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Abstract. Meta-analysis meta-analysis /meta-anal·y·sis/ (met?ah-ah-nal´i-sis) a systematic method that takes data from a number of independent studies and integrates them using statistical analysis.  was used to integrate statistically the literature assessing the relationship between auditory auditory /au·di·to·ry/ (aw´di-tor?e)
1. aural or otic; pertaining to the ear.

2. pertaining to hearing.

 and visual perception and reading achievement. From 267 studies conducted between 1950-1980, 2,294 correlation coefficients Correlation Coefficient

A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.

The correlation coefficient is calculated as:
 were collected and aggregated into homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.

homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.

1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network.
 groupings across five auditory perceptual per·cep·tu·al
Of, based on, or involving perception.
 skills, eight visual perceptual skills, four reading skills, and two subject groups. Findings were interpreted through the binomial binomial (bī'nō`mēəl), polynomial expression (see polynomial) containing two terms, for example, x+y. The binomial theorem, or binomial formula, gives the expansion of the nth power of a binomial (x+  effect size display, which indicates the increase in predictive accuracy rather than the percent of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.

In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality
 explained ([r.sup.2]). Stepwise stepwise

incremental; additional information is added at each step.

stepwise multiple regression
used when a large number of possible explanatory variables are available and there is difficulty interpreting the partial regression
 multiple-regression analyses were used to order perceptual skills in terms of their usefulness for predicting reading skills and to examine the role of intelligence in prediction. The findings indicated that auditory and visual perceptual skills can successfully increase the accuracy of predicting reading achievement, but the magnitude of the increases in predictive accuracy was contingent upon Adj. 1. contingent upon - determined by conditions or circumstances that follow; "arms sales contingent on the approval of congress"
contingent on, dependant on, dependant upon, dependent on, dependent upon, depending on, contingent
 the combination of variables studied and was significantly reduced if an IQ score was known. It was concluded that, while there was some justification for early conceptualizations of learning disability emphasizing perception, the limitations surrounding sur·round  
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.

2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.

 the magnitude and nature of the relationship between perceptual skills and reading as well as recent advances showing other processes holding greater promise for explaining reading disability, perceptual processes no longer need to be considered primary factors in predicting reading ability.

Mann (1979) outlined the historical course of process concepts in education and described how the identification and training of processes has been an enduring theme. The seminal work A seminal work is a work from which other works grow. The term usually refers to an intellectual or artistic achievement whose ideas and techniques have been adopted or responded to in later works by other people, either in the same field or in the general culture.  of J. M. Itard and E. Seguin Seguin (səgēn`), city (1990 pop. 18,853), seat of Guadalupe co., S central Tex., on the Guadalupe River; inc. 1853. Among its many industrial products are textiles, construction materials, plastic products, steel, and processed foods.  was based on training processes. Later, the influence of Gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology

Twentieth-century school of psychology that provided the foundation for the modern study of perception. The German term Gestalt, referring to how a thing has been “put together” (gestellt), is often translated as “pattern” or
 and principles of perceptual organization were significant influences on ideas about processes and their relation to learning (Henle Hen·le , Friedrich Gustav Jacob 1809-1885.

German anatomist whose works, including Handbuch der Rationellen Pathologie (1846-1852), integrated the study of pathology and physiology.
, 1961).

The field of learning disabilities (LD) has historically been associated with process concepts, particularly the relationship between perceptual motor deficits and learning problems (see Hallahan & Cruickshank, 1973). Beginning with the work of K. Goldstein Gold·stein , Joseph Leonard Born 1940.

American biochemist. He shared a 1985 Nobel Prize for discoveries related to cholesterol metabolism.
 (1942) and continuing with the investigations of A. Strauss Strauss (strous, Ger. shtrous), family of Viennese musicians.

Johann Strauss, 1804–49, learned to play the violin against his parents' wishes.
 and H. Werner Werner is a name of Germanic origins that could refer to numerous people or entities.
''see also Wernher and Warner

The oldest known usage of the name was in the Habsburg family.
  • Werner I, Bishop of Strasbourg (c.
 (see Strauss & Lehtinen Lehtinen may refer to:
  • Jere Lehtinen (born 1973), Finnish professional ice hockey forward
  • Kai Lehtinen (born 1958), Finnish actor
  • Lasse Lehtinen (born 1947), Finnish politician
  • Lauri Lehtinen (1908-1973), Finnish athlete
, 1947), attention was focused on perceptual motor deficits as fundamental elements of learning disabilities. Additionally, more generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.

2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.

 theories relating perception and cognition cognition

Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing.
 were posited (e.g., Gibson, 1969; Hebb, 1949; Piaget Pia·get , Jean 1896-1980.

Swiss child psychologist noted for his studies of intellectual and cognitive development in children.
, 1969).

After LD was established as a category of special education, a majority of its early theoretical conceptualizations postulated pos·tu·late  
tr.v. pos·tu·lat·ed, pos·tu·lat·ing, pos·tu·lates
1. To make claim for; demand.

2. To assume or assert the truth, reality, or necessity of, especially as a basis of an argument.

 the presence of deficient de·fi·cient
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.

2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.


a state of being in deficit.
 perceptual processes as a primary deficit (see Kavale & Forness, 1995). The analyses offered by, for example, Ayres Ayres may refer to:

  • Anne Ayres (1816–1886), U.S. Episcopalian nun
  • William Orville Ayres (1817–1887), U.S. American physician and ichthyologist
  • Romeyn B.
 (1972), Getman (1965), Johnson and Myklebust (1967), Kephart (1960), and Wepman (1964), emphasized deficiencies in perception as the most prominent deficit associated with LD. The tenor of these ideas is illustrated by this statement from Frostig, Lefever, and Whittlesey Whittlesey (historically known as Whittlesea - the name of the railway station is still spelt this way - or Witesie) is an ancient Fenland market town around six miles (10 km) east of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire in England.  (1966)
   It is most important that a child's perceptual disabilities, if any exist,
   be discovered as early as possible. All research to date which has explored
   the child's general classroom behavior has confirmed the authors' original
   finding that kindergarten and first-grade children with visual perceptual
   disabilities are likely to be rated by their teachers as maladjusted in the
   classroom; not only do they frequently find academic learning difficult,
   but their ability to adjust to the social and emotional demands of
   classroom procedures is often impaired. (p. 6)

In practice, assumptions about the presence of process deficits meant that process training was a favored intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant.  and, although it did not prove to be efficacious ef·fi·ca·cious  
Producing or capable of producing a desired effect. See Synonyms at effective.

[From Latin effic
 (Kavale & Forness, 1987; Kavale & Mattson Mattson is a surname, and may refer to
  • Ellen Mattson, Swedish writer
  • Ingrid Mattson, Canadian Islamic scholar
  • Nate Mattson, American wrestler
  • Robin Mattson, American actress
See also
  • Matson
  • Mattsson
  • Matheson

, 1983), theoretical questions remained about the nature of the relationship between processes and academic achievement (Torgesen, 1979). Of particular interest was the association between auditory and visual perception and reading achievement. Historically, perceptual skills were assumed to be important correlates of reading ability and, although training perceptual skills had limited effect on reading, their real association with reading remained open to question. The emerging LD field thus witnessed debate about one of its fundamental assumptions.

In attempting to resolve questions about the nature of the association between perceptual processes and reading ability, it was possible to find support for a positive relationship between auditory perception auditory perception Neurology The ability to identify, interpret, and attach meaning to sound  (e.g., Dykstra Dijkstra and Dykstra are Dutch surnames. "Dykes" is a variation of the English place name, and describes a man who lived by a dyke. The suffix "-stra" is derived from old Germanic -sater, meaning sitter or dweller. , 1966; McNinch, 1971; Sabatino, 1973), visual perception (e.g., Barrett Barrett (sometimes spelled Barret or Barratt) is a surname that has been associated with several different people, places and organisations:

Barrett is a popular surname in south and west Ireland.
, 1965; Frostig, 1972; Goins, 1958) and reading achievement as well as opposition to the assumption that auditory perception (Groff groff - GNU roff.

GNU's implementation of roff in C++.

See also nroff, troff.

Version 1.07 by James J. Clark <>.

FTP groff-1.07.tar.z from a GNU archive site.
, 1975; Hammill & Larsen Larsen may refer to:

In engineering:
  • Larsen & Toubro, India's largest engineering and construction conglomerate
People with the surname Larsen:
  • Larsen (surname)
See also
, 1974) and visual perception (Cohen cohen
 or kohen

(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male.
, 1969; Larsen & Hammill, 1975) were important correlates of reading achievement. The variant variant /var·i·ant/ (var´e-ant)
1. something that differs in some characteristic from the class to which it belongs.

2. exhibiting such variation.

 interpretations were partially the result of difficulties in delineating facets of auditory and visual perception (Sabatino, 1979) and measuring perceptual skills (Coles, 1978), as well as methodological problems in the empirical literature (Samuels Samuels is a surname, and may refer to:
  • Andrew Samuels
  • Arthur Warren Samuels
  • Ashe Samuels
  • Carlton Samuels
  • Chris Samuels
  • Dave Samuels
  • David Samuels
  • Dr.
, 1973). Consequently, the nature of the relationship between perception and reading was subject to equivocal EQUIVOCAL. What has a double sense.
     2. In the construction of contracts, it is a general rule that when an expression may be taken in two senses, that shall be preferred which gives it effect. Vide Ambiguity; Construction; Interpretation; and Dig.

In an attempt to bring closure to the question of whether or not perceptual processes were significant correlates of LD, Kavale (1980, 1981, 1982) performed several meta-analyses. The goal was to compile To translate a program written in a high-level programming language into machine language. See compiler.  and analyze correlation coefficients that were descriptive of the relationships. The findings from these meta-analyses suggested that auditory and visual perception were correlates of reading ability, but the relationships were complex and contingent upon the variables defining the association. Because auditory and visual perception were studied separately, questions about the contribution of both auditory and visual perceptual skills in predicting reading achievement were left unanswered. Since perceptual skills rarely operate in isolation, it is important to assess the nature of the association when both auditory and visual perception are considered in their relationship to reading ability. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to reanalyze and reinterpret re·in·ter·pret  
tr.v. re·in·ter·pret·ed, re·in·ter·pret·ing, re·in·ter·prets
To interpret again or anew.

 the findings from the previous meta-analyses to determine the relative importance of auditory and visual perception in predicting reading achievement.


Meta-analysis was proposed as a quantitative alternative to traditional means for summarizing research findings (Glass, 1976). The methods of meta-analysis have been well described (e.g., Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981; Hunter, Schmidt, & Jackson Jackson.

1 City (1990 pop. 37,446), seat of Jackson co., S Mich., on the Grand River; inc. 1857. It is an industrial and commercial center in a farm region.
, 1982; Rosenthal Rosenthal is a name of German origin, meaning rose valley, and may refer to:
  • Rosenthal, Hesse, in the Waldeck-Frankenberg district
  • Rosenthal (Berlin), a part of Berlin, Germany
  • Rosenthal (Saxony), a part of Ralbitz-Rosenthal
, 1991) and have undergone a number of advances (e.g., Cooper & Hedges, 1993; Hunter & Schmidt, 1990; Hedges & Olkin, 1985). The process has become an accepted means for summarizing statistically a research domain to produce objective, verifiable, and replicable findings (e.g., Hunt, 1997; Kavale, 1984; Wachter Wachter or Wächter or Waechter is a surname, and may refer to:
  • Anita Wachter
  • Doug Waechter
  • Eberhard Waechter (baritone)
  • Eberhard Wächter (painter)
  • Ed Wachter
  • Harry Waechter
  • Matt Wachter
  • Max Waechter
 & Straf, 1990).

The earlier meta-analyses used standard literature-search procedures to identify empirical investigations of the relationship of either auditory or visual perceptual skills to reading achievement. For the earlier metaanalyses, the search spanned the years 1950 to 1980, a time frame that permitted an evaluation of auditory and visual perception in their classic sense debated earlier in the literature. Since that time, perceptual research has deemphasized auditory and visual perception in the sense of them being particular modalities Modalities
The factors and circumstances that cause a patient's symptoms to improve or worsen, including weather, time of day, effects of food, and similar factors.
, instead examining processes in a more modular and cognitive framework (Vellutino, 1979). These more sophisticated analyses are exemplified in investigations of the role of phonological pho·nol·o·gy  
n. pl. pho·nol·o·gies
1. The study of speech sounds in language or a language with reference to their distribution and patterning and to tacit rules governing pronunciation.

 processing in reading ability (e.g., Bradley & Bryant Bry·ant   , William Cullen 1794-1878.

American poet, critic, and editor known especially for his early nature poems, such as "Thanatopsis" (1817) and "To a Waterfowl" (1821).
, 1985; Stanovich, 1988; Wagner & Torgesen, 1987). Nevertheless, the relationship between perceptual factors and reading ability retains historic interest, and it would be useful to bring closure to a long-standing long-stand·ing
Of long duration or existence: a long-standing friendship.


existing for a long time

 question. The goal of the search was to examine auditory and visual perceptual research as it was conceptualized in the history of LD.

A comprehensive search that included all available published and unpublished research investigating the relationship between auditory and visual perception and reading ability conducted during the specified time flame was undertaken (see Cooper, 1984). To achieve this goal, citations were obtained from empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence.  cited in previous reviews, from abstract searches (e.g., ERIC), from major journals, and from the references cited in the studies obtained through these search procedures. The search yielded 367 studies, but 100 were excluded primarily because they contained no usable USable is a special idea contest to transfer US American ideas into practice in Germany. USable is initiated by the German Körber-Stiftung (foundation Körber). It is doted with 150,000 Euro and awarded every two years.  data. The remaining 267 studies included 106 investigating auditory perception and 161 evaluating visual perception and reading.(1)

The next step in meta-analysis consists of describing quantitatively data from individual studies. The first stage of this process was to code information about variables and features included in individual studies in order to investigate relations among findings and study characteristics. The second stage involves calculating the basic effect size (ES) statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.


a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them.
 common to metaanalysis metaanalysis (meˈ·t-·naˑ·l . In the present case, the ES was represented by the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient Noun 1. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient - the most commonly used method of computing a correlation coefficient between variables that are linearly related
product-moment correlation coefficient
 (r) descriptive of the magnitude of the relationship between auditory or visual perceptual skills and reading ability. When a study reported actual correlation coefficients, the process was straightforward but when other summary statistics (e.g., t, F, [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies.
]) were reported to describe what was essentially a correlational finding, conversion to r was required. Guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 for these conversions have been outlined (e.g., Glass et al., 1981; Hedges & Olkin, 1985; Wolf, 1986). They were required in 112 (44%) of the 267 studies to produce Pearson Pear·son   , Lester Bowles 1897-1972.

Canadian politician who served as prime minister (1963-1968). He won the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in the negotiation of a solution to the Suez crisis (1956).
 correlation coefficients.

To make the obtained correlation coefficients creditable cred·it·a·ble  
1. Deserving of often limited praise or commendation: The student made a creditable effort on the essay.

2. Worthy of belief: a creditable story.
 (and conservative) estimates of the real magnitude of relationship between perceptual skills and reading ability, the rs were corrected for two potential sources of error: sampling and measurement (see Hunter et al., 1982, pp. 35-94). Measurement error produces variation among correlations because assessments differ in the extent to which they are affected by random error. Random measurement error produces an effect ("attenuation Loss of signal power in a transmission.

The reduction in level of a transmitted quantity as a function of a parameter, usually distance. It is applied mainly to acoustic or electromagnetic waves and is expressed as the ratio of power densities.
") that causes the correlation to be lower than it would have been with perfect measurement. The magnitude of measurement error is indicated by test reliability, and an individual correlation coefficient can be corrected for attenuation ([r.sub.c]).(2)

Sampling error is created when a mean correlation is obtained by averaging correlations across studies. With large samples, sampling error is minimal (i.e., if the mean correlation is the average across 50 studies with a total sample size of 5000, then sampling error is approximately the same as calculating a single correlation on a sample of 5000). The variance among correlations does not cancel out Verb 1. cancel out - wipe out the effect of something; "The new tax effectively cancels out my raise"; "The `A' will cancel out the `C' on your record"
wipe out
 in summation summation n. the final argument of an attorney at the close of a trial in which he/she attempts to convince the judge and/or jury of the virtues of the client's case. (See: closing argument) , and it is likely that sampling error causes the variance across study correlations to be systematically larger than the variance found for population correlations. The sampling error variance can be calculated and then subtracted from the observed variance with the difference representing an estimate of the population correlation variance.(3) Besides amending individual rs, these corrections also make later analyses more robust.

The previous meta-analyses (i.e., Kavale, 1980, 1981, 1982) reported mean correlations (r), related descriptive statistics descriptive statistics

see statistics.
, and interpreted the magnitude of the relationship in terms of a coefficient of determination Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an asset explained by the market portfolio return. Also known as R-square.
 ([r.sup.2]) reflecting the percent of variance explained by the particular relationship, that is, the proportion of variance in reading ability that can be predicted with the particular perceptual skill.

Although this method of interpretation is the traditional way to discuss correlational analyses, it can lead to disagreement because predictions found to account for relatively small percentages of variance are often considered unimportant un·im·por·tant  
Not important; petty.

unim·portance n.
 or not worth further study (Rosenthal & Rubin Ru´bin

n. 1. A ruby.
, 1979). For example, Gersten and Carnine (1984) responded to Kavale's (1982) metaanalysis by suggesting that the average correlations reported were "weak," primarily because they did not account for a substantial proportion of the variance in the relationship between auditory perceptual skills and reading achievement. Although Kavale (1985) demonstrated that the correlational data were not misinterpreted and were, in fact, useful, Gersten and Carnine (1985) were not convinced, suggesting that the situation surrounding interpretation was much like "two ships Two Ships is a single by the folk duet, The Sallyangie, released in 1969. Track listing
  1. "Two Ships" - (3:16)
  2. "Colours Of The World" - (2:28)
 passing in the night" (p. 47).

The real dilemma may lie in the traditional interpretation of correlation coefficients, which renders them solely in the conceptually difficult "proportion of variance explained" notion. Rosenthal and Rubin (1979) suggested that the [r.sup.2] statistic may be misleading because it often results in a tendency to underestimate the importance of relationships because they are seen as associated with what are believed to be low values of [r.sup.2] (see Rosenthal & Rubin, 1979).

As an alternative, Rosenthal and Rubin (1982) suggested the "binomial effect size display" (BESD BESD Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties (UK)
BESD Binomial Effect Size Display
BESD Box Elder School District (Utah)
BESD Becta Educational Software Database (UK) 
), which indicates the change in predictive accuracy attributable to the relationship in question and is computed from the formula .50 [+ or -] r/2. The BESD shows the extent to which prediction is enhanced (i.e., the percentage increase in correct decisions) with the use of, for example, perceptual variable X to forecast reading skill Y; relationships are made more intuitive and more informative by being rendered in real-world terms. Preece Preece is a surname, and may refer to:
  • Andy Preece
  • David Preece
  • David Preece (footballer b. 1963)
  • Jenny Preece
  • Rob Preece
  • Steve Preece
  • Tim Preece
  • Warren E.
 (1983) suggested that the median split (i.e., .50) may not be appropriate in all cases and provided formulas for determining where a distribution should be dichotomized that were used when necessary.

The BESD statistic addresses the question: What, if any, is the percentage increase in the number of correct predictions about reading ability with a particular measure of perceptual skill? Suppose some relationship reveals an r of .32; it is traditionally said to account for "only 10% of the variance in the relationship" but a BESD interpretation shows a relationship of this magnitude is equivalent to increasing the predictive accuracy about subsequent reading ability from 34% to 66% correct decisions, which conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

 means reducing the number of incorrect predictions about reading ability from 66% to 34% (see Rosenthal & Rubin, 1982). The BESD interpretation thus possesses potential for adding a new perspective in trying to answer old questions about the relationship between perceptual skills and reading ability.


A total of 2,294 correlation coefficients were collected. From this total, 1,509 were descriptive of the relationship between auditory and visual perceptual skills and reading ability with 375 in the auditory domain, 1,017 in the visual domain, and 117 investigating auditory-visual integration. The remaining 568 correlations were descriptive of the relationship among IQ and perception, IQ and reading, and reading achievement subskills.

Across 267 studies, the average investigation included 190 subjects (total N = 50,000) in grade 3.3 (range = K-7) with an average age of 7.87 years (range = 4-11), and an average IQ of 104.5 (range = 88-129). The correlations ranged from .01 to .89 with a median of .369, suggesting a modest negative skew (1) The misalignment of a document or punch card in the feed tray or hopper that prohibits it from being scanned or read properly.

(2) In facsimile, the difference in rectangularity between the received and transmitted page.
 for the distribution. At the highest level of aggregation across all coefficients, the average correlation (r) was .355 with a standard deviation In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.

(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
 (SD) of .147 and a standard error (SE) of .006. Using the traditional interpretation, auditory and visual perception would be said to account for about 19% of the variance in reading achievement.

The 267 studies included two primary subject groups: students with average reading achievement (AA) and students with learning or reading disability (LD/RD). The average AA subject was in grade 3.1 with an average age of 7.21 years and an average IQ of 109.3. For the LD/RD group, the average subject was in grade 4.0 with an average age of 8.11 years and an average IQ of 99.6. No differences were found between groups for grade level, age, or IQ. Across all auditory and visual correlation coefficients, the average was .362 for the AA group and .378 for the LD/RD group. Using the traditional interpretation, auditory and visual perception accounts for about 13% of the variance in reading ability for AA subjects and 14% for LD/RD subjects. A comparison of the average correlations for AA and LD/RD groups showed no difference ([t.sub.(1157)] = 1.74, p [is less than] .10). Therefore, the analysis can proceed without any distinction between AA and LD/RD groups.

The Structure of Auditory and Visual Perception and Reading

The 267 studies investigated a variety of auditory and visual perceptual skills. Although difficulties exist with respect to precise definition of auditory and visual perception (see Sabatino, 1979), there is consensus about the fundamental nature of the major component processes (e.g., Bartley Bartley is a family name and a given name. Persons with the family name Bartley
  • Charles Bartley, American scientist
  • Dick Bartley, American radio disc jockey
  • Edward Bartley, New Zealand architect
  • Geoff Bartley - American singer/songwriter
, 1969; Dember, 1960; Murch, 1973). Using consensus definitions, it was possible to identify common auditory and visual perceptual skills among the 267 studies.

For auditory perception, four skills were distinguished: (a) auditory discrimination (AD): ability to differentiate among auditorially presented stimuli; (b) auditory memory auditory memory The ability to remember words and sounds. See Memory.  (AM): ability to recall a sequence of auditorially presented stimuli; (c) auditory blending (AB): ability to perceive separate auditory stimuli auditory stimuli, in dentistry, the irregularities or deposits on the surface of a tooth that may be detected by ear of both patient and clinician during examination and probing.
 (phonemes) and to combine them into a whole unit (word); and (d) auditory comprehension comprehension

Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined.
 (AC): ability to interpret and to understand auditorially presented material.

In the realm of visual perception, seven skills were distinguished: (a) visual discrimination (VD): ability to perceive dominant features in visual stimuli; (b) visual memory (VM): ability to recall a sequence of visually presented stimuli or ability to recall a dominant feature of a visual stimulus stimulus /stim·u·lus/ (stim´u-lus) pl. stim´uli   [L.] any agent, act, or influence which produces functional or trophic reaction in a receptor or an irritable tissue. ; (c) visual-motor integration (VMI VMI Virginia Military Institute
VMI Vendor Managed Inventory
VMI Vertical Motion Index
VMI Valtakunnan Metsien Inventointi (Finnish: National Forest Inventory)
VMI Video Module Interface
): ability to integrate visual stimuli with body movements (i.e., copying); (d) visual closure (VC): ability to recognize a complete figure from fragmented frag·ment  
1. A small part broken off or detached.

2. An incomplete or isolated portion; a bit: overheard fragments of their conversation; extant fragments of an old manuscript.

 visual stimuli; (e) visual association (VA): ability to relate conceptually visually presented stimuli; (f) visual spatial relationship (VS): ability to perceive position of objects in space; and (g) figure-ground discrimination (FG): ability to distinguish an object from irrelevant background visual stimuli.

The 267 studies also investigated a number of component reading skills. In almost all cases, reading was assessed with standardized tests A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. The tests are designed in such a way that the "questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent" [1] , usually an achievement battery including reading subtests or an individual reading achievement test. Although possibly measured differently, little controversy surrounds the definition of reading skills. The four components common to investigations of auditory and visual perception included general reading ability (GR) (total reading score on a standardized test), word recognition (WR), reading comprehension Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. For normal reading rates (around 200-220 words per minute) an acceptable level of comprehension is above 75%.  (RC), and vocabulary (VO). The latter three reading skills were usually represented by scores on subtests.

To validate To prove something to be sound or logical. Also to certify conformance to a standard. Contrast with "verify," which means to prove something to be correct.

For example, data entry validity checking determines whether the data make sense (numbers fall within a range, numeric data
 the proposed data analysis structure for investigating the relationship between auditory and visual perceptual skills and reading ability, a principal component solution was applied to a 16 x 16 correlation matrix Noun 1. correlation matrix - a matrix giving the correlations between all pairs of data sets
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population
 where cell entries represent the average correlation for the interrelationships among perceptual and reading variables as well as IQ. The varimax rotated rotated

turned around; pivoted.

rotated tibia
see rotated tibia.
 factor matrix revealed four factors. The first factor (I) was reading, the second factor (II) was auditory perception, the third (III) was a visual-cognitive factor, and the fourth (IV) was a visual differentiation factor; thus, visual perception did not emerge as a unitary unitary

pertaining to a single object or individual.
 phenomenon like auditory perception. Nevertheless, all variables were contributors and should be considered in analyzing the association between reading and perception.

Before correlations could be aggregated by individual perceptual skills, it was necessary to test the homogeneity Homogeneity

The degree to which items are similar.
 of correlations across studies. Although the earlier correction for sampling error ensured equal variance in the total sample of correlations, the present test of homogeneity was used to determine whether smaller aggregations of correlations were reasonably consistent with the model of a single underlying population correlation; if they are not, it can be misleading to pool estimates into smaller aggregations. Hedges and Olkin (1985, pp. 235-236) provided a test of homogeneity (Q) based on Fisher's z-transformation and a critical value from the chi-square distribution chi-square distribution

in statistical terms this is said of a variable with K degrees of freedom if it is distributed like the sum of the squares of K independent random variables each of which has a normal distribution with mean zero and variance of 1.
.(4) Hypotheses about homogeneity of the population correlations were not rejected for either the four auditory perceptual skills (Q = 15.92), or the seven visual perceptual skills (Q = 26.87), suggesting that the correlations were homogeneous. Thus, the obtained rs can be aggregated by individual auditory and visual perceptual skills.

Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills and Reading Achievement

The individual auditory and visual perceptual skills aggregated across reading skills are shown in Table 1. The display is in BESD format showing the increase in predictive accuracy associated with each perceptual skill in making decisions about reading achievement.

Table 1 Relationship Between Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills and Reading Ability
                             Number of        Mean
Perceptual                  Correlation    Correlation
Skill                       Coefficients   Coefficient

  Comprehension (AC)             26           .402
  Memory (AM)                    99           .383
  Blending (AB)                  67           .377
  Discrimination (AD)           183           .371

  Memory (VM)                   139           .472
  Closure (VC)                   77           .427
  Discrimination (VD)           291           .385
  Association (VA)               95           .377
  Motor Integration (VMI)       305           .361
  Spatial Relation (VS)          64           .326

  Discrimination (FG)            46           .251

                                         Increase in
                            Predictive    Number of
Perceptual                  Accuracy       Correct
Skill                       Increased     Decisions

                            From   To
  Comprehension (AC)         30%   70%       40%
  Memory (AM)                29%   67%       38%
  Blending (AB)              33%   71%       38%
  Discrimination (AD)        31%   69%       38%

  Memory (VM)                28%   76%       48%
  Closure (VC)               24%   66%       42%
  Discrimination (VD)        33%   71%       38%
  Association (VA)           31%   69%       38%
  Motor Integration (VMI)    28%   64%       36%
  Spatial Relation (VS)      34%   66%       32%

  Discrimination (FG)        39%   65%       26%

On average, each auditory and each visual perceptual skill increased the accuracy of predicting reading ability by 40%. Little variability emerged among the auditory perceptual skills with the difference between the best and worst predictor amounting to only 2%. The greatest percentage increase was found for auditory comprehension (AC), while the largest actual percentage (71%) was found for auditory blending (AB), which amounted to the same percent increase (38%) found for auditory discrimination (AD) and auditory memory (AM). These findings suggest little difference in predictive accuracy among auditory perceptual skills.

Visual perceptual skills exhibited greater divergence divergence

In mathematics, a differential operator applied to a three-dimensional vector-valued function. The result is a function that describes a rate of change. The divergence of a vector v is given by
 between the best and worst predictor, amounting to 22% more correct decisions. This variability was accounted for primarily by the relatively small predictive increase (26%) found for figure-ground discrimination (FG) compared to the large increase in predictive accuracy for visual memory (VM) (48%). Although, on average, predictions about reading ability were approximately equal to those using auditory perceptual skills (69%), VM emerged as the best single predictor with successful determinations about subsequent reading ability increasing from 28% to 76%.

The average correlations were next compared statistically to determine whether differences existed among individual perceptual skills in their relationship to reading ability. These inferential in·fer·en·tial  
1. Of, relating to, or involving inference.

2. Derived or capable of being derived by inference.

 tests were based on Fisher's z-transformation rather than the averaged correlations themselves. The weighted average of correlations presented earlier did not use Fisher's z-transformation because it has been found to possess a positive bias (Hunter et al., 1982). For inferential tests, however, the positive bias presents no difficulties because large correlations are expanded relative to smaller ones. This causes the confidence intervals confidence interval,
n a statistical device used to determine the range within which an acceptable datum would fall. Confidence intervals are usually expressed in percentages, typically 95% or 99%.
 around large correlations to be smaller than those around small correlations, resulting in greater robustness for inferential tests.

The comparisons revealed no significant differences (F(3,371) = 2.47 p [is less than] .10) among auditory perceptual skills and reading ability, suggesting approximately equal strength of association for all auditory perceptual skill relationships with reading. However, differences did emerge among visual perceptual skills (F(6,1010) = 17.53, p [is less than] .001) with significant Tukey-Kramer (T-K) comparisons (see Stoline, 1981) revealing that VM and visual discrimination (VD) increased predictive accuracy more than the other five visual perceptual skills.

Although auditory and visual perceptual skills are initiated by different stimuli, the fundamental processes involved share common elements that permit comparison. Discrimination skills (AD vs. VD) and memory skills (AM vs. VM) were found to be significantly different, with VD larger than AD (t(472) = 2.19, p [is less than] .025) and VM larger than AM (t(236) = 4.63, p [is less than] .001). Thus, VD and VM appear to provide a greater increase in predictive accuracy about reading achievement than their auditory counterparts (AD and AM).

Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills and Reading Skills

Correlation coefficients were aggregated by auditory and visual perceptual skills for the individual reading skills; homogeneity tests on all aggregations showed them to be homogeneous. The findings are presented in Table 2.

Table 2 Relationship Between Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills and Reading Skills
             General Reading Ability

Skill         N     M     From   To

  AC          11   .394    28%   68%
  AM          33   .368    32%   68%
  AB          22   .413    31%   73%
  AD          59   .382    31%   69%

  VMem        52   .472    29%   77%
  VC          23   .376    29%   67%
  VD         143   .418    29%   71%
  VA          17   .410    29%   71%
  VMI        164   .409    28%   68%
  VS          11   .367    32%   68%
  FG          13   .262    37%   63%

                Word Recognition

Skill        N     M     From   To

  AC          5   .277    34%   62%
  AM         24   .413    27%   69%
  AB         12   .307    39%   69%
  AD         46   .342    35%   69%

  VMem       45   .463    27%   73%
  VC         18   .272    36%   64%
  VD         18   .477    26%   74%
  VA         24   .356    32%   68%
  VMI        16   .398    28%   68%
  VS         23   .348    31%   65%
  FG          6   .266    37%   63%

             Reading Comprehension

Skill        N     M     From   To

  AC          6   .381    31%   69%
  AM         23   .404    30%   70%
  AB         14   .336    33%   67%
  AD         32   .361    32%   68%

  VMem       49   .463    31%   77%
  VC         16   .363    32%   68%
  VD         25   .372    31%   69%
  VA         26   .301    35%   65%
  VMI        13   .361    30%   66%
  VS         20   .345    31%   65%
  FG          9   .244    38%   62%


Skill        N     M     From   To

  AC          4   .267    39%   65%
  AM          9   .603    22%   82%
  AB          5   .242    35%   59%
  AD         19   .399    30%   70%

  VMem       21   .488    28%   76%
  VC          9   .297    33%   63%
  VD         14   .315    34%   66%
  VA         20   .355    30%   66%
  VMI        14   .342    31%   65%
  VS         17   .401    28%   68%
  FG          8   .225    37%   59%

N = Number of Correlation Coefficients.

M = Mean Correlation Coefficient.

PAI PAI plasminogen activator inhibitor.
PAI Plasminogen activator inhibitor, see there
 = Predictive Accuracy Increased.

AC = Auditory Comprehension.

AM = Auditory Memory.

AB = Auditory Blending.

AD = Auditory Discrimination.

VMem = Visual Memory.

VC = Visual Closure.

VD = Visual Discrimination.

VA = Visual Association.

VMI = Visual Motor Integration.

VS = Visual Spatial Relation Noun 1. spatial relation - the spatial property of a place where or way in which something is situated; "the position of the hands on the clock"; "he specified the spatial relations of every piece of furniture on the stage"

FG = Figure-Ground Discrimination.

For general reading ability (GR), auditory perceptual skills increased predictive accuracy, on average, by 39%, which was almost the same as the average 39% increase in predictive accuracy for visual perceptual skills. The greatest increase in predictive accuracy (from 31% to 73%) was found for AB among the auditory perceptual skills, while the best predictor of GR among the visual perceptual skills was VM, where successful prediction was increased from 29% to 77%. Although less variability was found among auditory perceptual skills compared to visual perceptual skills (10% vs. 21% between largest and smallest r), approximately equal predictive increases were noted across auditory and visual variables in determining GR when the variables AB, VM, and FG were not considered. No differences (F(3,121) = 1.55, p [is less than] .25) were found among auditory perceptual skills, while visual perceptual skills showed two significant T-K comparisons (F(6,416) = 4.02, p [is less than] .001), revealing that VM and VD were the best predictors of GR.

For the word recognition (WR) subskill, the auditory perceptual skills of AD, AB, and AM increased predictive accuracy to 69% while predictive accuracy was increased to about 73% with the visual skills of VD and VM. Although also showing increased predictive accuracy, the perceptual skills of AC, visual closure (VC), and FG appeared less predictive of WR, while the remaining visual skills (VMI, VS, VA) fell between the best and worst predictors with an average increase of 37% in predictive accuracy. As was the case with GR, no significant differences (F(3,83) = 1.12, p [is greater than] .25) were found among auditory perceptual variables, while significant T-K comparisons (F(6,143) = 4.43, p [is greater than] .001) showed VM and VD to be the best predictors among the visual perceptual skills for WR.

Measures of reading comprehension (RC) found approximately equal percentage increases (to about 69%) for all auditory perceptual skills. This was confirmed by the lack of significant differences (F(3, 71) = 1.12, p [is less than] .25) among the correlations for auditory perceptual skills; RC can be better predicted, by approximately 37% with the use of any auditory perceptual assessment. Greater variability was again noted among visual perceptual skills, ranging from 24% (from 38% to 62%) for FG to 46% (from 31% to 77%) for VM. The remaining visual variables led to an average predictive increase to 67%, which was only slightly less than that found for auditory perceptual skills. Differences (F(6,151) = 3.66, p [is less than] .01) were found among visual perceptual variables with T-K comparisons revealing VM to be a better predictor than the other visual perceptual skills. Thus, in contrast to auditory perceptual variables, which were found to be almost equal predictors of RC, only VM among visual perceptual variables appeared to significantly increase predictive accuracy.

For vocabulary (VO) measures, AM was by far the best predictor, increasing predictive accuracy by 60% (from 22% to 82%). The only visual perceptual skill approaching the magnitude of AM was VM, whose predictive success was increased from 28% to 76% for an improvement of 48% in predictive accuracy. With these two exceptions, the remaning auditory and visual perceptual skills revealed more modest increases in predictive accuracy to approximately 64%; an average percentage increase of 30% and 32% for auditory and visual variables, respectively. When the correlations were compared, both auditory (F(3,33) = 14.22, p [is less than] .001) and visual (F(6,103) = 6.63, p [is less than] .001) skills revealed differences, with T-K comparisons showing AM and AD in the auditory area auditory area
See auditory cortex.
 and VM and visual spatial relationship (VS) in the visual area to be significantly better predictors than their companion skills.

Auditory and Visual Perceptual Measures and Reading Ability

The 267 studies analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

 included an assortment assortment /as·sort·ment/ (ah-sort´ment) the random distribution of nonhomologous chromosomes to daughter cells in metaphase of the first meiotic division.

 of instruments to assess auditory and visual perceptual ability. A number of these assessments represent historically important process measures. Table 3 presents data describing the relationship between specific perceptual measures and reading ability.

Table 3 Relationship Between Auditory and Visual Perceptual Measures and Reading Ability
                                                     Number of
Perceptual                                          Correlation
Skill                    Measure                    Coefficients

Auditory                 Wepman(1)                       59
Discrimination (.371)    Murphy-Durrell-SD(2)            35

Auditory                 Roswell-Chall(3)                29
Blending (.377)          ITPA-SB(4)                      16

Auditory Memory (.383)   WISC-Digit Span(5)              34
                         ITPA-ASM(6)                     27

Visual-Motor             Bender(7)                       81
Integration (.361)       Frostig-Eye Motor(8)            31

Figure-Ground            Frostig-Figure Ground(9)        32
Discrimination (.251)

                             Mean       Increase in
Perceptual               Correlation    Predictive
Skill                    Coefficients    Accuracy

Auditory                     .352           36%
Discrimination (.371)        .313           32%

Auditory                     .465           46%
Blending (.377)              .597           60%

Auditory Memory (.383)       .329           32%
                             .388           38%

Visual-Motor                 .318           32%
Integration (.361)           .237           24%

Figure-Ground                .226           22%
Discrimination (.251)

(1) Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test.

(2) Murphy-Durrell Diagnostic Reading Readiness This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now.
 Test (Sound Discrimination).

(3) Roswell-Chall Auditory Blending Test.

(4) Illinois Illinois, river, United States
Illinois, river, 273 mi (439 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers, NE Ill., and flowing SW to the Mississippi at Grafton, Ill. It is an important commercial and recreational waterway.
 Test of Psycholinguistic psy·cho·lin·guis·tics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The study of the influence of psychological factors on the development, use, and interpretation of language.
 Abilities (Sound Blending).

(5) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Wechsler intelligence scale for children
A standardized intelligence test that is used for assessing children from 5 to 15 years old.
 (Digit Span).

(6) Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (Auditory Sequential Memory).

(7) Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Gestalt (gəshtält`) [Ger.,=form], school of psychology that interprets phenomena as organized wholes rather than as aggregates of distinct parts, maintaining that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. .

(8) Marianne This article is about the symbol of France. For other uses, see Marianne (disambiguation).
Marianne, a national emblem of France, is a personification of Liberty and Reason.
 Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Eye-Motor Coordination).

(9) Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Figure Ground Perception).

For five perceptual skills, meaningful integration was possible. The resulting aggregations could be compared to the average correlation for each perceptual skill to assess their relative predictability. In the case of AD, the two most popular measures were less predictive. Although there was a 38% increase in the number of correct decisions overall, the Wepman and Murphy-Durrell increased predictive accuracy by 36% and 32%, respectively. When compared, however, the correlations were not significantly different (F(2,274) = 2.96, p [is less than] .10). For AB, the most frequently used measures were far more associated with reading ability than the average measure (.377). Although the typical AB measure led to 38% more correct predictions, the Roswell-Chall and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability-Sound Blending (ITPA-SB) produced 46% and 60% increases in predictive accuracy, respectively. Both were significantly larger than the AB average correlation (F(2,109) = 44.29, p [is less than] .001) with ITPA-SB larger than the Roswell-Chall. The 60% increase in predictive accuracy for the ITPA-SB suggests that the use of this test moves the number of correct decisions to 80%, indicating that for 8 out of 10 students there are accurate predictions about subsequent reading ability.

The recent emphasis on phonological awareness Phonological awareness is the conscious sensitivity to the sound structure of language. It includes the ability to auditorily distinguish parts of speech, such as syllables and phonemes.  (see Stanovich, 1988), and specifically sound blending, supports the strong association with reading ability (Slocum, O'Connor, & Jenkins, 1993; Torgesen, Morgan Morgan, American family of financiers and philanthropists.

Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813–90, b. West Springfield, Mass., prospered at investment banking.
, & Davis, 1992). For AM, the most frequently used measures were split with respect to their relation with the average measure (.383). The ITPA-auditory sequential memory (ASM (1) (Association for Systems Management) An international membership organization based in Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1947 and disbanded in 1996, it sponsored conferences in all phases of administrative systems and management. ) was about the same as the average AM measure, but the WISC-Digit Span was significantly less predictive (F(2,157) = 3.54, p [is less than] .05). The use of the WISC-Digit Span thus produces 6% fewer correct decisions about subsequent reading ability.

In the visual perceptual realm, the two most frequently used measures of visual-motor integration (VMI) were both poorer predictors than the average VMI measure (.361). Although the number of correct predictions increased 36% overall, the percentages for the Bender and the Frostig were 32% and 24%, respectively. For both popular measures, predictions were significantly smaller than the VMI average (.347), with the Frostig being significantly less predictive than the Bender (F(2,514) = 17.13, p [is less than] .001). Finally, the most frequently used assessment of FG (Frostig) showed about equal association with the average correlation (t(76) = [is less than] 1, p [is less than] .50).

Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills and Subject Characterizations

The next analysis addressed the question: Are there differences in the relationship between auditory and visual perceptual skills and reading ability for different subject groups? Although there were no differences between average achieving (AA) and learning or reading disabled (LD/RD) groups across auditory and visual perception, it is useful to determine whether the relationship between individual auditory and visual perceptual skills and reading ability differed for the two groups. The findings aggregated by subject classification are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Relationship Between Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills and Subject Classification
                      Subject Classification

                          Students with
                         Average Reading

Skill                  N     M     From   To

  Comprehension        13   .545    25%   79%
  Memory               48   .352    34%   70%
  Blending             35   .363    32%   68%
  Discrimination       92   .381    31%   69%

  Memory               67   .476    28%   76%
  Closure              47   .438    28%   72%
  Discrimination      191   .397    30%   70%
  Association          12   .383    31%   69%
  Motor Integration   193   .352    30%   66%
  Spatial Relations    49   .319    34%   66%

  Discrimination       36   .242    36%   60%

                      Subject Classification

                          Students with
                       Learning or Reading

Skill                  N     M     From   To

  Comprehension        10   .241    38%   62%
  Memory               31   .327    32%   64%
  Blending             13   .553    24%   80%
  Discrimination       41   .372    31%   69%

  Memory               62   .465    29%   75%
  Closure              17   .431    28%   72%
  Discrimination       77   .427    29%   71%
  Association          13   .388    29%   67%
  Motor Integration   100   .363    32%   68%
  Spatial Relations     7   .379    31%   69%

  Discrimination        5   .292    35%   65%

N = Number of Correlation Coefficients.

M = Mean Correlation Coefficient.

PAI = Predictive Accuracy Increased.

Students with average reading ability exhibited approximately the same mean percentage increases in predictive accuracy across auditory (41%) and visual (38%) perceptual skills with both showing approximately the same amount of variability. In the auditory perceptual domain, AC revealed the greatest increase (from 25% to 79%) while the best predictor among the visual perceptual skills was VM, with an increase in predictive accuracy from 28% to 76%. Differences (F(3,184) = 4.46, p [is less than] .01) across auditory perceptual skills emerged, with T-K comparisons confirming the finding that AC was a significantly better predictor than all other auditory variables for students with average reading ability. In the visual realm, T-K comparisons revealed that VM, VD, and VC were significantly better predictors than FG (F(6,588) = 3.39, p [is less than] .01).

For students with LD/RD, visual perceptual skills increased predictive accuracy, on average, slightly more than auditory skills (39% vs. 37%). The greatest increase (from 24% to 80%) in predictive accuracy was found for AB, whereas VM was again the best predictor among visual perceptual skills as evidenced by the number of correct decisions about reading ability being increased from 29% to 75%. Comparison of the average correlations in the auditory realm confirmed the finding that AB was a significantly better predictor than each of the other auditory perceptual skills (F(3,91) = 7.61, p [is less than] .001). For the visual perceptual skills, the one significant T-K comparison (F(6,274) = 2.39, p [is less than] .05) revealed that VM was a better predictor than FG for students with LD/RD.

When subject groups were compared across auditory (.373 vs .341) and visual (.378 vs .405) perceptual skills, there were no differences between average and LD/RD readers for auditory perceptual abilities (t(281) = 1.78, p [is less than] .10) but differences favoring favoring

an animal is said to be favoring a leg when it avoids putting all of its weight on the limb. A part of being lame in a limb.
 LD/RD readers in the visual perceptual realm (t(874) = 2.45 p [is less than] .025); thus, visual perception may be more associated with reading ability for subjects with LD/RD. Although visual perception revealed a larger relationship overall, comparisons between groups for individual perceptual skills showed differences only among auditory perceptual skills. Significant increases in predictive accuracy were found for AC (t(21) = 4.47, p [is less than] .001) favoring students with average reading ability while AB (t(36) = 2.94, p [is less than] .01) favored the students with LD/RD.

The Case of Auditory-Visual Integration

During the mid- mid-
Middle: midbrain. 
1960s, attention shifted from individual auditory or visual perceptual skills to the ability to integrate auditory and visual perceptual stimuli as the most important skill for achieving success in reading (see Jones, 1972). Major proponents of this view were Birch birch, common name for some members of the Betulaceae, a family of deciduous trees or shrubs bearing male and female flowers on separate plants, widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere.  and Belmont (1964, 1965), who used a paradigm involving a pattern-matching task to test the ability to match a visual spatial pattern to an auditory temporal Having to do with time. Contrast with "spatial," which deals with space.  pattern. Generally, findings suggested that the ability to perform this task was significantly correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

 with reading achievement (e.g., Beery beer·y  
adj. beer·i·er, beer·i·est
1. Smelling or tasting of beer: beery breath.

2. Affected or produced by beer: beery humor.
, 1967; Muehl & Kremanek, 1966; Reilly, 1971).

Among the 2,294 correlation coefficients, 117 investigated the association between auditory-visual integration (AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) A Windows multimedia video format from Microsoft. It interleaves standard waveform audio and digital video frames (bitmaps) to provide reduced animation at 15 fps at 160x120x8 resolution. Audio is 11,025Hz, 8-bit samples. ) and reading ability. The average correlation was .331 with an SD of .151 and an SE of .015. The range of correlations was .025 to .617 with a median of .328. For the 4,400 subjects studied, the average age was 7.94 years and average IQ was 103.7. With a BESD interpretation, an assessment of AVI yields an increase in predictive accuracy from 33% to 67% resulting in 34% more correct decisions.

The ability to integrate perceptual stimuli appears no more associated with reading ability than individual auditory or visual skills. However, problems were noted with the nature of the assessments. The basic Birch and Belmont (1964) task was refined and extended to include (a) longer versions of the basic task (presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 to increase reliability), (b) increased test ceiling, and (c) more precision in presenting auditory stimuli. Additionally, the Birch and Belmont assessments were criticized as "impure im·pure  
adj. im·pur·er, im·pur·est
1. Not pure or clean; contaminated.

2. Not purified by religious rite; unclean.

3. Immoral or sinful: impure thoughts.
" measures of AVI that confounded integrative abilities (Rudnick, Martin, & Sterritt, 1972; Rudnick, Sterritt, & Flax flax, common name for members of the Linaceae, a family of annual herbs, especially members of the genus Linum, and for the fiber obtained from such plants. The flax of commerce (several varieties of L. , 1967; Sterritt, Martin, & Rudnick, 1971). Consequently, procedures that did not confound con·found  
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at puzzle.

 the basic integration task were developed and were considered "pure" tests of AVI. Table 5 shows AVI data integrated by assessment procedure.

Table 5 Relationship Between Auditory-Visual Integration Assessment Procedures and Reading Ability
                   Number of        Mean       Increased
                  Correlation    Correlation
Assessment        Coefficients   Coefficient   From   To

Birch & Belmont
  Original             27           .329        34%   66%
  Modified             32           .333        33%   67%
  Longer               26           .341        33%   67%

Sterritt-Type          32           .299        36%   66%

                  Increase in
                   Number of
Assessment         Decisions

Birch & Belmont
  Original            32%
  Modified            34%
  Longer              34%

Sterritt-Type         30%

Little difference was found among different assessment procedures; on average, each increased the number of correct decisions by 33%. Comparisons among the assessment procedures yielded no significant differences (F(3,113) = 1.09, p [is less than] .50). Although it remains unclear exactly what is being assessed when AVI ability is tested, some form of integrative process appears related to reading ability but no more so than individual auditory or visual perceptual skills.

The relationship between AVI and reading skills is shown in Table 6.

Table 6 Relationship Between Auditory-Visual Integration Assessment Procedures and Reading Ability
                                Number of        Mean
                               Correlation    Correlation
Reading Skill                  Coefficients   Coefficient

General Reading Ability (GR)        33           .321
Word Recognition (WR)               27           .342
Reading Comprehension (RC)          19           .347
Vocabulary (VO)                     14           .208

                                Accuracy    Increase in
                               Increased     Number of
Reading Skill                  From   To     Decisions

General Reading Ability (GR)    34%   66%       32%
Word Recognition (WR)           34%   68%       34%
Reading Comprehension (RC)      33%   67%       34%
Vocabulary (VO)                 40%   60%       20%

For GR, WR, and RC, AVI demonstrated about the same association as any other auditory or visual perceptual skill. On average, an assessment of AVI resulted in 33% more correct decisions about GE, WR, or RC. For VO, however, the number of correct decisions was increased only 20%, suggesting that AVI is less predictive of word knowledge; the obtained correlation (.208) was the lowest among all other auditory or visual perceptual skills. However, there were no significant differences in the comparison of AVI ability across reading skills (F(3,89) = 2.23, p [is less than] .10).

With respect to subject classification, AVI appeared to be more associated with reading ability for students with average reading achievement (r = .356) than for students with LD/RD (r = .209). In terms of prediction, there was a 36% increase in the number of correct decisions (33% to 69%) for students with average reading achievements compared to a 20% increase (40% to 60%) in correct decisions for students with LD/RD. The 9% difference in number of correct decisions represents a significant difference between correlations (t(91) = 4.90, p [is less than] .001) and the conclusion that AVI is a better predictor for students with average reading ability and may not be a significant LD/RD correlate.

Relationship Among Auditory Perceptual Skills, Visual Perceptual Skills, and Reading Skills

Thus far, this analysis has presented a description of how auditory and visual perceptual skills individually enhance the prediction of reading ability. The fact that auditory and visual perceptual skills themselves were related to reading variables was established with a canonical correlation In statistics, canonical correlation analysis, introduced by Harold Hotelling, is a way of making sense of cross-covariance matrices. Definition
Given two column vectors and
 analysis. In the auditory perceptual realm, four significant canonical correlations were found to account for 2% to 38% of the variance in the relationship between perceptual and reading skills. Examination of the vector weights revealed AC and AM as major contributors to the predictor (i.e., perceptual) set, while GR, RC, and VO were primary in the criterion (i.e., reading) set. Five significant canonical correlations were found among visual perceptual and reading skills, which accounted for 4% to 52% of the variance in the relationship between predictor and criterion. The vector weights showed that VM, VD, and VMI were major contributors to the predictor set, while all reading skills were equally distributed in the criterion set.

Although auditory and visual perception are independently related to reading ability, they do not operate in isolation. Left unanswered,therefore, are important questions about the extent and significance of each auditory and visual perceptual skill in predicting reading ability. For example, what is the best combination of auditory and visual perceptual variables for predicting facets of reading achievement? This question may be answered with a stepwise multipleregression analysis that indicates both the order and proportion of variance explained by each auditory and visual perceptual variable in predicting reading skills. The results are shown in Table 7.

Table 7 Stepwise Multiple-Regression Analysis Using Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills to Predict Reading Abilities
               Reading Skill

        General                   Word
    Reading Ability            Recognition
         (GR)                     (WR)

Perceptual               Perceptual
Skill        [R.sup.2]   Skill         [R.sup.2]

VM             .203      VM              .212
AB             .317      AM              .314
VC             .373      VD              .365
VD             .400      VC              .399
VMI            .419      AC              .427
AD             .431      AB              .461
AM             .434      VMI             .483
AC             .437      AD              .497
VA             .439      AVI             .502
AVI            .440      VA           Not Entered

                Reading Skill

      Comprehension            Vocabulary
          (RC)                    (VO)

Perceptual               Perceptual
Skill        [R.sup.2]   Skill        [R.sup.2]

VM             .212      VM             .240
AM             .314      AM             .360
VD             .351      AD             .396
AB             .373      AVI            .447
AC             .395      VMI            .493
VC             .420      VA             .520
AD             .437      AC             .539
VMI            .446      AB             .547
AVI            .451      VC             .547
VA             .452      VD             .548

[R.sup.2] = Percent of variance accounted for.

AB = Auditory Blending.

AC = Auditory Comprehension.

AD = Auditory Discrimination.

AM = Auditory Memory.

AVI = Auditory-Visual Integration.

VA = Visual Association.

VC = Visual Closure.

VD = Visual Discrimination.

VM = Visual Memory.

VMI = Visual Motor Integration.

VS = Visual Spatial Relation.

When 10 auditory and visual perceptual variables were considered, VMem emerged as the first step, accounting for approximately 22% of the variance in the relationship with each of the four reading skills. The second step to enter for each reading skill was an auditory variable (AM for WR, RC, and VO; AB for GR), which added approximately 10% to the predicted variance. The next two variables to be entered were visual perceptual skills for GR (VC and VD) and WR (VD and VC); two auditory variables (AD and AVI) were entered for VO, making three auditory perceptual skills in succession. For RC, a visual and auditory variable (VD and AB) next were entered, increasing the predicted variance by 5% compared to 8% (GR) and 9% (WR and VO) increases, respectively, for the remaining reading variables. The remaining perceptual variables added anywhere from 4% (GR) to 10% (WR and VO) to the predicted variance with the totals reaching 44% (GR) to 55% (VO) of the explained variance Explained variance is part of the variance of any residual that can be attributed to a specific condition (cause). The other part of variance is unexplained variance. The higher the explained variance relative to the total variance, the stronger the statistical measure used.  in the relationship. These findings suggest that VM is the most important perceptual skill in the prediction of reading ability. The next most important variable was an auditory perceptual skill (AM or AB) with no discernable pattern of auditory or visual skills entering beyond the second step. In summary, prediction of reading skills appears to be best accomplished with a VM measure and an auditory measure (AM or AB).

Perceptual Skills and Intelligence

Most of the 267 studies also included an assessment of intelligence (IQ). It was found that IQ represented a major factor influencing the nature of the relationship between perceptual skills and reading ability. In the present investigation, the relationship between IQ and each auditory perceptual skill, each visual perceptual skill, and each reading skill was significant (p [is less than] .05, at least). Consequently, a complete description of the relationship between auditory and visual perceptual skills and reading ability requires an assessment of the role of IQ in order to assess the influence of the cognitive component underlying perceptual skills.

The influence of intelligence was examined with a stepwise multiple-regression analysis that included IQ as a variable in addition to the perceptual variables used earlier in predicting reading skills. The results are shown in Table 8.

Table 8 Stepwise Multiple-Regression Analysis Using Auditory Perceptual Skills, Visual Perceptual Skills, and Intelligence (IQ) to Predict Reading Abilities
              Reading Skill

       General                Word
   Reading Ability         Recognition
        (GR)                  (WR)

Variable   [R.sup.2]   Variable   [R.sup.2]

IQ           .580      IQ           .512
VD           .612      AM           .566
VC           .634      VD           .597
VM           .646      VM           .616
AB           .658      VC           .624
VMI          .666      AC           .629
AD           .670      AB           .632
AC           .675      VMI          .634
VA           .676      AD           .635
AM           .676      AVI          .636
AVI          .676      VA           .636

                Reading Skill

    Comprehension          Vocabulary
        (RC)                  (VO)

Variable   [R.sup.2]   Variable   [R.sup.2]

IQ           .578      IQ           .449
AC           .657      AC           .508
VD           .693      AD           .558
AD           .707      VM           .586
AVI          .715      AVI          .616
VC           .717      VMI          .634
VA           .720      VA           .648
AM           .722      AM           .661
VMI          .723      AB           .661
AB           .724      VD           .662
VM           .724      VC           .662

[R.sup.2] = Percent of variance accounted for.

When IQ was included, it became the first variable to enter for each reading skill and accounted for anywhere from 45% (VO) to 58% (GR and RC) of the variance in the relationships. Thus, the proportion of variance explained by IQ exceeded the total variance explained by only perceptual variables in their relationships with GR, WR, and RC and was better than 80% of the total explained variance for VO.

For GR, the next three variables were visual skills, (VD, VC, and VM), which increased the amount of predicted variance by 7%, while the seven remaining variables added only an additional 3% to the total predicted variance. The second variable for WR was an auditory skill (AM) followed by two visual skills (VD and VM), which increased the predicted variance by 10%; the remaining seven skills produced only 2% more explained variance. In the case of RC and VO, AC was the second step, accounting for an 8% and 6% increase in predicted variance, respectively. The remaining variables increased the explained variance by 7% for RC but by more than twice as much (15%) for VO.

With IQ entered in the regression analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender. , the amount of predicted variance increased, on average, by 19% making the total explained variance account for better than two-thirds of the variance in the relationship between IQ, perceptual skills, and reading skills. A comparison of the two regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.

In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set.
 analyses revealed clearly the significant influence of IQ on the association between perception and reading.

Auditory Perceptual Skills, Visual Perceptual Skills, Reading Abilities, and Intelligence

With IQ found to make such a significant contribution, it is important to assess its effect on individual relationships between perceptual skills and reading ability. The primary concern is to determine the extent to which perceptual variables remain independent predictors when IQ is considered. To define the role of intelligence, partial correlations Noun 1. partial correlation - a correlation between two variables when the effects of one or more related variables are removed
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of
 between auditory and visual perceptual skills and reading skills were computed with IQ being held constant. The findings are shown in Table 9.

Table 9 First-Order Correlations Noun 1. first-order correlation - a partial correlation in which the effects of only one variable are removed (held constant)
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of
 for the Relationship Between Auditory and Visual Perceptual Skills and Reading Skills with Intelligence Constant

                                  General          Word
Perceptual Skill              Reading Ability   Recognition
                                  [.597]          [.461]
  Discrimination [.441]         .226 (12%)      .233 (10%)
  Blending [.563]               .250 (14%)      .171 (12%)
  Memory [.627]                 .194 (11%)      .228 (20%)
  Comprehension [.679]          .190 (20%)      .172 (10%)
  Visual Integration [.455]     .208 (10%)      .218 (8%)

  Discrimination [.388]         .244 (18%)      .359 (12%)
  Memory [.534]                 .192 (28%)      .303 (16%)
  Motor Integration [.396]      .288 (12%)      .270 (12%)
  Closure [.423]                .201 (18%)      .143 (14%)
  Spatial Relation [.477]       .183 (18%)      .163 (18%)
  Association [.493]            .105 (32%)      .180 (18%)

  Discrimination [.373]         .061 (20%)      .128 (12%)

                                    Reading Skill

Perceptual Skill              Comprehension   Vocabulary
                                  [.792]        [.696]
  Discrimination [.441]         .246 (12%)     .272 (12%)
  Blending [.563]               .188 (16%)     .125 (12%)
  Memory [.627]                 .216 (18%)     .472 (12%)
  Comprehension [.679]          .132 (14%)     .128 (14%)
  Visual Integration [.455]     .237 (12%)     .103 (6%)

  Discrimination [.388]         .120 (26%)     .247 (8%)
  Memory [.534]                -.017 (46%)     .075 (40%)
  Motor Integration [.396]      .018 (34%)     .132 (20%)
  Closure [.423]                .004 (36%)     .020 (28%)
  Spatial Relation [.477]      -.073 (34%)     .117 (32%)
  Association [.493]           -.167 (30%)     .096 (26%)

  Discrimination [.373]        -.133 (24%)    -.020 (22%)

[ ] = Correlation between intelligence and either perceptual or reading skill.

() = Loss in predictive accuracy with intelligence constant.

When IQ was partialed out, the magnitude of the relationship between both auditory and visual perceptual skills and reading abilities declined. The auditory perceptual skills declined in predictive accuracy by an average 13% (range from 6% to 20%) while the predictive accuracy for visual perceptual skills declined by an average 23% (range from 8% to 46%). Contributing to the greater average suppression suppression /sup·pres·sion/ (su-presh´un)
1. the act of holding back or checking.

2. sudden stoppage of a secretion, excretion, or normal discharge.

 for visual perceptual skills were the eight instances where the predictive accuracy was reduced to zero when IQ was held constant. Individual auditory perceptual skills revealed average decreases in predictive accuracy from 9% (AVI) to 17% (AM) across reading skills, while visual perceptual skills showed predictive accuracy declining by an average 16% (VD) to 33% (VM) across reading skills. With IQ constant, the greatest suppression in predictive accuracy was found for the memory skills (AM and VM) while the discrimination abilities (AD and VD) exhibited the greatest independence from intelligence. Thus, the two memory skills (AM and VM) as well as AC and AB in the auditory perceptual area, and VC, VS, and visual association (VA) among visual perceptual skills appear to share a large common variance with IQ in their relationship to reading ability.


The primary results of this investigation indicated that auditory and visual perceptual skills were correlates of reading ability. The magnitude of the associations suggested that consideration of perceptual variables (especially auditory or visual memory, auditory or visual discrimination, auditory comprehension, auditory blending, and visual closure) increased the accuracy with which reading ability is predicted. Although the percentage of accurate predictions about individual reading skills was increased generally, the magnitude of that increase was contingent upon the particular subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original.  of perceptual and reading variables considered. The nature of the association between perceptual and reading skills suggested that perceptual processes possess modest value in predicting subsequent reading performance.

The present findings are more positive than conclusions reached in previous analyses (Hammill & Larsen, 1974; Hammill & McNutt, 1981; Larsen & Hammill, 1975), which suggested that auditory and visual perceptual skills were not sufficiently related to reading achievement to be useful indicators of subsequent reading performance. The differing conclusions may be partially attributable to two factors: (a) previous analyses maintained a static criterion (r = .35) for indicating a level of practical predictive significance and (b) mean correlation coefficients were interpreted solely in terms of the percent of variance explained. With these two factors, there is probably a tendency to underestimate the importance of a correlational relationship; they do not demonstrate the extent to which auditory or visual perceptual skill may be used to increase the accuracy with which reading abilities are predicted. Since the magnitude of association was found contingent upon the combination of perceptual and reading variables studied, defining a single standard for judging practical significance is probably not warranted. The essential question that needs to be addressed is: What is the best combination of auditory and visual perceptual skills that might be assessed to provide the greatest increase in predictive accuracy about subsequent reading skills?

It must be stressed that the present findings possess value for the sole purpose of predicting reading ability particularly for students in the early elementary school elementary school: see school.  years with average intelligence. In this synthesis, the average subject was in grade 3, and no generalizations should be drawn about the relationship between perception and reading beyond that level. Similarly, subject characteristics had little influence; the nature of the relationships appears relatively unchanged by the presence or absence of reading disability.

Although it was generally concluded that auditory and visual perceptual assessments can successfully increase the accuracy of predicting reading achievement, their inclusion in a psychoeducational psychoeducational (sīˈ·kō·ed·j  battery should not be routine. With the exception of measures of auditory (sound) blending, the classic tests used to assess perceptual skills proved to be less efficient measures. When the poor reliability and validity of perceptual measures is also considered (see Coles, 1978), individual perceptual assessment does not appear warranted. Additionally, the significant influence of intelligence on the relationship between perceptual skills and reading ability suggests that when an IQ score is available, no individual perceptual assessment is either necessary or desirable.

In fact, questions about the relationship between auditory and visual perception and reading may be moot An issue presenting no real controversy.

Moot refers to a subject for academic argument. It is an abstract question that does not arise from existing facts or rights.
. For example, in the visual realm, the difficulties may not be with perceptual processes but rather with the speed of information processing information processing: see data processing.
information processing

Acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information. Today the term usually refers to computer-based operations.
 (e.g., Blackwell Black·well , Elizabeth 1821-1910.

British-born American physician who was the first woman to be awarded a medical doctorate in modern times (1849).
, McIntyre, & Murray Murray, river, Australia
Murray, principal river of Australia, 1,609 mi (2,589 km) long, rising in the Australian Alps, SE New South Wales, and flowing westward to form the New South Wales–Victoria boundary.
, 1983). Similarly, slow processing of auditory stimuli may be a significant factor in reading ability (e.g., Tallal, 1980). Thus, perceptual ability per se may not be as important as believed (Vellutino, Steger, & Kandel, 1972). The ability to analyze, sequence, and remember auditory stimuli may be the more critical skill for reading (Liberman & Shankweiler, 1985). Reading difficulties may be more associated with the inability to break down sentences into words, words into syllables, and syllables into sequences of individual sounds rather than the ability to perveive those elements (e.g., Bradley & Bryant, 1978; Cermak, 1983; Snowling, 1981). With findings showing that this phonemic awareness Phonemic Awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to distinguish phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. For example, a listener with phonemic awareness can break the word "Cat" into three separate phonemes: /k/, /a/,  is even a better predictor of reading ability than IQ, assessment of perceptual processes is probably not necessary (Adams, 1990; MacDonald & Cornwall, 1995; Tummer & Nesdale, 1985).

Although the LD field was originally dominated by conceptualizations emphasizing the importance of perceptual-motor processes, alternative ideas appear to hold more promise for providing insight into the basic nature of LD. More than 20 years ago, Vellutino, Steger, Moyer, Harding, and Niles (1977) asked the question, "Has the perceptual deficit hypothesis led us astray a·stray  
1. Away from the correct path or direction. See Synonyms at amiss.

2. Away from the right or good, as in thought or behavior; straying to or into wrong or evil ways.
?" Although the answer is not entirely affirmative AFFIRMATIVE. Averring a fact to be true; that which is opposed to negative. (q.v.)
     2. It is a general rule of evidence that the affirmative of the issue must be proved. Bull. N. P. 298 ; Peake, Ev. 2.
, perceptual processes, in their traditional sense, appear to play only a modest role in reading ability and clearly have been supplanted by more modern and sophisticated analyses of processes. It, therefore, appears that questions about the nature of the relationship between auditory and visual perception and reading ability may be laid to rest.


(1) A complete list of the 267 studies is available from Kenneth A. Kavale, N235 Lindquist Center, The University of Iowa Not to be confused with Iowa State University.
The first faculty offered instruction at the University in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, situated where Seashore Hall is now. In September 1855, the student body numbered 124, of which, 41 were women.
, Iowa City Iowa City, city (1990 pop. 59,738), seat of Johnson co., E Iowa, on both sides of the Iowa River; founded 1839 as the capital of Iowa Territory, inc. 1853. Among its manufactures are foam rubber, animal feed, paper, and food products. The city is the seat of the Univ. , IA 52242.

(2) The correction for attenuation Correction for attenuation is a statistical procedure, due to Spearman, to "rid a correlation coefficient from the weakening effect of measurement error" (Jensen, 1998).

Given two random variables
 is provided by the formula

[r.sub.c] = r/[square root of [r.sub.xx]] [square root of [r.sub.yy]]

where r = obtained correlation [r.sub.xx] = reliability of measure #1, and [r.sub.yy] = reliability of measure #2

Each correlation was corrected for attenuation and the corrected correlation ([r.sub.c]) represented estimates with the influence of sampling error eliminated.

(3) Sampling error is eliminated by transforming the distribution (i.e., mean and standard deviation) of observed correlations into a distribution of population correlations. The best estimate of the mean population correlation is the weighted mean of the sample correlations (r), given by

r = [Sigma SIGMA - A scientific visual programming environment from NASA.
]([N.sub.i][r.sub.i]) [Sigma][N.sub.i]

where [r.sub.i] = correlation in study i and [N.sub.i] = sample size in study i

The sampling error variance is then computed by

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION A group of characters or symbols representing a quantity or an operation. See arithmetic expression.  NOT REPRODUCIBLE re·pro·duce  
v. re·pro·duced, re·pro·duc·ing, re·pro·duc·es
1. To produce a counterpart, image, or copy of.

2. Biology To generate (offspring) by sexual or asexual means.
 IN ASCII ASCII or American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a set of codes used to represent letters, numbers, a few symbols, and control characters. Originally designed for teletype operations, it has found wide application in computers. ]

while the variance in the population correlation is estimated by


where k = number of studies

The population correlation variance is then obtained by


The difference is the correction factor for sampling error.

(4) The homogeneity test is computed by

Q = ([n.sub.i] - 3) ([z.sub.i] - [[z.sub.+]).sup.2]

where [n.sub.i] = sample size [z.sub.i] = Fisher's z transformation for [r.sub.i], and [z.sub.+] = weighted average transformed correlations


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The coordinated organization and processing of input from somatic sense receptors by the central nervous system.
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Learning disorders are academic difficulties experienced by children and adults of average to above-average intelligence.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
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1. Often Offensive Affected with mental retardation.

2. Occurring or developing later than desired or expected; delayed.
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The psychiatric study, treatment, and prevention of emotional and behavioral problems, especially of those that arise during early development.
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For the handbook about Wikipedia, see .

This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
"Pocket reference" redirects here.
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Sage was born at Verona in Oneida County, New York. He received a public school education and worked as a farm hand until he was 15, when he became an errand boy in a grocery conducted

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n. Archaic
A wood or grove; a copse.

[Middle English, from Old English.]


the lair of an otter [from
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Of or relating to motor activity dependent on or involving sight.
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University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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1. modal - (Of an interface) Having modes. Modeless interfaces are generally considered to be superior because the user does not have to remember which mode he is in.
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The rejoinder allows a defendant to present a more responsive and specific statement challenging the allegations made
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sensory system, modality

sensory faculty, sentiency, sentience, sense, sensation - the faculty through which the external world is apprehended; "in the dark he had to depend on touch and on his senses of smell and
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1. Of or relating to phonemes.

2. Of or relating to phonemics.

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Of or relating to dyslexia.

A person affected by dyslexia.
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In mathematics, use of a function or formula to derive a solution or make a prediction. Unlike approximation, it has precise connotations. In statistics, for example, it connotes the careful selection and testing of a function called an estimator.
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see analysis of variance.

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2. abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity.
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Method of reading instruction that breaks language down into its simplest components. Children learn the sounds of individual letters first, then the sounds of letters in combination and in simple words.
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relating to or emanating from cause.
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Please address correspondence to: Kenneth A. Kavale, The University of Iowa, College of Education, N235 Lindquist Center, Iowa City, IA 52242.

KENNETH A. KAVALE, Ph.D., is professor of special education, University of Iowa.

STEVEN R. FORNESS, Ed.D., is professor and chief of psychological services, Neuropsychiatric neu·ro·psy·chi·a·try  
The medical study of disorders with both neurological and psychiatric features.

 Institute, University of California, Los Angeles UCLA comprises the College of Letters and Science (the primary undergraduate college), seven professional schools, and five professional Health Science schools. Since 2001, UCLA has enrolled over 33,000 total students, and that number is steadily rising. .
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Author:Forness, Steven R.
Publication:Learning Disability Quarterly
Article Type:Statistical Data Included
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2000

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