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Absenteeism and academic performance in an introduction to business course.



ABSTRACT

The relationship between absenteeism and academic performance was investigated among 172 students enrolled in an Introduction to Business course. The students who were absent from class on the random days attendance was taken performed significantly lower on subsequent tests. In addition, the total number of days absent from class was negatively correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates

v.tr.
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

2.
 with performance on a comprehensive final exam Noun 1. final exam - an examination administered at the end of an academic term
final examination, final

exam, examination, test - a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; "when the test was stolen the professor had to make a new set of
. Finally, the number of days absent was found to be the second most important factor after GPA GPA
abbr.
grade point average

Noun 1. GPA - a measure of a student's academic achievement at a college or university; calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted
, in predicting student performance on the final exam. These findings suggest there may be some value in adopting intervention strategies designed to encourage attendance.

INTRODUCTION

In a traditional university setting, class meetings are the primary means of delivering educational services. However, as almost anyone who has ever taught a large section of an introductory course can confirm, student attendance at these meetings is far from perfect. As educators, we want our students to attend class. We enjoy teaching and interacting with students and work hard to make our classes worthy of the students' time and energy. We know who our best students are because they attend class regularly, but we often have a hard time putting a face to the names of the students that fail. Based on this anecdotal evidence anecdotal evidence,
n information obtained from personal accounts, examples, and observations. Usually not considered scientifically valid but may indicate areas for further investigation and research.
, we assume that students who attend class regularly benefit from the lectures, films, and learning activities designed to facilitate their acquisition of knowledge. Conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

2.
, we assume that excessive absences from class results in poor academic performance. These assumptions, however, are not based on empirical evidence.

To encourage class attendance, we have always spent part of the first class meeting telling our students that it is important for them to attend class, that they will learn more if they attend class, and that students who attend class regularly generally earn higher grades for the course and vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. . Unfortunately, when we searched the literature for empirical evidence to back up our claims, we failed to find any studies specifically examining the relationship between students' absenteeism during an Introduction to Business course and their subsequent performance on exams. Moreover, studies over the past fifteen years that have examined the relationship between absenteeism and academic achievement in related fields such as economics, finance, and operations management Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective.  have produced different, sometimes contradictory, results.

Several studies have linked class absences with lower grades. For example, Brocato (1989) found a strong negative correlation Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation
 between absences and grades among undergraduate students enrolled in Principles of Macroeconomics macroeconomics

Study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, level of employment of productive resources, and general behaviour of prices.
 and Intermediate Macroeconomics courses he taught over a four-year period. Park and Kerr (1990) also found that attendance was a determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant.  of student performance in a Money and Banking course, but not as important as a student's GPA and percentile rank on the American College Test (ACT).

Browne et al. (1991), however, found that students who studied on their own did just well as students that attended a typically structured Principles of Microeconomics microeconomics

Study of the economic behaviour of individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of total production and income among them. It considers individuals both as suppliers of land, labour, and capital and as the ultimate consumers of the final
 class on the Test of Understanding College Economics (TUCE TUCE Test of Understanding of College Economics ). Their conclusion: "Apparently, instructors' classroom activities have negligible impacts on student performance, measured by multiple choice items tapping memory, application and simple analysis competencies" (Browne et al. 1991, p. 29).

Based on attendance counts taken in all undergraduate economics courses taught at three "relatively elite" universities, Romer
This page is about the cartographic mechanism called a "Romer" or "Roamer"; for people named Romer see Romer (surname)


A Romer or Roamer is a simple device for accurately plotting a grid reference on a map.
 (1993) concluded that absenteeism was rampant, with typically about one-third of the students absent from class. (This finding may explain why so many studies of absenteeism and academic performance have students who are enrolled in economics course as their subjects.) Romer also reported that regression estimates of the relation between attendance and performance in one large Intermediate Macroeconomics course suggested that attendance might substantially affect learning. Considering only students who did all of the problem sets (in order to control for the impact of student motivation to do well in the course) and controlling for prior grade point average, he found the difference in performance between a student who attends class regularly and one who attends class sporadically spo·rad·ic   also spo·rad·i·cal
adj.
1. Occurring at irregular intervals; having no pattern or order in time. See Synonyms at periodic.

