Access Denied.Accessibility to state-of-the-art environmental health studies, public health research, and clinical medical practices is a major problem in developing countries. To compound the problem, the information found in international journals is often not relevant to the developing world (Richards 2004). National and regional journals attempt to fill the void by publishing robust and relevant information. However, these journals face difficulties in sustainability and local access (Ofori-Adjai 2006).
There are many reasons for the inaccessibility to both information coming out of the developed world and the developing world itself. For example, subscriptions to international journals often present a financial barrier, whereas regional journals often are poorly supported and face difficult distribution problems.
How can developing countries improve the health of their populations when they are effectively removed from the stream of knowledge from the developed world and their own region? The solutions include free access to the world's literature on health care and assistance in developing their research capabilities, publication processes, and distribution methods.
Why should the developed world care about this issue? There is a moral imperative A moral imperative is a principle originating inside a person's mind that compels that person to act. It is a kind of categorical imperative, as defined by Immanuel Kant. Kant took the imperative to be a dictate of pure reason, in its practical aspect. : I consider access to information to facilitate adequate health care a human right. An immediate impact of accessibility would be improvements in local clinical practice. In the long term, policy makers would be able to use knowledge-based decision making in formulating laws to help improve public health in their countries.
There are global benefits for disseminating information in and from developing countries (Hryhorczuk 2006). First, because diseases and pollution are not constrained by geographic or political boundaries, the developed world would gain from, for example, improved access to information on infectious diseases infectious diseases: see communicable diseases. that could affect their populations. Second, in regard to pollutants, conditions in developing countries often provide research opportunities that benefit both developed and developing countries. Finally, sharing information is good foreign policy for developed nations.
Major steps have been taken to overcome some of the problems associated with improving the developing world's access to information available in international journals. For example, open access has been a growing trend within the publication industry. Many journals now have open access policies, including EHP EHP
1. effective horsepower
2. electric horsepower (Goehl and Olden old·en
Of, relating to, or belonging to time long past; old or ancient: olden days.
[Middle English : old, old; see old + -en, adj. 2004), and others have embraced the spirit of open access but not fully implemented all of its provisions (i.e., free and immediate access to journal articles, as well as placing articles in a major digital archive).
Many new open-access journals have been established in the last several years, including the Public Library of Science journals (PLoS 2007). All content of PLoS journals may be redistributed and reused according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the terms of the Creative Commons An organization that has defined an alternative to copyrights by filling in the gap between full copyright, in which no use is permitted without permission, and public domain, where permission is not required at all. Attribution License (Creative Commons 2007).
Digital archives play a key role in facilitating access to the world's literature. One of the major digital archives is PubMed Central PubMed Central is a free digital database of full-text scientific literature in biomedical and life sciences. It can be reached at .
It grew from the online Entrez PubMed biomedical literature search system. PubMed Central was developed by the U.S. (2007), a National Institutes of Health archive that provides a free digital archive of biomedical bi·o·med·i·cal
1. Of or relating to biomedicine.
2. Of, relating to, or involving biological, medical, and physical sciences. and life sciences literature. Three other digital archives that deserve mention are Bioline International, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO 2007), and African Journals Online (AJOL AJOL African Journals on Line 2007). These archives were established to promote the global exchange of scientific knowledge by providing access to peer-reviewed journals published in developing countries.
Journal indexes such as PubMed (2007) and MEDLINE The online medical database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) whose parent is the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. MEDLINE contains millions of articles from thousands of medical journals and publications. The consumer section of the site (http://medlineplus. (available through PubMed) are critical to finding scientific and medical information. Access to Latin American literature Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as magical realism. has been enhanced by Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciencias da Saude (LILACS 2007). This database registers the health scientific-technical literature published by Latin American and Caribbean authors, which is frequently absent from the international databases.
Because of the paucity of relevant research and medical information coming out of the developed world, there is a unique niche for regional journals that publish research relevant to local situations. These journals are also a resource for continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). and a forum for aspiring researchers to enhance research and publication skills.
