A social network analysis of the Journal of Supply Chain Management: knowledge generation, knowledge diffusion and thought leadership.INTRODUCTION
The field of purchasing has been viewed as an independent function for well over 100 years (Fearon 1968) and as a distinct profession since 1915--the year in which the National Association of Purchasing Agents was founded (Leenders, Fearon and England 1989). Further, the field of purchasing has been viewed as a scholarly discipline since at least 1965 when the first article appeared in the Journal of Purchasing, a peer-reviewed scholarly journal that is now the Journal of Supply Chain Management. During this 40-year period, authors have periodically examined the evolution of the field by reviewing the subject categories, research design and methodologies of articles which have appeared in the Journal (Williams and Oumlil 1987; Carter and Ellram 2003). These articles have helped to summarize sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum the state of the field through an examination of the research which had been published in the Journal, and in so doing have also provided guidance for future research in the field. While the work of Williams and Oumlil and Carter and Ellram investigated the content of published articles in the Journal, these papers did not explicitly examine the patterning of the citations and the changing communication patterns of the citations from those articles appearing in the Journal. The objective of this research is to fill that gap.
The broad goal of citation analysis Citation Analysis is the most common method of bibliometrics. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.
Co-citation coupling and bibliographic coupling are specific kinds of citation analysis. is to better understand communication patterns within a scientific discipline (Yaru 1997). More specifically, citation analysis allows a researcher to examine citations made to and from journals which can explain and clarify flows of communication across scholarly disciplines and among the academic institutions which generate this knowledge (Phillips and Phillips 1998). This technique is often applied to the leading scholarly journal within a scientific discipline (e.g., Phillips, Baumgartner and Pieters 1999). Unlike raw frequency counts of published articles, a citation analysis can more accurately capture the value of these publications, with the idea that articles which make a greater contribution to a scientific field tend to be cited more often (Phillips and Phillips 1998).
A potential, complementary technique, called social network analysis (SNA (Systems Network Architecture) IBM's mainframe network standards introduced in 1974. Originally a centralized architecture with a host computer controlling many terminals, enhancements, such as APPN and APPC (LU 6. ), can be used to further understand these flows of communication and exchanges of information among actors (Everett and Pecotich 1991; Autry and Griffis 2005), where actors can be defined as individuals within an organization, organizations within a supply chain or in the case of a citation analysis, academic institutions within a scholarly discipline. In combination, this methodology can be used to model every connection between all of the institutions in an academic knowledge network, by examining the sending and receiving patterns of citations within the network (Phillips and Phillips 1998). SNA can also be used to identify what Burt (1982) refers to as the "invisible college The Invisible College was a precursor to the Royal Society of United Kingdom. It consisted of a group of scientists including Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, John Wallis, John Evelyn, Robert Hooke, Christopher Wren and William Petty. " in a scientific community--a tightly knit Adj. 1. tightly knit - closely and firmly integrated; "a tight-knit organization"
integrated - formed into a whole or introduced into another entity; "a more closely integrated economic and political system"- Dwight D. sub-network of members at the center of knowledge generation within an area or field of research.
Despite the potential value of SNA for better understanding how knowledge is generated and diffused dif·fuse
v. dif·fused, dif·fus·ing, dif·fus·es
1. To pour out and cause to spread freely.
2. To spread about or scatter; disseminate.
3. , and how supply management as a scholarly discipline has evolved, this methodology has not yet been used in the research appearing in the Journal. This study addresses this gap by examining the following research objectives:
Research Objective 1: To track the number of citations appearing in individual articles over time.
The authors' expectation is that as the field of supply management and the Journal have matured over time, research appearing in the Journal would be more theoretically rich and methodologically sophisticated, resulting in an increased number of citations per article.
Research Objective 2: To track the percent of cited articles from different fields over time.
The purpose of assessing the percent of cited articles from different fields over time is to better understand the field(s) from which the supply management body of knowledge has relied upon to develop models and integrate theories used to explain managerial behavior and supply management phenomena.
Research Objective 3: To track the percent of cited articles from the Journal over time.