2. Appearing singly or at widely scattered localities, as a plant or disease.
 to be approximately one full letter grade.

Durden and Ellis (1995) also found that attendance does matter for academic achievement in a Principles of Economics course. However, their findings suggest that the effect is nonlinear A system in which the output is not a uniform relationship to the input.

nonlinear - (Scientific computation) A property of a system whose output is not proportional to its input.
, becoming important only after a student misses four classes during the semester se·mes·ter  
n.
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.



[German, from Latin (cursus) s
. They concluded that what really seems to matter is excessive absenteeism.

Chan, Shum and Wright (1997) studied the effect of class attendance on student performance in a Principles of Finance course using Tobin's (1958) TOBIT model and a two-stage equation developed by Heckmen (1976, 1979). They found a significant positive relationship between attendance and student performance in the TOBIT model, but only a weak relationship between attendance and student performance in Heckman's two-stage model. Furthermore, they found that a mandatory attendance policy did not improve performance.

Lai and Chan (2000) also examined the relationship between mandatory class attendance and student performance in two sections of a Principles of Microeconomics course, one with a mandatory attendance policy and the other without one. Attendance was found to be positive and statistically significant at the 1 percent level. For every 1 percent attendance, an average student received almost a 1 percent increase in his/her course average (on a 100 percent scale). In contrast to Chan, Shum and Wright (1997) findings, however, they found a mandatory attendance policy boosted an average student's performance by 6.7 percent.

More recently, Marburger (2001) investigated the relationship between students' absenteeism during a Principles of Microeconomics course and their subsequent performance on exams. He found that students who missed class on a given day were significantly more likely to respond incorrectly to questions relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 material covered that day than students who were present. In contrast, Peters, Kethley, and Bullington (2002) found that class attendance did not affect students' exam performance in an introductory operations management course. Finally, Durden and Ellis (2003) found that class attendance and motivation were related in their study of 252 students enrolled in a Principles of Economics course. However, they note that if motivation is not controlled for, the effect of absence from class on performance may be overstated o·ver·state  
tr.v. o·ver·stat·ed, o·ver·stat·ing, o·ver·states
To state in exaggerated terms. See Synonyms at exaggerate.



o
.

After reviewing the literature, we began to question our assumptions about attendance and academic performance. Like many university professors who teach large, introductory courses, we had no attendance policy. After all, taking attendance in large classes is difficult and time consuming. Moreover, we prefer to treat our students as adults who are responsible for their choices and attending class is one of those choices.

We began to wonder, however, if our laissez faire Laissez Faire

An economic theory from the 18th century that is strongly opposed to any government intervention in business affairs. Sometimes referred to as "Let it be economics.
 approach to attendance was actually encouraging students to miss class. Although we told our students on the first day of class that attendance was important, we kept our comments relatively brief and only repeated them after reporting the results of tests. Attendance was sometimes poor, suggesting that many students did not believe our claims about its importance.

Thus, this study set out to answer three important questions as they related to our Introduction to Business course. First, what was the extent of absenteeism? Second, how much, if any, does absenteeism affect student learning? Finally, in light of our research findings as they relate to answering the first two questions, should we make any changes to our course policies to combat absenteeism?

METHOD

Subjects and Setting

The subjects were 172 undergraduate students enrolled in a large section of Introduction to Business at a medium-size, state university located in the upper Midwest The Upper Midwest is a region of the United States with no universally agreed-upon boundary, but it almost always lies within the US Census Bureau's definition of the Midwest and includes the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin, as well as at least the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. . An equal number of men and women were enrolled in the course. A review of university records revealed that 70 students were classified as freshman, 80 as sophomores, 15 as juniors, and 7 as seniors. In terms of their major, forty-five of the students had declared business majors (30 in Business Administration, 6 in Marketing, 5 in Accounting, and 1 each in Economics, Finance, Human Resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees.  Management, and Management Information Systems). Seventy-one students were non-business majors. The three most popular non-business majors for students enrolled in the course were Education (15 students), Mass Communication (13 students) and Nursing (eight students). A further 56 students enrolled in the course had yet to declare a major. Table 1 presents an academic profile of the subjects based on their high school (percentile) rankings, ACT scores, grade point averages (GPA), number of credit hours attempted, number of credit hours completed, and current credit hours (i.e., course load).