There are major obstacles to regional journal development, starting with insufficient resources. Research papers are often lacking in rigor rigor /rig·or/ (rig´er) [L.] chill; rigidity.
rigor mor´tis the stiffening of a dead body accompanying depletion of adenosine triphosphate in the muscle fibers. , and the quality of writing is often a problem. The review process is often limited by the number of experts fluent in the local language. Also, some authors are reluctant to submit quality papers quality papers quality (Brit) npl the quality papers → die seriösen Zeitungen pl
to local journals because of concern about the journal's stature and the limited dissemination of research results.
To address these issues, national and regional journals in developing countries must be made more attractive to researchers by enhancing the quality of the publications. Institutions such as the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is an international public health agency with 100 years of experience in working to improve health and living standards of the countries of the Americas. It serves as the specialized organization for health of the Inter-American System. , the Fogarty International Center (FIC FIC First International Computer
FIC Fogarty International Center (John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences; National Institutes of Health)
FIC Fellowship for Intentional Community ), the National Library of Medicine (NLM Software that runs in a NetWare server. Although NetWare servers store DOS and Windows applications, they do not execute them. All programs that run in a NetWare server must be compiled into the NLM format. They are typically written in C and use Novell's libraries. ), and private philanthropic foundations have provided support, but much more support is needed.
A successful model for journal capacity building is the African Journal Partnership (AJP AJP American Journal of Psychiatry
AJP Apache JServ Protocol
AJP American Journal of Physiology
AJP American Journal of Pathology
AJP Australian Journal of Pharmacy
AJP Accredited Jewelry Professional
AJP American Journal of Philology ) project that was initiated in 2004 by the FIC, the NLM, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is one of 27 Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH),which is a component of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The Director of the NIEHS is Dr. David A. Schwartz. and managed by the Council of Science Editors (Tillett 2005). These organizations helped establish committed journal-tojournal partnerships of international journals and African medical journals. Through this partnership, editors have received training to improve sustainability and publishing regularity of the journals; writing workshops have been sponsored to improve the quality of the submitted manuscripts; peer reviewers have been trained to enhance the peer-review process; and journal visibility has been enhanced by establishing or improving websites and by fostering the acceptance into international indexes (Sidibe 2007). Currently two of the four African journal partners (Mali Medical and African Health Sciences) are indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed.
The AJP is helping to address the accessibility issue to national and regional journals in Africa. To address similar issues in Latin America Latin America, the Spanish-speaking, Portuguese-speaking, and French-speaking countries (except Canada) of North America, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. , a task group of the Committee on Data for Science and Technology CODATA (Committee on Data for Science and Technology) was established in 1966 as an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council of Science (ICSU), formerly the International Council of Scientific Unions. (CODATA CODATA Committee On Data for Science & Technology
CODATA Committee on Data for Science and Technology 2007), a committee of the International Council for Science, recently convened a workshop, "Strategies for Permanent Access to Scientific Information in Latin America." During that meeting, a proposal was presented to develop a partnership similar to the AJP that would promote partnerships between high-ranking international environmental, medical, and public health journals with journals in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The focus again will be on one-on-one efforts (Goehl 2007) Considerable interest was expressed in this proposal, and a search is under way for governmental and nongovernmental organizations Transnational organizations of private citizens that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. Nongovernmental organizations may be professional associations, foundations, multinational businesses, or simply groups with a common interest in to provide the infrastructure to facilitate the necessary efforts.
Although accessibility to state-of-the-art environmental health studies, public health research, and clinical information continues to be a major problem in the developing world, the open-access initiatives and efforts to help build sustainable national and regional journals offer significant hope for overcoming this problem.
AJOL. 2007. African Journals Online. Available: http://www.ajol.info/ [accessed 15 August 2007].
CODATA. 2007. Workshop on Strategies for Open and Permanent Access to Scientific Information in Latin America: Focus on Health and Environmental Information for Sustainable Development Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. The linkage between environment and development was globally recognized in 1980, when the International Union , 8-10 May 2007, Atibaia, Brazil. Available: http://www.cria.org.br/eventos/codata2007/ [accessed 15 August 2007].
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Goehl TJ, Olden K. 2004. EHP moves to open access [Editorial]. Environ Health Perspect 112:A13-A14.
