A study of the factors influencing satisfaction with distance learning. (Lessons Learned: Online Business Relationships & Knowledge Management).GUEST AUTHOR SHEIDA SHIRVANI
The author of this issue's column, Dr. Sheida Shirvani, revisits one of the mainstays of distance learning, compressed video compressed video - video compression . As the "delivery medium pendulum" swings back from fully online work to blended work (some "face to face" and online platforms) compressed video may be poised for a come back as the medium of choice for many institutions. There is a glaring glar·ing
1. Shining intensely and blindingly: the glaring noonday sun.
2. Tastelessly showy or bright; garish.
3. disparity dis·par·i·ty
n. pl. dis·par·i·ties
1. The condition or fact of being unequal, as in age, rank, or degree; difference: "narrow the economic disparities among regions and industries" when you observe the rising inclusion of technology in training or education while there exists a relatively low measurement of its effectiveness. There has been a tremendous explosion in the types of technology used to deliver learning objectives, with web-based training platforms growing fastest. The key challenges that educators and trainers face when integrating online technologies into their delivery systems include technology developments occur faster than adoption; technology adoption occurs faster than assessment; and the most immediate evaluation challenges involve focus on expertise and commitment. Dr. Shirvani's review and study of compressed video as an effective medium focuses on satisfaction of the medium by students and related correlations. Stepping back and reviewing technology mediums that we have more experience with is one way to keep track of the gap in assessment to technology options. The other way is to focus our assessment on performance variables, this column will address the first approach. Our next column will be addressing the inter-generational dynamics in online project collaboration. We will review the differences between different generations' approach and interaction using online tools to communicate and accomplish tasks. - Brian Hoyt
Distance learning is hardly a new phenomenon. For more than a century, it has allowed busy professionals, whose schedules prevented them from taking regular classes, to continue their education. But mainstream access to the World Wide Web, compressed video, and microwave systems has transformed this largely electronic access to a bona fide [Latin, In good faith.] Honest; genuine; actual; authentic; acting without the intention of defrauding.
A bona fide purchaser is one who purchases property for a valuable consideration that is inducement for entering into a contract and without suspicion of being educational option. About two-thirds of the 3,200 accredited accredited
recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g. four-year colleges and graduate schools in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. now supplement campus offerings with classes via one or more of these media (Clarke, 1999). Among the schools cited were Stanford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at Cambridge; coeducational; chartered 1861, opened 1865 in Boston, moved 1916. It has long been recognized as an outstanding technological institute and its Sloan School of Management has notable programs in business, , and Purdue University Purdue University (pərdy`, -d`), main campus at West Lafayette, Ind. , all known for their willingness to adopt innovative approaches to education. Distance learning courses can be a great way to stay competitive in today's rapidly changing workplace, if a person has what it takes to thrive outside the traditional classroom structure. Before trading in pencil and paper pencil and paper - An archaic information storage and transmission device that works by depositing smears of graphite on bleached wood pulp. More recent developments in paper-based technology include improved "write-once" update devices which use tiny rolling heads similar to mouse for a computer or TV screen, some old fashioned n. 1. A cocktail consisting of whiskey, bitters, and sugar, garnished with with fruit slices and often a cherry.
Noun 1. old fashioned - a cocktail made of whiskey and bitters and sugar with fruit slices homework is advisable.
The American workplace has undergone significant changes. Technology is making it possible for employees to work from anywhere in the world. Employees are being given more power, responsibility, and flexibility. All of these changes are leading to better opportunities and more skills. Now, those changes are trickling down to the educational system. Both commercial and traditional educational institutions offer distance learning or education programs. Some programs offer complete degrees while others only provide courses toward professional development, personal enrichment enrichment Food industry The addition of vitamins or minerals to a food–eg, wheat, which may have been lost during processing. See White flour; Cf Whole grains. , or partial programs. Whatever these programs offer, distance learning is here to stay. So are innovations in live broadcast and live Internet instruction. Distance learning technology increases the flexibility with which students may participate in higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. , and makes many programs available to the students who could not otherwise participate. Distance learning may decrease the opportunities for peer interaction, but it is a medium for increasing community access to education. Students gain access to courses from wherever they choose.
Several distance education programs offered at the University of Wisconsin-Madison “University of Wisconsin” redirects here. For other uses, see University of Wisconsin (disambiguation).
A public, land-grant institution, UW-Madison offers a wide spectrum of liberal arts studies, professional programs, and student activities. , Mid-Extension University, Clonlara School Clonlara School is a private school that provides programs and services that recognize and support a learner's curiosity, strengths, interests and talents as the foundation of his or her educational experience. , University of Phoenix, University of Alaska-Anchorage, America Online See AOL. , University of Michigan-Ann Arbor arbor
Garden shelter providing privacy and partial protection from the weather, most commonly a lightweight, latticed framework (trellis) of wood or metal with interlaced branches of vines or climbing shrubs trained over it. , and New York University New York University, mainly in New York City; coeducational; chartered 1831, opened 1832 as the Univ. of the City of New York, renamed 1896. It comprises 13 schools and colleges, maintaining 4 main centers (including the Medical Center) in the city, as well as the are resources for distance education. Ohio University Ohio University, main campus at Athens; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1804, opened 1809 as the first college in the Old Northwest. There are additional campuses at Chiillicothe, Lancaster, and Zanesville, as well as facilities throughout the state. has, within the last few years, offered different courses via distance learning technology. Most of the courses are via microwave, compressed video, tapes, and Internet. Their success is of concern to university administrators and to the faculty as a whole. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. an Annenberg/Corporation for Public Broadcasting public broadcasting: see broadcasting. report, over 900 universities and colleges offered at least one video telecourse tel·e·course
A course of televised lectures, as one offered by a university. as far back as 1984-1985 (Riccobono, 1986). This investigation is of one particular distance learning medium, compressed video, as specifically used on regional campuses of Ohio University within the last two years.
New technology changes in population demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. have made television an increasingly viable medium for the delivery of university curriculum (Arnall, 1984). A number of studies report on how students learn with distance learning environments and about their satisfaction with the courses. These studies report that the students who received their education through distance learning received similar grades to the students educated in face-to-face classrooms. The studies reported no intrinsic differences between the two environments (Milton et al, 1986, and Richmond et al., 1987). Nonetheless, there is evidence of fundamental differences. Learner satisfaction is based on the learner's perception of the lecturer's effectiveness, and conversation, an essential characteristic of effective distance education, is missing in distance learning. This affects the learners' perceptions (Hackman & Walker, 1990).
Boulet, Boudreault, and Guerette (1998) indicated that distance learning courses can decrease the learning of fundamentals for students enrolled in a full-television distance education course. However, the investigators suspect that distance learning technology added value Added value in financial analysis of shares is to be distinguished from value added. Used as a measure of shareholder value, calculated using the formula:
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. capabilities. But Boulet, Boudreault, and Guerette (1998) also indicated that the delivery mode -- distance learning or face-to-face interaction -- has different effects on the learning of problem solving. There is no decrease of learning due to the change of the delivery mode.
Konstam and Molotsky (1998) stated that distance learning has been a viable education technique for over one hundred years in the form of correspondence courses. However, correspondence courses were not meant to replace on-campus classroom education. With technological advancements in the form of video technology, Internet, and distance learning programs, the replacement of traditional classroom education replaced with technological teaching has become possible. Distance learning programs bring about new educational problems that must be addressed from the points of view of administration, faculty, and students. It becomes obvious that administration can benefit from the reduced costs associated with distance learning. However, institutions have to finance the initial investment of the innovation. There is concern that they may have to reduce faculty size in order to afford technology Neumann (1988) claims society may find that electronic teaching loses many of the deeper advantages of traditional universitie s where smaller classrooms are more effective. But electronic education is a new approach to education and requires a lot of work, a "painful and time consuming period of reengineering, restructuring, and organization redesign re·de·sign
tr.v. re·de·signed, re·de·sign·ing, re·de·signs
To make a revision in the appearance or function of.
re " (p.2).
Konstam and Molostsky (1998) further argue the positive and negative aspects of technology in education. On the positive side, faculty can reach many more students by using Internet, web-based courses, and distance learning. Faculty are also aware that they can use technology to enhance their instructional presentations. However, faculty have several legitimate concerns about using new technology in their teaching, including time for preparation and the overall expense of these classes. An instructor will have to invest double or triple normal preparation time for one of these courses. And there are questions about protection of individual and intellectual rights. There can be no expectation of privacy when the Internet is involved. Finally, evaluation of programs and teaching effectiveness are critical faculty concerns. Faculty is faced with downsizing (1) Converting mainframe and mini-based systems to client/server LANs.
(2) To reduce equipment and associated costs by switching to a less-expensive system.
(jargon) downsizing as a result of advances in technology and distance learning.
The research also suggests that the effects of technology on students are of the greatest importance. On the positive side, distance learning offers customization of the learning process. It offers convenience for students; reaches students located physically removed from a campus, and may be less expensive. On the negative side, many experts feel students miss out on a great deal of learning when they do not have an on-campus experience. Also, face-to-face interaction is lacking in this type of technology. Many scholars concerned with the issue of distance learning and innovative classroom technologies have discussed the issue of positive and negative aspects of technology. Each of these areas has been evaluated, and suggestions were offered to help expand this innovation to the full benefit of institution, learners, and faculty as a whole (Boverie, Negel, McGee, & Garcia, 1998; Biner, Dean, & Mellinger, 1994; Boulet, Boudreault, & Guerette, 1998; Dillon & Walsh, 1992; Hackman & Walker, 1990).
In regard to the educational risks, Neumann (1998) indicated that creating high-quality teaching materials is labor intensive Labor Intensive
A process or industry that requires large amounts of human effort to produce goods.
A good example is the hospitality industry (hotels, restaurants, etc), they are considered to be very people-oriented.
See also: Capital Intensive, Trading Dollars and very challenging. To be successful, distance learning requires even more organization and forethought fore·thought
1. Deliberation, consideration, or planning beforehand.
2. Preparation or thought for the future. See Synonyms at prudence. than a conventional class. Loss of interaction among learners and of learners with the instructor raises serious potential risks. In particular the provider or instructor does not realize that the students or learners are not grasping grasping
a similar equine neurosis to windsucking; the horse grasps a fixed object with its teeth, but does not swallow air. what is being taught. There are simply no "live" clues!
Other research investigated the factors underlying distance learners' satisfaction with televised courses. Biner, Dean, and Mellinger (1994) identified seven dimensions underlying distance learner satisfaction with live, interactive courses: the instructor/instruction, the technology itself, course management, personnel at-site, promptness of material delivery, support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services , and out-of-class communication with the instructor. The authors concluded that the dimensions of their research could provide program personnel with a measure of distance learner satisfaction. Also, these dimensions allow personnel a measure of distance learning education program that can assist program managers as they organize program funding. Finally, student satisfaction measures of distance learning may be used to help predict future course success.
The pressure for technology comes from college administrators and state officials eager to reach new students and cut costs. One issue they discuss is the prospect of extending college access to students with disabilities or who for other reasons could not attend college, for example, students in remote areas who are not easily able to leave those locations. Another issue includes students working full-time who would appreciate an opportunity to learn or need a college degree for professional advancement. There is also the assurance that online libraries will be at students' fingertips "Fingertips" is a 1963 number-one hit single recorded live by "Little" Stevie Wonder for Motown's Tamla label. Wonder's first hit single, "Fingertips" was the first live, non-studio recording to reach number-one on the Billboard Pop Singles chart in the United States. . However, many of these savings supposed to accrue To increase; to augment; to come to by way of increase; to be added as an increase, profit, or damage. Acquired; falling due; made or executed; matured; occurred; received; vested; was created; was incurred. from technology are misleading and raise serious questions about educational quality. But the fact is that the impression of doing more for less is always powerful. In fairness to the administrators and state officials, the pressure to adopt the technologies in the classes comes also from technology pioneers among faculty.
According to the report of the Task Force on Technology in Higher Education (1996) commissioned by the American Federation of Teachers American Federation of Teachers (AFT), an affiliate of the AFL-CIO. It was formed (1916) out of the belief that the organizing of teachers should follow the model of a labor union, rather than that of a professional association. , many faculty used new technologies in their classrooms and introduced innovations to their teaching strategies. According to this report, one-third of faculty have made use of software in their classrooms, 2% of college classes now use commercial courseware, 4% use multimedia, 9% employ computer simulation, and 13% use electronic mail. The report indicated that half of the state colleges and universities reported that they offer distance education courses. Ten percent offered full degree programs through distance education. The report also pointed out that almost all universities provide faculty with free access to the Internet. What makes technology so attractive to faculty is the genuine educational gains it offers. In reality it is possible to bring new views and increased volume of information into the classroom in order to cultivate the learner's mind and to ease communication among the learners and faculty.
The distance learning approach is powerful. It is here to stay. There are other benefits to this new, innovative approach to education. Sayre (1998) indicated that distance learning via satellite links gives new meaning to the saying "the sky is the limit." It gives the opportunity for employees or learners to learn while they earn. Another benefit is the distribution vehicle: so long as the programs are received at one site, they can be transmitted to many different sites. Internal networks may then transfer programs to individual desktops, or the programs may be stored on local servers for later use.
With the global economy becoming increasingly dependent on an educated and well-trained workforce, distance learning is producing a bridge to the 21st century. A comprehensive review of the literature on distance teaching identifies factors such as face-to-face interaction, audience characteristics, availability of the instructors, and outstanding equipment as keys to effective distance learning education. The purposes of this study were to examine the keys to the success of Ohio University's Campus Centers' distance learning initiative and to make recommendations to faculty and administrators for future programs.
Distance learning is a system that connects learner with learning resources. Distance learning also includes a variety of delivery and forms. They are characterized by separation of place and time between sources and learners. The interaction between learner and sources conducted through one or more media. (In this particular paper, the media is required to be electronic media.)
Learner: An individual or group that looks for a learning experience offered by a provider.
Provider: The individual or organization that creates and facilitates the learning opportunity.
Distance learning classes conducted via compressed video (two-way audio and video) at Ohio University Campus Centers were selected to participate in this study. All the courses were conducted through the 1997-98 academic year. Electronic mail, PowerPoint[R], and Internet Relay Chat See IRC.
(chat, messaging) Internet Relay Chat - (IRC) /I-R-C/, occasionally /*rk/ A client-server chat system of large (often worldwide) networks. IRC is structured as networks of Internet servers, each accepting connections from client programs, one per user. (IRC (Internet Relay Chat) Computer conferencing on the Internet. There are hundreds of IRC channels on numerous subjects that are hosted on IRC servers around the world. After joining a channel, your messages are broadcast to everyone listening to that channel. ) were used for group discussions and learner support. Participants for this study were students who registered for compressed video classes anywhere across the campus system. Questionnaires distributed at the end of each class were used in this study. The data were combined and analyzed using the SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. [R] statistical package.
* What is the relation between faculty performance and perception of student learning in the distributed class?
* What is the relation between learning outcome and student satisfaction with the distributed classes?
* What are the relations among gender, student satisfaction, and success in the distributed classes?
* What are the relations among age, student satisfaction, and success with the distributed classes?
DATA ANALYSES AND DISCUSSION
A total of 338 usable questionnaires were collected during a fifteen-week period of evaluation. Predominately, the courses were offered to undergraduate classes in nursing, communication, information systems, education, and business. Although there was only one graduate class in the study, some 49 respondents were graduate students. There were also 128 seniors, 97 juniors, and 65 freshmen and sophomores. There were 211 females and 66 males in the classes. The majority were taking at least one other compressed video course. For only 29% of this was the first such course. Some 53% of subjects were interested in taking televised courses from Ohio University delivered directly into their homes via local cable TV. It was interesting that 151 of the subjects had Internet access See how to access the Internet. at home and that 14.8% of them had access some other way. Almost 70% of the subjects were satisfied with the program.
Chi-square test chi-square test: see statistics. produced one interesting but statistically insignificant result and two significant relations. Students were asked to respond to the statement, "I was less apt to ask questions or interact with the instructor because the course was televised." Referring to Table 1, notice that the older students (">25") were far more likely to agree, disagree, and express no opinion about this. These older students represent a very mixed bag of abilities and adaptive skills.
When the same statement is viewed from the perspective of class ranks, students in upper classes indicated they were less apt to interact is statistically significant (cf., Table 2, C_ (10, N=289) = 22.618, r< .05). What is interesting about this is that these same higher classes are more likely to be populated pop·u·late
tr.v. pop·u·lat·ed, pop·u·lat·ing, pop·u·lates
1. To supply with inhabitants, as by colonization; people.
2. by the older students.
Class rank was also statistically significant (C_ (10, N=277) = 20.968, r< .05) when considering overall satisfaction with the course (Table 3). If in fact older students fill the ranks of the upper classes, the initial dispersion dispersion, in chemistry
dispersion, in chemistry, mixture in which fine particles of one substance are scattered throughout another substance. A dispersion is classed as a suspension, colloid, or solution. of responses across the three response categories (Table 1) is not easily understood. Older students might have been less apt to interact, but that did not diminish their satisfaction with the course.
In addition to descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. , correlations were sought between and among the variables of each question. A bit surprising was that the only significant finding was that seniors and graduate students reported higher overall satisfaction with the course than were freshmen, sophomores, and juniors. However, because the statement ("Overall, I was satisfied with this course") is very general, the result cannot be interpreted as an endorsement of course delivery by compressed video.
Frankly, the researcher was surprised that the answer to each of the four questions of the study was "None." The absence of significant finding is, perhaps, due to the pervasiveness of video media in the lives of students. Almost half of the respondents were under 25 years of age. They had grown up in a highly visually stimulated society -- they are, after all, the "Sesame Street Sesame Street is an American educational children's television series for preschoolers and is a pioneer of the contemporary educational television standard, combining both education and entertainment. Generation." The remaining half of the students were classified simply as ">25." Anecdotal evidence anecdotal evidence,
n information obtained from personal accounts, examples, and observations. Usually not considered scientifically valid but may indicate areas for further investigation and research. suggests most of them were under 40. They, too, have been heavily influenced by and are very accustomed to learning through visual media. For all of them, then, the use of compressed video is more a natural phenomenon than a revolution in education.
There is no doubt that compressed video can provide valuable experiences and education for both students and instructors. Providing access and good interaction with resources help the learner to enjoy this type of educational experience. Compressed video opens a world of opportunities for students and instructors. Granted instructors may have to plan and prepare more than usual to take advantage of this new medium, but strategies which work best with this medium are likely to improve student motivation. The payoff in a positive experience for students more than compensates for the extra investment of time and effort.
The world is changing, technology is improving, and humans are adapting to new media rapidly. Therefore, those for whom the media is available need to take advantage of it. Educational consumers demand innovation in delivery. As the suppliers, universities should respond open-mindedly.
Table 1 "Less Apt to Interact" by "Age of Student" Age of Student 18-20 21-23 24-25 <25 Total agree 13 32 15 97 157 no opinion 5 6 4 16 31 disagree 11 12 8 69 100 TOTAL 29 50 27 182 288 Table 2 "Apt to Interact" with "Class Rank" Class Rank Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate Other agree 7 7 58 74 11 no opinion 3 1 12 15 disagree 5 8 27 39 21 1 TOTAL 15 16 97 128 32 1 Total agree 157 no opinion 31 disagree 101 TOTAL 289 Table 3 "Overall Satisfaction with "Class Rank" Class Rank Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate agree 7 9 64 85 28 no opinion 4 5 12 20 1 disagree 4 2 20 15 21 TOTAL 15 16 96 120 29
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A man who has been freed from slavery.
pl -men History a man freed from slavery
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n. pl. im·me·di·a·cies
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JCSC Joint Communications Satellite Center
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BRIAN R. HOYT IS AN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AND TEACHES MARKETING AND OPERATION CLASSES AT OHIO UNIVERSITY. HIS WORK AT THE UNIVERSITY AND AS A CONSULTANT INVOLVES TRAINING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT USING WEB-BASED PLATFORMS.
E-MAIL e-mail: see electronic mail.
in full electronic mail
Messages and other data exchanged between individuals using computers in a network. : firstname.lastname@example.org