The course was taught over a 15-week semester in the spring of 2003. The teaching methods included lectures, video case presentations, and large-class discussions. At the first meeting of the class, the instructor stressed that class attendance was an important component of the educational environment and that students were expected to be present for each class session. It was further explained to the students that attendance would be randomly checked throughout the semester; however, no incentives were offered for class attendance nor were students penalized pe·nal·ize  
tr.v. pe·nal·ized, pe·nal·iz·ing, pe·nal·iz·es
1. To subject to a penalty, especially for infringement of a law or official regulation. See Synonyms at punish.

2.
 for not attending class. Thus, while class attendance was monitored, it was neither rewarded nor punished.

Academic Performance and Attendance Measures

The assessment activities in the course included four individual case write-ups (approximately 500 words in length), four tests consisting of 50 multiple-choice questions, and a comprehensive final examination consisting of 100 multiple-choice questions. Each case write-up accounted for five percent of a student's overall grade for the course and students were required to complete a minimum of two case write-ups. Each test accounted for 10 percent of a student's overall grade for the course and students were required to sit a minimum of three tests. For students exceeding the minimum assessment requirements, only the scores greater than their final exam score were included in the calculation of their overall grade for the course. Thus, the final exam was weighted at 40-60 percent of a student's overall grade for the course.

All the questions on the tests and final exam came directly from a test bank written by the authors of the textbook, which was required reading for the course. Thus, a student who had never attended class and relied exclusively on the textbook to prepare for the tests could have answered all the questions correctly.

Using an unannounced random schedule, class attendance was recorded at four points during the semester, once prior to each test. On the days attendance was taken, a sign-up sheet was circulated on which students were required to print their name and student number as well as sign their name. A head count was also taken to insure that no one signed in for a student who was absent.

RESULTS

Academic Performance

Of the 172 students who enrolled in the course, 21 withdrew and three did not sit the final exam, yielding an overall retention rate of 86.05 percent. The overall class average for the course was 76.51 percent, with a high of 94.85 percent, a low of 31.50 percent, and a standard deviation of 10.88. The distribution of grades was as follows: A - 11 (7%); B - 57 (39%); C - 45 (30%); D - 20 (14%); F - 14 (11%). The overall pass rate for the course was 89.86 percent.

Absenteeism

Table 2 presents the absenteeism rates recorded on the four random days that class attendance was taken. The percentage of the students absent on the days attendance was taken ranged from a high of 35.98 percent to a low of 30.60 percent, with an overall weighted average of 32.49 percent. However, class attendance did improve as the semester went on. Table 1 also presents the absenteeism rates by gender, which shows that male students where far more likely than female students to be absent from class.

Absenteeism and Test Performance

Students' scores on Tests 1-4 were classified into two groups based on whether they were present in class the unannounced random day attendance was taken prior to each test. We used t-tests to test for the differences in the mean test scores for those students present and absent. The results of these t tests are presented in Table 3. Clearly, the students present in class outperformed the students absent from class on each test. An examination of the range of scores also reveals that no students who were absent from class on the random day attendance was taken scored 90 percent or above (the cutoff for a grade of A) on the subsequent

test. Thus, class attendance appears to be a necessary condition for scoring an A on a test in this course. Furthermore, a student's total number of absences was negatively correlated with his or her final exam score (r = -.47, p<.0001).

The Relative Impact of Absenteeism on Performance

To assess the impact of absenteeism relative to other factors that may explain a student's final exam performance, we developed a regression model that incorporated the following factors: High School Rank, ACT score, GPA, Credit Hours Attempted, Credit Hours Earned, Current Credit Hours, Case Count, Test Count, Gender, Absent Overall and Major (Business versus non-business).

Unfortunately, the student records accessed for this study had 25 missing values In statistics, missing values are a common occurrence. Several statistical methods have been developed to deal with this problem. Missing values mean that no data value is stored for the variable in the current observation.  for high school rank and 15 missing values for ACT score, so missing values for these variables were inputted using regression on each other along with GPA. The initial regression model parameter estimates are presented in Table 4. A cursory cur·so·ry  
adj.
Performed with haste and scant attention to detail: a cursory glance at the headlines.



[Late Latin curs
 look at Table 4 suggests that GPA, number of absences, ACT, and high school rank are the significant explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry  
adj.
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.



ex·plan
 variables.

Using stepwise stepwise

incremental; additional information is added at each step.


stepwise multiple regression
used when a large number of possible explanatory variables are available and there is difficulty interpreting the partial regression
 model selection methods, we arrived at the following parsimonious par·si·mo·ni·ous  
adj.
Excessively sparing or frugal.



parsi·mo
 model predicting final exam performance.

E(Final Exam | GPA, ACT, H.S. Rank, Absent Count) = 46.24 + 9.85*(GPA) + .744*(ACT) - .104*(H.S. Rank) - 1.85*(Absent Count) (<.0001) (.0018) (.0116) (.0014) N = 148 [R.sup.2] = .614 adj-[R.sup.2] = .603 (p-values in parentheses)

Here we can see that a student's GPA, Absent Count, ACT score, and High School Rank explain 61.4 percent of the variation in their final exam score. The partial correlations of the covariates are presented in Table 5. These partial correlations indicate that the number of days absent from class is the second most important factor after GPA in predicting student performance on the final exam.

DISCUSSION

In this study, we set out to answer three questions with regard to our Introduction to Business course: What was the extent of absenteeism? How much, if any, does absenteeism affect student learning? And considering the answers to the first two questions, should we make any changes to our course policies to combat absenteeism?

Concerning the first question, on a typical class day roughly one-third of the students enrolled in the course were not in class. This figure is comparable to the rate of absenteeism reported by Romer (1993) in economics courses and leads to the same conclusion--"absenteeism is rampant" (p 173). In regard to the second question, we found a very strong statistical relationship between absenteeism and academic performance. Specifically, the students who were absent from class on the random days attendance was taken performed significantly lower on subsequent tests. In addition, the total number of days absent from class was negatively correlated with student performance on the comprehensive final exam. Finally, after GPA, the number of days absent was the second most important factor in predicting student performance on the final exam.

Faced with similar research findings regarding the relationship between absenteeism and academic performance, Romer (1993) suggested experimenting with making class attendance mandatory. We caution against such an approach. Mandatory attendance policies, which impose an academic penalty for failure to attend class regularly, may have some unintended consequences For the "Law of unintended consequences", see Unintended consequence

Unintended Consequences is a novel by author John Ross, first published in 1996 by Accurate Press.
. For example, the quality of classroom decorum DECORUM. Proper behaviour; good order.
     2. Decorum is requisite in public places, in order to permit all persons to enjoy their rights; for example, decorum is indispensable in church, to enable those assembled, to worship.
 may decline, due to the presence of resentful re·sent·ful  
adj.
Full of, characterized by, or inclined to feel indignant ill will.



re·sentful·ly adv.
 and disinterested Free from bias, prejudice, or partiality.

A disinterested witness is one who has no interest in the case at bar, or matter in issue, and is legally competent to give testimony.
 students. As Stephenson (1994) notes, "a captive audience is not an ideal learning environment" (p.307).

Having found a significant negative relationship between absenteeism and academic performance, as educators we feel challenged to identify measures that will encourage class attendance. Approaching the problem of student absenteeism from an organizational behavior modification behavior modification
n.
1. The use of basic learning techniques, such as conditioning, biofeedback, reinforcement, or aversion therapy, to teach simple skills or alter undesirable behavior.

2. See behavior therapy.
 perspective (Luthans & Kreitner, 1985), we offer the following suggestions based on a functional analysis of the antecedents and consequences of the desired behavior--class attendance:
   1. To establish the proper antecedents, at the first class meeting
   students should be informed of the empirical relationship between
   class attendance and academic performance.

   2. Applying the business axiom, "What gets measured gets done," we
   recommend instructors take attendance at the beginning of every
   class session. Fortunately, there are a of variety interactive
   student response systems on the market today (e.g., EduCue,
   eInstruction, and TurningPoint) that make the task of taking
   attendance, even in large classes, a relatively quick and simple
   exercise.

   3. Instructors should consider awarding bonus points for class
   attendance to positively reinforce the desired behavior. Beaulieu
   (1985), for example, found attendance rates of students enrolled in
   a sophomore-level, undergraduate management course were higher for
   those experiencing positive consequences versus those experiencing
   negative consequences, although the difference was not
   statistically significant. Alternatively, one might base a small
   portion of the overall course grade (e.g., 5-10 percent) on class
   participation. In order to eliminate the element of compulsion, the
   class participation mark would be dropped when computing the course
   grade if it were a student's lowest component grade.

   4. Instructors may also want to consider giving short quizzes at
   the end of every class session. Again, this is relatively easy to
   accomplish with an interactive student response system. Such
   in-class assessments serve to reinforce the day's lesson as well as
   class attendance. To eliminate the element of compulsion,
   alternative homework assignments should be made available for
   students needing to make up any quizzes they missed due to an
   absence.

   5. Finally, we recommend instructors maintain records on class
   attendance and provide feedback to students on their behavior. For
   example, when reporting test results, also report correlation
   between attendance and test performance to reinforce the message
   that students who attend class regularly generally perform better
   on tests than those who do not.


In formulating the above recommendations, we placed the emphasis on positive reinforcement positive reinforcement,
n a technique used to encourage a desirable behavior. Also called
positive feedback, in which the patient or subject receives encouraging and favorable communication from another person.
, which should enhance students' learning by encouraging class attendance. It should be noted, however, that class attendance alone does not guarantee that learning will take place. Some students who attend class regularly still struggle academically. However, the best instructor, no matter how clear in providing explanations and examples, will certainly not be successful in teaching the academically challenged student who fails to show up for class. Future research should assess whether strategies designed to increase class attendance actually do so, and if so, whether academic performance improves.

REFERENCES

Beaulieu, R. (1985). Positive and punitive pu·ni·tive  
adj.
Inflicting or aiming to inflict punishment; punishing.



[Medieval Latin pn
 contingencies and the control of absenteeism, College Student Journal, 19(2): 242-245.

Brocato, J. (1989). How much does coming to class matter? Some evidence of class attendance and grade performance, Educational Research Quarterly, 13(3): 2-6.

Browne, M. N., J. H. Hoag, et al. (1991). The impact of teachers in economic classrooms, The Journal of Economics XVII: 25-30.

Chan, K. C., C. Shum & D. Wright (1997). Class attendance and student performance in Principles of Finance, Financial Practice & Education, 7(2): 58-64.

Durden, G. & L. Ellis (2003). Is class attendance a proxy variable for student motivation in economics classes? An empirical analysis, International Social Science Review, 78(1 & 2): 42-46.

Durden, G. C. & L. V.Ellis (1995). The effects of attendance on student learning in Principles of Economics, American Economic Review, 85(2).

Heckman, J. (1976). The common structure of statistical models of truncation, sample selection, and limited dependent variables and a simple estimator for such models, Annals an·nals  
pl.n.
1. A chronological record of the events of successive years.

2. A descriptive account or record; a history: "the short and simple annals of the poor" 
 of Economic and Social Measurement, 5: 475-492.

Heckman, J. (1979). Sample bias as a specification error, Econometrica, 47(1): 153-162.

Lai, P. & K. C. Chan (2000). Should class attendance be mandatory?, Atlantic Economic Journal, 28(3): 377.

Luthans, F. & R. Kreitner (1985). Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond, Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman..

Marburger, D. R. (2001). Absenteeism and undergraduate exam performance, Research in Economic Education, 32(2): 99-109.

Park, K. H. & P. M. Kerr (1990). Determinants of academic performance: A multinominal logit approach, Journal of Economic Education: 101-111.

Peters, M., B. Kethley, et al. (2002). The relationship between homework and performance in an introductory operations management course, Journal of Education for Business, 77(6): 340-344.

Romer, D. (1993). Do students go to class? Should they?, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(3): 167-174.

Tobin, J. (1958). Estimation of relationship for limited dependent variables, Econometrica, 26(1): 24-36.

Stephenson, K. (1994). Correspondence, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(3): 207-208.

Woolen, T. C. (1998). Factors influencing student learning in Introductory Accounting classes: A comparison of traditional and nontraditional students, Issues in Accounting Education, 13(2): 357-373.

Daniel A. Sauers, Winona State University Winona State University is currently in the process of implementing a program dubbed the "Learning for the 21st Century Initiative." Previously it was called "The Winona Experience," which generated some controversy, and before that "The New University.  

Gloria J. McVay, Winona State University Brant brant or brant goose, common name for a species of wild sea goose. The American brant, Branta bernicla, breeds in the Arctic and winters along the Atlantic coast.  D. Deppa, Winona State University
Table 1: Subjects' Academic Profile

            High           ACT            GPA
           School
            Rank

Mean       62.93          21.81           2.51
Max        99.42            33            4.00
Min        11.39            13            0.12
SD         20.58           3.19           0.81

           Credit         Credit        Current
           Hours          Hours          Credit
         Attempted      Cumulative       Hours

Mean       40.82          38.19          15.50
Max         162            133             22
Min          12              3             10
SD         22.42          22.93           1.88

Table 2: Absenteeism Rates

      Day 1                   Day 2                   Day 3
      35.98%                  31.17%                  31.69%

 Male       Female       Male       Female       Male       Female
43.37%      28.40%      36.71%      25.33%      35.62%      27.54%

      Day 4                   Overall
      30.60%                  32.49%

 Male       Female       Male       Female
33.33%      27.69%      37.50%      27.24%

Table 3: Student Test Performance

           N      Range     Mean   t statistic   df    p-value

Test 1
Present   105    94 - 42   70.63      3.103      162    .0023
Absent     59    88 - 36   64.92

Test 2
Present   106   100 - 44   77.75      4.511      152    .0001
Absent     48    82 - 48   69.83

Test 3
Present    97    90 - 36   69.15      3.412      140    .0008
Absent     45    82 - 34   62.13

Test 4
Present    93    92 - 42   68.54      4.004      132    .0001
Absent     41    86 - 30   59.66

Table 4: Parameter Estimates from Initial Regression Model

Term                     Estimate    Std Error   t Ratio   Prob>|t|

Intercept                44.757707    9.971578     4.49     <.0001
HS Rank                  -0.110657    0.043247    -2.56     0.0116
ACT                       0.771172    0.242873     3.18     0.0019
GPA                       9.895801    1.321115     7.49     <.0001
Credit Hours Attempted    0.038679    0.053653     0.72     0.4722
Credit Hours Earned      -0.013917    0.052088    -0.27     0.7897
Current Credit Hours      0.155418    0.354358     0.44     0.6617
Gender [Female]           0.371662    0.678264     0.55     0.5846
Case Count               -0.127628    0.778061    -0.16     0.8699
Test Count               -0.495223    1.874011    -0.26     0.7920
Absent Count             -1.980165    0.602504    -3.29     0.0013
Major [Business]         -0.465244    0.709629    -0.66     0.5132

Table 5: Partial Correlations of the Covariates
with Final Exam Score

Covariate           Partial Correlations

Absent Overall            -0.2626
GPA                        0.6038
Imputed ACT                0.2574
Imputed HS Rank           -0.2092
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Author:Sauers, Daniel A.; McVay, Gloria J.; Deppa, Brant D.
Publication:Academy of Educational Leadership Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:May 1, 2005
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