Hrythorczuk D. 2006. The Fogarty ITREOH ITREOH International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program: promoting global environmental and occupational health through training and research. Int J Occup Environ Health 12:423-424.
Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciencias da Saude. 2007. LILACS Database. Available: http://bases.bireme bi·reme
An ancient galley equipped with two tiers of oars on each side.
[Latin bir .br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&base=LILACS&lang=i&form=F [accessed 15 August 2007].
Ofori-Adjai D, Antes G, Tharyan P, Slade E, Tamber PS. 2006. Have online international medical journals made local journals obsolete? PLoS Med 3(8):e359; doi:10.1371/ journal.pmed.0030359 [Online 29 August 2006].
PLoS (Public Library of Science). 2007. PLoS Journals Homepage. Available: http://www.plos.org/journals/index.html [accessed 15 August 2007].
PubMed. 2007. PubMed Overview. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/overview.html [accessed 15 August 2007].
PubMed Central. 2007. PubMed Central Homepage. Available: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ [accessed 15 August 2007].
Richards T. 2004. Poor countries lack relevant health information, says Cochrane editor. BMJ BMJ n abbr (= British Medical Journal) → vom BMA herausgegebene Zeitschrift 328(7435):310; doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7435.310-b.
SCIELO. 2007. Scientific Electronic Library Online. Available: http://www.scielo.org/index.php?lang=en [accessed 15 August 2007].
Sidibe S. 2007. A dynamic and fruitful partnership. Mali Med 22:1. Available: http://www.ehponline.org/malimed/2007/p_ed1.pdf [accessed 15 August 2007].
Tillett T. 2005. Global collaboration gives greater voice to African journals. Environ Heath Perspect 113:A452-A454.
The author is a consultant to the Fogarty International Center and the National Library of Medicine, both of which fund the African Journal Partnership.
Thomas J. Goehl
Morrisville, North Carolina Morrisville is a town in Wake County, North Carolina, USA. The population was 5,208 at the 2000 census. A Special Census was conducted by the United States Census Bureau in March 2004, when the population was enumerated at 11,915.
Thomas J. Goehl served as a science editor for EHP during 1994-2000 and as the editor-in-chief during 2001-2005.
RELATED ARTICLE: Note from the Editors: Global Theme Issue.
For the last few years, Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) has been involved in international efforts, including publication of a quarterly Chinese-language edition beginning in 2001, participating in the African Journal Partnership (working with Mali Medical since 2004), and contributing material to the journals Ciencia & Saude Coletiva (in Portuguese) and Ciencia y Trabajo (in Spanish).
According to the Council of Science Editors (CSE (Certified Systems Engineer) See Microsoft certification. 2007a), journals seeking to promote scientific and medical research and publication in developing countries should
* Make content "globally relevant"
* Work with journals from developing countries to provide guidance and training
* Overcome the "global publishing gap" by assisting authors with language issues and publication, as well as experimental design
* Seek diversity in editorial boards, reviewers, and authors.
To further address the "global publishing gap," the CSE (2007a) has established a task force on AuthorAid, a program to assist authors, primarily in developing countries, in publishing articles in competitive journals (Freeman and Robbins 2006).
We are pleased to participate in the CSE Global Theme Issue on Poverty and Human Development, the goal of which is "to raise awareness, stimulate interest, and stimulate research into poverty and human development" (CSE 2007b). More than 200 journals from both developed and developing countries are participating in this endeavor (CSE 2007b).
Our contributions to this theme include this editorial, the Spheres of Influence article (p. A500), and articles by Chen et al. (p. 1415) and Hall et al. (p. 1503).
CSE. 2007a. CSE Board Statement on the Task Force on Science Journals, Poverty, and Human Development. Sci Editor 30(4):137. Available: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/members/securedDocuments/v30n4p137-139.pdf [accessed 15 August 2007].
CSE. 2007b. Global Theme Issue. Available: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/globalthemeissue.cfm [accessed 15 August 2007].
Freeman P, Robbins A. 2006. The publishing gap between rich and poor: the focus of AuthorAid. J Public Health Policy 27:196-203.
Kenneth S. Korach
Interim Editor-in-Chief, EHP
Steven R. Kleeberger
Matthew P. Longnecker
Interim Deputy Editors, EHP