 0.49 0.06 0.230 0.034 IBS 0.51 0.06 0.221 0.030 F value 135.116 71.706 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Bile acids % change Bile acids % change (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.29 0.18 18.15 0.58 Cirrhosis 22.08 1.76 64.2 5.16 PUD 22.72 1.76 61.84 7.63 UC 22.30 1.76 62.76 7.49 IBS 22.62 1.89 63.41 8.47 F value 290.441 203.651 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Table 5 Effect of Cerium and Antibiotics on Pyruvate and Hexokinase Pyruvate % change Pyruvate % change (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.34 0.21 18.43 0.82 Cirrhosis 21.52 2.26 60.42 7.65 PUD 21.29 2.38 57.56 8.70 UC 21.34 2.24 60.25 8.94 IBS 20.74 1.47 61.98 6.44 F value 321.255 115.242 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Hexokinase % change Hexokinase % change (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy Normal 4.21 0.16 18.56 0.76 Cirrhosis 21.70 1.90 65.26 5.62 PUD 22.80 2.33 64.43 5.74 UC 22.29 2.22 65.14 5.66 IBS 22.36 2.40 63.46 5.69 F value 292.065 317.966 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Table 6 Effect of Cerium and Antibiotics on Hydrogen Peroxide and Delta Amino Levulinic Acid [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] % [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] % (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.43 0.19 18.13 0.63 Cirrhosis 23.46 1.61 61.77 6.79 PUD 22.38 1.65 64.59 7.12 UC 23.65 1.11 59.37 6.93 IBS 23.22 1.76 59.12 5.14 F value 380.721 171.228 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 ALA % ALA % (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.40 0.10 18.48 0.39 Cirrhosis 23.98 1.72 66.76 4.01 PUD 23.52 1.74 67.75 3.43 UC 23.13 1.96 65.86 3.83 IBS 23.32 1.95 66.69 3.91 F value 372.716 556.411 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Table 7 Effect of Cerium and Antibiotics on ATP Synthase and Cytochrome F 420 ATP synthase % ATP synthase % (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.40 0.11 18.78 0.11 Cirrhosis 23.27 1.56 66.43 3.77 PUD 23.09 1.43 66.43 4.07 UC 23.14 1.80 66.40 3.64 IBS 23.16 1.31 67.28 3.54 F value 449.503 673.081 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 CYT F420 % CYT F420 % (Increase with Cerium) (Decrease with Doxy) Normal 4.48 0.15 18.24 0.66 Cirrhosis 22.46 2.39 61.42 7.26 PUD 22.41 2.02 60.47 8.32 UC 22.95 1.53 58.86 6.97 IBS 22.52 1.33 61.43 11.16 F value 306.749 130.054 P value < 0.001 < 0.001 Abbreviations PUD: Peptic ulcer disease UC: Ulcerative colitis IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome