Abandon the Rod and Save the Child.Corporal punishment corporal punishment, physical chastisement of an offender. At one extreme it includes the death penalty (see capital punishment), but the term usually refers to punishments like flogging, mutilation, and branding. Until c. is the intentional infliction in·flic·tion
1. The act or process of imposing or meting out something unpleasant.
2. Something, such as punishment, that is inflicted.
Noun 1. of physical pain for a perceived misbehavior.
It includes spanking spanking Pediatrics Corporal punishment, usually of children, in which the buttocks, are pummeled, swatted, or otherwise struck. See Corporal punishment Sexology Slapping, usually of the buttocks as a part of sexuoerotic activity. Cf Sadomasochism. , slapping, pinching, choking, and hitting with objects. The practice is not permitted against prison or jail inmates, military personnel, or mental patients; nor is it allowed against a spouse, a neighbor, or even a neighbor's dog. Instead, in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , corporal punishment is legally preserved only for children.
Children have been the victims since early colonial times and today remain so with the support of the courts and a significant percentage of the citizenry cit·i·zen·ry
n. pl. cit·i·zen·ries
Citizens considered as a group.
Noun 1. . Each year at least a million children are beaten in the name of "discipline," billions of dollars are spent on child abuse prevention, and the system devised to protect children fails. Yet, the subject is a divisive one that often pits generation against generation and family member against family member.
One reason for this divisiveness is corporal punishment's roots in theology. The strongest and most enduring support for the practice comes from the Bible, particularly the Old Testament. Many fundamentalist fundamentalist
An investor who selects securities to buy and sell on the basis of fundamental analysis. Compare technician. , evangelical, and charismatic Protestants use scripture to justify their use of corporal punishment to develop obedience and character in children. Their position is that God wills and requires it in order to obtain his blessing and approval; to not physically punish children for misbehavior will incur God's wrath.
For example, in "The Correction and Salvation of Children" on the Way of Life website (way oflife.org/~dcloud/), the Reverend Ronald E. Williams of the Believers Baptist Church in Winona Lake, Indiana Winona Lake is a town in Kosciusko County, Indiana, United States. The population was 3,987 at the 2000 census. Geography
Winona Lake is located at (41.220818, -85.817118)GR1. , contends that the biblical "rod of correction" is a physical object, in most cases a wooden paddle for use in spanking a child's buttocks buttocks /but·tocks/ (but´oks) the two fleshy prominences formed by the gluteal muscles on the lower part of the back. ; any unwillingness to use physical correction is "child abuse." While he recognizes that using an object to hit a child increases the chance of injury, and while he cautions that bruising is not the goal of "correction," Williams counsels parents not to be overly concerned if bruising happens:
But these opponents of God's methods may object, "What you are suggesting will hurt the child and may even bruise him!" My response would be, "That is correct." A child may in fact be bruised by a session of difficult correction. In fact, the Lord has already anticipated this objection and has discussed it briefly in the Scriptures. "The blueness of a wound cleanseth away evil: so do stripes the inward parts of the belly" (Proverbs 20:30). One may say, "That is talking about a child who has bruised himself in an accident at play." No, the latter part of the verse explains that God is giving this passage in the context of physical chastening for correction. God makes the point that if a child is bruised during one of these sessions of correction that a parent should not despair but realize that the blueness of the wound cleanses away the evil heart of rebellion and willful stubbornness that reside in that depraved little body.
Williams also believes that corporal punishment should begin early in life:
My wife and I have a general goal of making sure that each of our children has his will broken by the time he reaches the age of one year. To do this, a child must receive correction when he is a small infant.
However, the Reverend Thomas E. Sagendorf, a Methodist pastor and member of the advisory board of the Center for Effective Discipline's program, End Physical Punishment of Children (EPOCH)--USA, points out that Old Testament scripture can also be used to justify slavery, suppression of women, polygamy polygamy: see marriage.
Marriage to more than one spouse at a time. Although the term may also refer to polyandry (marriage to more than one man), it is often used as a synonym for polygyny (marriage to more than one woman), which appears , incest, and infanticide infanticide (ĭnfăn`təsīd) [Lat.,=child murder], the putting to death of the newborn with the consent of the parent, family, or community. Infanticide often occurs among peoples whose food supply is insecure (e.g. . So, like many believers in the Bible, Sagendorf prefers to look for guidance on disciplining children in the New Testament. There, he says, children are shown great love and compassion, and violence is not tolerated.
Rutgers University Rutgers University, main campus at New Brunswick, N.J.; land-grant and state supported; coeducational except for Douglass College; chartered 1766 as Queen's College, opened 1771. Campuses and Facilities
Rutgers maintains three campuses. historian Philip Greven, in his 1992 book Spare the Child: The Religous Roots of Punishment and the Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse, paints a deeply disburbing picture of religion's influence on discipline and the consequences of that influence. Examining the effects of corporal punishment on the American psyche and culture, Greven reminds us that, although some of the fundamentalist Protestant groups are most outspoken in defending corporal punishment, they have a great deal of secular support.
He says centuries of strong Protestant traditions begun in Europe have been infused into modern U.S. law, education, and the behavioral sciences behavioral sciences,
n.pl those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior. . The beliefs that children are inherently bad, that their wills must be broken, that their behavior must be controlled all have theological sources. Whether it was overtly or tacitly endorsed in our individual experiences, corporal punishment is deeply rooted in our psyches and, therefore, not easily or willingly examined. The first step in changing our consciousness and behavior toward children, Greven advises, is to confront the repressed re·pressed
Being subjected to or characterized by repression. fundamentalism in ourselves.
Fortunately, a growing willingness to challenge ingrained attitudes has resulted in a waning societal acceptance of corporal punishment. For example, almost universally accepted in the 1950s, the practice has decreased each generation since. In 1985 only five states had banned it in public schools; today twenty-seven states have done so. Even in those states that still allow corporal punishment, many of the larger cities have banned it. In 1991 the American Academy of Pediatrics The American Academy of Pediatrics ("AAP") is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Its motto is: "Dedicated to the Health of All Children. called on parents, educators, legislators and other adults to seek the legal prohibition by all states of corporal punishment in schools. Unable to hush pro-spanking sentiments within in its own ranks, however, the AAP AAP - Association of American Publishers stopped short of calling for a complete ban in 1998. Instead it recommended that its members encourage and assist parents in developing nonviolent responses to misbehavior.
The changing perception of corporal punishment is being helped along by research in the field of physical abuse. Much of it is correlational and retrospective in nature, given the difficulty of designing such experiments and the abhorrence of assigning children spanking and paddling pad·dling
1. The act of moving a boat by means of a paddle.
2. A spanking or beating with a paddle.
Paddling of ducks: a company of ducks on water—Lipton, 1970. treatment. It is, however, compelling.
Greven examines the effects of corporal punishment on children in Spare the Child and there finds the roots of public and domestic violence. He says the religious and authoritarian nature of the practice leads children to accept violence without question and believe it is deserved. Rage unable to be expressed by a child is repressed and denied--but doesn't go away. It can later appear in the form of destructive and aggressive behavior toward others or, turned on the self, can lead to psychological problems such as depression and melancholia MELANCHOLIA, med. jur. A name given by the ancients to a species of partial intellectual mania, now more generally known by the name of monomania. (q.v.) It bore this name because it was supposed to be always attended by dejection of mind and gloomy ideas. Vide Mania., . Greven says many such problems can be traced to a history of pain, abuse, and suffering in childhood, and the most common source has always been corporal punishment.
In his 1994 book Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families, University of New Hampshire New Hampshire, one of the New England states of the NE United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts (S), Vermont, with the Connecticut R. forming the boundary (W), the Canadian province of Quebec (NW), and Maine and a short strip of the Atlantic Ocean (E). Family Research Laboratory Co-director Murray Straus reviews the dozens of studies he has authored or coauthored that show corporal punishment contributes to interpersonal violence. Among his results, Straus found that children who were spanked regularly and severely have higher rates of hitting siblings, hitting their spouses as adults, and assaulting someone outside their family. Children who are frequently spanked for lying, cheating, hitting siblings, and being disobedient are more likely to display these kinds of antisocial antisocial /an·ti·so·cial/ (-so´sh'l)
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.
2. denoting the specific personality traits seen in antisocial personality disorder. behaviors.
Studies by Straus and others have also found that corporal punishment can escalate to the level of abuse prohibited by law. Since parents are more likely to spank when they are tired, stressed, depressed, and fatigued, and a majority of parents express moderate to high anger when spanking children, it is little surprise that parents who believe in corporal punishment are more likely to injure children than parents who do not. And children who are regularly spanked are more likely to continue the practice on the next generation and to show less remorse for wrongdoing wrong·do·er
One who does wrong, especially morally or ethically.
wrongdo as adults.
Even infrequent and moderate spanking in childhood can have deleterious deleterious adj. harmful. effects in adult life, including a greater likelihood of depression and other psychological problems. Conversely, Straus found that children who are rarely or never spanked score higher on cognitive tests than those who are frequently spanked. He theorizes that parents who don't spank spend more time reasoning with and explaining to children, thus maximizing verbal ability.
A recent U.S. Department of Education survey indicates that about 500,000 students are hit each year in the nation's public schools. Physical injuries, including hematomas and broken bones This article or section has multiple issues:
* It does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by citing reliable sources.
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Please help [ improve the article] or discuss these issues on the talk page. , have resulted from adults hitting children in school with boards--sometimes in anger and in unobserved and unsupervised settings. The National Coalition to Abolish Corporal Punishment in Schools, another program of the Center for Effective Discipline, estimates that 2 percent of children who are paddled need medical care. Twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. of DOE surveys analyzed by the coalition and the center reveal that corporal punishment in schools is used more frequently on children with disabilities, poor children, boys, and minority children.
Despite the compelling research, the task of ending corporal punishment in the United States is a daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin one. All too often repeated by those who grew up with violence are comments like "My parents hit me because they loved me" and "I got hit because I deserved it." Progress is likely to be slow and incremental Additional or increased growth, bulk, quantity, number, or value; enlarged.
Incremental cost is additional or increased cost of an item or service apart from its actual cost. , but it is not impossible.
The last fifteen years have seen a great deal of progress on a state-by-state basis. For example, nineteen of the twenty-seven states that have banned corporal punishment in public schools did so between 1985 and 1994. The remaining twenty-three states without bans--primarily southern and southwestern states--allow local boards of education to determine whether corporal punishment may be used.
And there is a slow but steady increase in the number of those school boards adopting voluntary bans--frequently to avoid potential litigation An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any dispute.
When a person begins a civil lawsuit, the person enters into a process called litigation. resulting from paddling injuries. In Ohio, child advocates were unable to get a complete ban, but they got so many restrictions put into law that only forty-two out of 611 school districts report using corporal punishment. Each year a few more districts enact a local ban, making a statewide ban likely in the near future.
The use of corporal punishment in other child-caring settings (daycare centers, foster care, and institutions) varies from state to state. State regulatory agencies state regulatory agency A state body responsible for establishing professional standards, and for certifying professionals or organizations through appropriate documentation are moving toward complete bans, and a great deal of legislative and regulatory progress has been made over the past twenty years because of extensive public education campaigns.
Perhaps an easier route is to get a federal ban on corporal punishment. Schools could be prompted to comply by tying federal funding to requirements for adopting bans, as Democratic Representative Major Owens Major Robert Odell Owens (born June 28, 1936) is a New York politician and a former Congressman, having represented the state's 11th Congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. of New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of attempted in the early 1990s.
In all this, the United States is taking a lesson from Europe, where corporal punishment in schools was banned long ago. Nine European countries--Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Italy (by court decision), Latvia, Norway, and Sweden--have banned corporal punishment in all settings, including homes.
Sweden was the first country to act. It took away parents' specific authority to use corporal punishment, then passed a comprehensive ban three years later in 1979, accompanied by a large-scale education effort. The law is generally used to require educational training of parents who hit children, but offenders can be subjected to criminal prosecution. The overall process has resulted in an overwhelming acceptance of the ban in Sweden and, more importantly, a decline in child abuse. U.S. child advocates are watching carefully as a number of countries--including Germany, Ireland, New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. , Switzerland, and the United Kingdom--are studying this model for possible adoption.
In Canada, an effort is underway to abolish Section 43 of the Criminal Code, which gives parents authority to use "reasonable chastisement" on children. Abolition of this section is likely to be followed by a complete ban that follows the Swedish model. Meanwhile, Susan Bitensky, a law professor and EPOCH advisory board member, has suggested criminalizing corporal punishment of children and making violators subject to the same criminal penalties imposed in adult assaults and batteries. In the winter 1998 University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform The University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform (JLR) is a journal of legal scholarship currently published by an independent student group at the University of Michigan Law School. , Bitensky says such a law could be effective if accompanied by prosecutorial pros·e·cu·to·ri·al
Of, relating to, or concerned with prosecution: "a huge investigative and prosecutorial effort" Lucian K. Truscott IV. restraint and a strong public education program, such as that used in the Swedish model.
The most successful initiatives to end corporal punishment have included public education campaigns. With that in mind, EPOCH initiated SpankOut Day USA on April 30, 1998. Modeled after the Great American Smokeout The Great American Smokeout is an annual event in the United States to encourage Americans (of whom 45.8 million smoke) to quit tobacco smoking. It was first held in 1977, and is sponsored by the American Cancer Society. Its spokesman is Smokey Robinson. , the annual observance seeks to bring widespread attention to the need to end corporal punishment of children as an important way of addressing the U.S. child abuse and neglect emergency. In the first two years, more than 400 informational events were held for parents and educators.
EPOCH emphasizes discipline as teaching rather than punishment. While its current activities are largely educational in nature, the organization also seeks legal reform. An important step forward in that effort would be the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, often referred to as CRC or UNCRC, is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. , which provides a legal basis for improving the lives of children throughout the world. Specifically, the international agreement requires ratifying countries to take measures to make preparations; to provide means.
See also: measure to protect children from abuse and neglect and strongly supports nonviolent discipline of children. The United States and Somalia are the only countries that haven't adopted the convention. Many of the nations that have are using it to support their efforts to ban corporal punishment in homes.
However, one doesn't have to have the backing of an entire nation or even an entire organization to make inroads inroads
make inroads into to start affecting or reducing: my gambling has made great inroads into my savings
inroads npl to make inroads into [+ toward abolishing corporal punishment. The following are a few guidelines that individuals can use to develop cooperative, self-disciplined children:
* Stop using corporal punishment on your own children.
* View children's misbehavior as a mistake in judgment. It will be easier to think of ways to teach better behavior.
* Teach behavior you want to see. You probably will need to do that more than once for most behaviors. Praise will increase the behavior you want to see.
* Establish behavior rules that are few in number, reasonable, and appropriate for each child's age and development. Enforce these rules consistently.
* Develop routines and consistency in important daily events, including mealtimes, study times, and bedtimes. It helps prevent discipline problems.
* Distract infants and toddlers when they are doing something you don't like or remove them from the situation. They lack understanding of right and wrong and shouldn't be hit or shaken.
* Use good manners Noun 1. good manners - a courteous manner
personal manner, manner - a way of acting or behaving
niceness, politeness - a courteous manner that respects accepted social usage
urbanity - polished courtesy; elegance of manner when talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to children about behavior. Be a role model for children in speech and actions.
Individuals can also endorse SpankOut Day and encourage others to do the same. There are a number of ways to do this:
* Participate in the event.
* Organize an informational event in your community.
* Write a letter explaining the event and its goals to the editors of your local newspapers.
* Encourage organizations serving children and families in your community to distribute event materials.
* Make a copy of the SpankOut Day Proclamation, sign it, and send it to EPOCH. The proclamation reads:
SpankOut Day Proclamation Whereas, all children need guidance and deserve to grow up in an environment free from physical harm, and Whereas, millions of children suffer child abuse each year in the name of discipline, and Whereas, corporal punishment of children provides a poor model for solving interpersonal problems, leads to pro-violence attitudes, and contributes to the cycle of abuse, and Whereas, violence to children is a preventable harm, and Whereas, preventing physical violence to children includes learning and using nonviolent discipline methods: Now, therefore, we declare April 30, 2000, to be SpankOut Day in our community and advocate childrearing practices that develop caring, responsible, self-disciplined adults.
Nadine Block is director of the Center for Effective Discipline and cochair of EPOCH--USA, which makes available copyright-free written materials on discipline and SpankOut Day. Contact the organization at 155 West Main Street #1603, Columbus, OH43215; (614) 221-8829; firstname.lastname@example.org. The SpankOut Day Proclamation can also be found on the center's website at www.stophitting.com.