The authors' expectation here is that over time articles appearing in the Journal would begin to increasingly rely upon the accumulated knowledge base of research appearing in prior issues of the Journal.
Research Objective 4: To identify those universities which are "thought leaders" in the Journal, by (a) determining not only those schools that have contributed the greatest number of articles, but (b) those universities that are most central within the Journal's citation network and (c) more broadly introducing the SNA methodology to supply management researchers, with the goal of guiding potential future applications of SNA to supply management research.
These research objectives will be accomplished through a SNA of the citations within the 40-year history of the Journal. It is important to not only identify the universities whose programs have contributed to the development of supply management knowledge, but to understand the actual influence that the research of these respective universities has had on the field. Just as journals which receive a higher proportion of citations are considered to be more influential than journals which receive a lower proportion of citations (Baumgartner and Pieters 2003), it can also be assumed that universities that are more central within a citation network of universities generating supply management research and knowledge are more influential. The behavioral research in the field of supply management has seen an over-reliance on survey and case study methodologies (Carter and Ellram 2003; Parente and Gattiker 2004). SNA can help managers to effectively map informal communication and workflow networks (Carter, Ellram and Tate 2007) and can allow organizations to better manage knowledge, information and organizational learning (e.g., Hult, Hurley Hurley has become the English version of at least three distinct original Irish names: the Ó hUirthile, part of the Dál gCais tribal group, based in Clare and North Tipperary; the Ó Muirthile, based around Kilbritain in west Cork; and the OhIarlatha, from the district of , Guinipero and Nichols 2000; Hult, Ketchen and Nichols 2003). Yet despite the potential advantage of and need for complimentary research methodologies in supply management research, the use of SNA has been almost nonexistent non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
non in our field.
In the next section of the paper the authors describe the study's methodology. The results of the study's analyses based on Research Objectives 1-4b are then presented and discussed. In the paper's final sections, the authors further highlight potential applications of SNA to the field of supply management (Research Objective 4c), and provide additional thought regarding future directions of the field, based on the study's findings.
The authors began by collecting a copy of every article published in the Journal over the 40-year period from the first issue in 1965 through the last issue in 2004. Afterwards af·ter·ward also af·ter·wards
At a later time; subsequently.
afterwards or afterward
later [Old English æfterweard]
Adv. 1. , the article title, volume and issue numbers, authors and author affiliations for each peer-reviewed article were entered into a Microsoft Access A database program for Windows, available separately or included in the Microsoft Office suite. Access is programmable using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Access can read Paradox, dBASE and Btrieve files, and using ODBC, Microsoft SQL Server, SYBASE SQL Server and Oracle data. [R] database. A total of 882 articles were entered into the database in this fashion. As the Journal has at times published non-peer-reviewed subject matter such as book reviews and executive interviews, these non-peer-reviewed articles were not included in the database. In addition, to avoid double counting Double counting may refer to:
Finally, the journal titles of every citation from each of these 882 articles were entered into the database, which resulted in a total of 11,408 citations. In the event that a citation came from the Journal (e.g., an article in the Journal cited another article from the Journal), this citation was cross-referenced with the university affiliation(s) of the author(s) of the cited article. The first and second authors entered this data, and separately checked the accuracy of the data entry of the other author. This database was then used as the source for the analyses that are described next.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Research Objective 1: Citations Per Article
Consistent with the methodology of Carter and Ellram (2003), the 156 issues of the Journal from the 40-year time period were divided into eight equal 5-year periods (i.e., 1965-69, 1970-74, etc.). An analysis of variance (ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there ) was then performed using SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. , Version 9.1, to determine whether changes in the number of citations per article may have occurred over time. The independent variable, time period, ranged from one (time period 1: 1965-69) through eight (time period 8: 2000-04). The dependent variable, number of citations per article, was operationalized as the average number of citations per article per issue of the Journal. To avoid problems associated with autocorrelation Autocorrelation
The correlation of a variable with itself over successive time intervals. Sometimes called serial correlation. , these averages were then randomly sorted within each time period. The results of the ANOVA are displayed in Table I, and suggest a statistically significant overall difference across time periods (F=66.07, p < 0.0001).
Next, Duncan's multiple range post hoc post hoc
adv. & adj.
In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier: comparisons (see Bruning and Kintz 1977) were used to ascertain in which time period(s) these statistically significant differences occurred ([alpha]=0.05). As is also shown in Table I, period 8 (2000-04) has a significantly greater number of citations per article than periods 1 through 7 (1965-99) (p < 0.05), period 7 (1995-99) has a significantly greater number of citations than periods 1 through 6 (1965-94) (p < 0.05), and period 6 (1990-94) has a significantly greater number of citations than periods 1 through 5 (1965-89). There are no statistically significant differences in the number of citations across periods 1 through 5.
These results suggest that the average number of citations per article has increased over time, and provide some support for the assertion that research in the field of supply management and in particular research which has appeared in the Journal, has become more theoretically rich and methodologically complex over the 40-year period. This assertion is also supported by the work of Carter and Ellram (2003, p. 32), who find a significantly greater prevalence of hypothesis testing hypothesis testing
In statistics, a method for testing how accurately a mathematical model based on one set of data predicts the nature of other data sets generated by the same process. (as opposed to normative nor·ma·tive
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.
nor literature and exploratory studies) and "more advanced and inferential in·fer·en·tial
1. Of, relating to, or involving inference.
2. Derived or capable of being derived by inference.
in data analysis techniques" in the 1990s as opposed to earlier time periods in the Journal's history. As researchers have increasingly used deductive de·duc·tive
1. Of or based on deduction.
2. Involving or using deduction in reasoning.
de·duc , theoretically derived models, grounded theory building that integrates existing theories, and more advanced statistical methodologies, the field has seen an increasing number of citations referencing this extant literature Extant literature refers to texts that have survived from the past to the present time. Extant literature can be divided into extant original manuscripts, copies of original manuscripts, quotations and paraphrases of passages of non-extant texts contained in other works, .
Research Objective 2: Cited Articles from Different Fields
To examine the second research objective, the authors assigned each citation to one of the 22 citation codes appearing in Table II. The first and second authors together coded the citations of each article to ensure reliability. This coding was accomplished by creating a list of journals and/or a description of the type of citation appearing under each of the coding categories. In the case of journals for which the authors were unfamiliar, the homepages of these journals and a description of the journals based on ProQuest[R] and similar scholarly databases were examined.
Column 2 of Table II displays the percent of citations attributable to each of the citation categories over the entire 40-year period. Books were by far the most common type of citation with over 27 percent of the total citations, followed by scholarly supply management journals (12.88 percent) such as the Journal, scholarly management journals (11.70 percent) such as the Academy of Management Journal, and trade publications (10.32 percent) such as Purchasing. Table II also displays the percent of citations from the 22 categories for each of the eight, 5-year time periods in columns three through 10. The researchers next used this data to examine any trends in citation patterns over the 40-year time period.
First, the authors investigated whether changes might have occurred over time in the proportion of citations from scholarly journals by performing an ANOVA in which the eight, 5-year time periods again represented the independent variable, and the average proportion of citations from scholarly journals per article per issue represented the dependent variable. As was the case with the first ANOVA, these averages were randomly sorted within each time period to avoid problems with autocorrelation. The researchers defined scholarly journals as those journals that are rigorously (generally peer, double-blind) reviewed. This included the following citation categories: accounting, economics, finance, legal-scholarly, logistics and transportation, management, marketing, operations management/operations research (OM/OR), psychology, purchasing, sociology and other-scholarly. The results of the ANOVA are shown in Table III.
The mean proportion of citations from scholarly journals over the 40-year time period is 38.42 percent. The results from the ANOVA displayed in Table III indicate that this proportion varies significantly over the eight, 5-year time periods (F=27.47, p < 0.0001). Duncan's multiple range test was used to examine the specific differences across time periods ([alpha]=.05). Period 8 (2000-04) has a significantly greater proportion of citations from scholarly journals (59.93 percent) than periods 1 through 7; both periods 7 (1995-99) at 50.90 percent and 6 (1990-94) at 48.69 percent have a significantly greater proportion of articles from scholarly journals than periods 1 through 5; period 4 (38.20 percent) has a significantly greater proportion of scholarly citations than periods 1 through 3; and periods 3 (29.36 percent) and 2 (27.88 percent) have a significantly greater percentage of citations from scholarly journals than period 1 (15.37 percent).
These findings support the earlier assertion that research published in the Journal is becoming more theoretically rich over time, and that the analyses used to conduct this research are becoming increasingly sophisticated. The results displayed in Table III also substantiate To establish the existence or truth of a particular fact through the use of competent evidence; to verify.
For example, an Eyewitness might be called by a party to a lawsuit to substantiate that party's testimony. the work of Carter and Ellram (2003, p. 39) whose research indicates a "maturing of supply management as a scholarly discipline," as research which appears in the Journal is progressively more deductive in nature, and is using more advanced methodologies to test and develop theory.
In order to better understand the fields from which these scholarly citations originated, the authors next performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance ). Here, the independent variable was the 5-year time period and the dependent variables were the proportion of citations for each of the twelve categories of scholarly journals listed in Table II (accounting, economics, finance, legal-scholarly, logistics and transportation, management, marketing, OM/OR, psychology, purchasing, sociology and other-scholarly). The results of the MANOVA are presented in Table IV.
The Wilk's Lambda, Pillai's Trace, Hotelling-Lawley Trace and Roy's Greatest Root test statistics were all significant at p < 0.0001, leading to a rejection of the null hypothesis null hypothesis,
n theoretical assumption that a given therapy will have results not statistically different from another treatment.
n that there is no overall difference in the percentage of citations for each discipline across the eight time periods. An examination of the individual ANOVAs for the scholarly disciplines, adjusted for [alpha] inflation (Flynn, Sakakibara, Schroeder, Bates Bates , Katherine Lee 1859-1929.
American educator and writer best known for her poem "America the Beautiful," written in 1893 and revised in 1904 and 1911. and Flynn 1990), indicated significant differences across time periods in the case of logistics and transportation (p<0.0001), management (p < 0.0001), marketing (p < 0.01), OM/OR (p < 0.05) and supply management (p < 0.001) citations.
Duncan's range test was then used to investigate specific differences in the proportion of citations for each of these scholarly disciplines across time periods ([alpha]=0.05). These results, which are also displayed in Table IV, suggest a significant increase in the proportion of citations in the last five to 10 years from the fields of logistics and transportation, management and marketing. In addition, the proportion of citations from the OM/OR arena are significantly greater in periods 3 (1975-79) and periods 5-8 (1985-2004) than periods 1 and 2 (1965-74) and period 4 (1980-84). Finally, the proportion of citations from the field of Purchasing and Supply Purchasing and Supply can have several different definitions. According to the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) , purchasing is defined as a major function of an organization that is responsible for acquisition of required materials, services, and equipment. Management increased between period 1 (1965-69) and periods 2-5 (1970-89), increased again in period 6 (1990-94) and decreased in the final two periods (1995-2004).
It is not surprising to find an increase in the proportion of scholarly supply management citations after period 1, as most of these citations would have come from the Journal, and a period of five or even 10 years may be needed for a journal to establish a "critical mass" of knowledge and findings before researchers begin to cite these publications (Phillips et al. 1999). The peak in the proportion of supply management citations in period 6, followed by a decline in periods 7 and 8, can be explained by the corresponding increases in the proportion of citations from the fields of logistics and transportation, management, marketing and OM/OR. These trends correspond to the increased emphasis on a broader view of supply chain management (Mentzer, DeWitt, Keebler, Min, Nix, Smith and Zacharia 2001), and a shift from purchasing to a more holistic view of supply management (Burt, Dobler and Starling starling, any of a group of originally Old World birds that have become distributed worldwide. Starlings were brought to New York in 1890; since then the common starling (Sturnus vulgaris) has spread throughout North America. 2003; Leenders, Johnson, Flynn and Fearon 2005) and the role of supply management within the broader supply chain (Carter 1999).
Research Objective 3: Cited Articles from the Journal
An ANOVA was next performed to examine whether the proportion of citations from within the Journal changed significantly over time. The dependent variable consisted of the average proportion of citations per issue from 1965-2004. As with the prior analyses, the independent variable was operationalized by the 5-year time periods. However unlike the prior analyses, the first 5-year time period (1965-69) was omitted from the analysis in order to allow a sufficient period of time for the generation of an adequate knowledge base within the Journal (Phillips et al. 1999). The results of the ANOVA, displayed in Table V, suggest that there are significant, overall differences in the proportion of citations from the Journal across the time periods (p=0.0199). The results from the multiple comparison testing, displayed at the bottom of the table, show that there were a significantly greater proportion of citations from within the Journal during period 6 (18.66 percent) as compared with all of the periods, and that there were a significantly greater proportion of citations from within the Journal during period 4 (16.02 percent) as compared with period 5 (10.62 percent).
These analyses show that the percent of citations from within the Journal peaked during the 1990-94 time period, and thereafter decreased significantly. This finding is in line with the earlier analyses, which showed that the percent of citations from supply management scholarly journals peaked during the same sixth, 1990-94 time period and decreased significantly thereafter. At the same time, citations from management, marketing and logistics and transportation journals increased significantly after time period 6. Together, these findings suggest that the supply management field is beginning to draw from broader bases of literature, much as the field of supply chain management has evolved into a more encompassing, multi-disciplinary perspective. Similarly, the Journal has broadened its focus beyond purchasing to supply chain management (Carter 1999). While the emphasis of the Journal is still on the supply management side, articles which highlight broader supply chain management content have begun to appear (e.g., Ellram, Tate and Billington 2004).
Research Objective 4a: University Contributions to the Journal
The examination of those universities that have contributed the most to the thought leadership of the Journal began with a simple tabulation of the institutional affiliation of authors whose work has been published in the Journal. Consistent with Carter, Vellenga, Gentry and Allen (2005) and Vellenga, Allen and Riley (1981), in the case of an article with more than one author, the academic institution of each author was credited with an article. A total of 443 institutional affiliations were represented over the 40-year time period. Table VI displays the top-25 most prolific universities, in terms of the absolute number of publications that have appeared in the Journal between 1965 and 2004. Arizona State University Arizona State University, at Tempe; coeducational; opened 1886 as a normal school, became 1925 Tempe State Teachers College, renamed 1945 Arizona State College at Tempe. Its present name was adopted in 1958. (ASU ASU Arizona State University (Tempe, AZ)
ASU Appalachian State University
ASU Arkansas State University
ASU Angelo State University
ASU Alabama State University
ASU Australian Services Union ) and Michigan State University Michigan State University, at East Lansing; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855. It opened in 1857 as Michigan Agricultural College, the first state agricultural college. (MSU MSU Michigan State University
MSU Mississippi State University
MSU Montana State University
MSU Minnesota State University
MSU Morehead State University (Kentycky)
MSU Montclair State University ) are by far the most prolific universities with 119 and 104 publications, respectively; afterwards, the number of publications for those universities ranked third through 23rd drop sharply. Both ASU and MSU have had strong supply management programs at the undergraduate, masters and PhD levels for many years, and thus these results are not particularly surprising. Many of the other universities appearing in Table VI have strong logistics and supply chain management curricula at the undergraduate through doctoral levels (e.g., The Ohio State University Ohio State University, main campus at Columbus; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1870, opened 1873 as Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, renamed 1878. There are also campuses at Lima, Mansfield, Marion, and Newark. ) or strong undergraduate supply management courses of study (e.g., Bowling Green State University Bowling Green State University, at Bowling Green, Ohio; coeducational; chartered 1910 as a normal school, opened 1914. It became a college in 1929, a university in 1935. ).
While the findings displayed in Table VI offer a tangible measure of output from these universities, the data do not afford a complete picture of the impact that this research has had within the field of supply management. To provide further insights about the citation network and the diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes. of knowledge and thought leadership, the authors next performed an SNA.
Research Objective 4c: A Further Examination of University Thought Leadership
SNA is a powerful methodology for describing and analyzing the interrelationships among a group of actors within a network. These actors can be people within organizations, or the organizations themselves, and the relationships can include, for example, liking, trust and the exchange of information and goods among actors (Scott 2000). SNA therefore manifests the linkages among nodes, called actors, within a network.
Most of the existing interorganizational SNA research is found in the field of strategic management, where researchers have investigated the interrelationships among organizations in a range of social networks, including supplier relationships (Dyer 1996), interlocking directorates interlocking directorates
Boards of directors of different firms that have one or more of the same people serving as directors. Interlocking directorates are illegal among competing firms. (e.g., Pettigrew 1992) and horizontal alliances (Nohria and Garcia-Pont 1991). The social network in which an organization is embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. can be thought of as a set of nonsubstitutable and inimitable in·im·i·ta·ble
Defying imitation; matchless.
[Middle English, from Latin inimit resources (e.g., Wernerfelt 1984; Barney 1991). Gulati (1999) refers to these network ties as "network resources" and Gulati, Nohria and Zaheer (2000) propose that the capacity of a firm to use key resources through its network of strategic alliances can permit the organization to strengthen its competitive advantage. Finally, Hite and Hesterly (2001) provide a treatment of the means by which networks and organizations within networks evolve over time.
In the case of this study's application of SNA to a citation analysis, the actors are the academic institutions represented by the articles published in the Journal, and the relationships consist of citations by authors with various university affiliations of other authors at universities which have appeared in the Journal. For example, if an author from University A published an article in the Journal, and cited an article which had appeared in the Journal that was written by an author at University B, then the two nodes in this network would be University A and University B, and the link would be a unidirectional arrow from University A to University B. Similarly, if an author from University C cited the work of an author from University B which had appeared in the Journal, then another unidimensional link would be formed between the nodes of University B and University C. These links and nodes, along with links and nodes from two additional example universities, are displayed in Figure 1. An adjacency matrix In mathematics and computer science, the adjacency matrix of a finite directed or undirected graph G on n vertices is the n × n matrix where the nondiagonal entry of the example sociogram is presented in Table VII, and displays the number of citations from and to each institution in the five-university illustration. This table shows that University A cited University B 15 times and University D four times, but did not cite any journal publications written by authors from Universities C or E; University B cited University A 16 times but did not cite Universities C, D or E; etc.
To examine the influence that universities have had within the citation network, the researchers measured network centrality in accordance with Leavit's (1951) conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: as the magnitude of participation of actors in a network, and Freeman's (1979) "degree" and "betweenness" dimensions of centrality. These dimensions of centrality have been widely accepted and adopted within the SNA research (Scott 2000). The authors use the illustration in Figure 1 and the corresponding adjacency matrix in Table VII to provide an example of how these dimensions of centrality are calculated.
The term "degree" is defined as the number of ties that an actor has to other actors in a network. An actor's degree can be calculated by adding the number of links between that actor and the other actors in a sociogram, or by adding the values within a row or column of an adjacency matrix. For the five-university example, University A would have a degree (referred to in SNA parlance Parlance - A concurrent language.
["Parallel Processing Structures: Languages, Schedules, and Performance Results", P.F. Reynolds, PhD Thesis, UT Austin 1979]. as "in-degree") of 23 (16 citations from University B, four from University C and three from University D) while University E would have a degree of 0, as no other university within the example network cited University E. The degree values of the remaining three universities in the example network are shown in column 2 of Table VIII.
In a social network, "betweenness" is defined as the number of paths that pass through an actor on the shortest paths connecting two other actors. From the standpoint of diffusion of knowledge, an actor (university) with high betweenness centrality has greater influence in that it can serve as a de facto [Latin, In fact.] In fact, in deed, actually.
This phrase is used to characterize an officer, a government, a past action, or a state of affairs that must be accepted for all practical purposes, but is illegal or illegitimate. liaison between isolated areas of the network (Ronchetto et al. 1989). Freeman's (1979) measure of betweenness binarizes the values in an adjacency matrix (e.g., values are equal to 0 or 1) in order to calculate the number of paths that pass through an actor. In the example network, University A is between Universities B and D, C and D and E and D (via University B), and has a betweenness score of three as shown in column 3 of Table VIII; University B is between Universities E and A, and E and D (via University A), and has a betweenness score of two; Universities C, D and E are not between any pairs of the other universities, and have betweenness scores of zero.
SNA of the Journal of Supply Chain Management
The authors began their SNA by examining the Journal's citation network for the full, 40-year period of 1965-2004. The adjacency matrix of the 443 institutional affiliations in this citation network was created from the Access database, and entered into UCINET 6--an SNA software package (Borgatti, Everett and Freeman 2002)--to calculate the measures of degree and betweenness for each institution in the matrix. In accordance with existing SNA research (e.g., Brass 1984; Borgatti et al. 2002), the degree and betweenness measures were normalized. Such normalization In relational database management, a process that breaks down data into record groups for efficient processing. There are six stages. By the third stage (third normal form), data are identified only by the key field in their record. is particularly valuable as it allows for valid comparisons across social networks of different sizes (Freeman 1979). The researchers found a very strong, positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation between normalized degree and normalized betweenness (r=0.9580, p < 0.0001). The results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA EFA
essential fatty acid. ) indicated that these two measures loaded highly on a single factor that explained 97.9 percent of the variance. Thus, following the lead of earlier researchers who have used these measures, the authors calculated the sum of the measures of the normalized degree and normalized betweenness values to create a single, aggregate measure of centrality (Carter et al. 2007; Ronchetto et al. 1989). These measures of centrality ranged from 0 to 0.1441.
The top 25 universities and their aggregate centrality scores for the 1965-2004 time period are displayed in columns one and two of Table IX. While many of these universities are also represented in the top 25 universities by publication (Table VI), there are five universities which are displayed in Table IX but not found in Table VI: Louisiana State University Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. , Oklahoma State University Oklahoma State University, at Stillwater; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1890, opened 1891 as Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, renamed 1957. , University of Texas, University of Illinois University of Illinois may refer to:
The University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) is a public, coeducational university located in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, known for its programs in History, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Hotel . A more in-depth analysis revealed that these five universities had not only high degree (the extent to which a university is directly cited by other universities) but also high betweenness, meaning that these universities lay between the citation paths of other universities within the network. In addition, approximately half of the universities displayed in Table VI are not present in Table IX; while the University of Wisconsin was ranked 12th in terms of the number of publications appearing in the Journal over the 40-year time period, its centrality score was ranked 62nd. These findings suggest that institutional thought leadership is derived not simply through a large number of publications, but rather by dissemination dissemination Medtalk The spread of a pernicious process–eg, CA, acute infection Oncology Metastasis, see there of that research by being centrally positioned within a citation network.
Figure 2 presents a sociogram of those top 25 universities displayed in Table IX. While universities like ASU, MSU, Western Michigan University Western Michigan University, at Kalamazoo, Mich.; coeducational; founded in 1903 as Western State Normal School, became accredited in 1927 as a college, gained university status in 1957. and Bowling Green State University are "in the thick of things" with many arrows leading into these universities, other schools such as the University of Oklahoma University of Oklahoma, abbreviated OU, is a coeducational public research university located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. appear to be more on the fringes of the network with only one arrow leading into that university. It is important to reiterate however that for purposes of parsimony par·si·mo·ny
1. Unusual or excessive frugality; extreme economy or stinginess.
2. Adoption of the simplest assumption in the formulation of a theory or in the interpretation of data, especially in accordance with the rule of , the sociogram only displays the paths among the top-25 universities (a sociogram with all 443 universities would have been almost uninterpretable if printed on an 8 1/2 by 11 in. page of paper). Thus most nodes appearing in Figure 2 have a significantly larger number of arrows leading from and into those universities than are shown in the figure. The University of Oklahoma, for example, is cited by six additional schools that are not shown in Figure 2, while ASU is cited by a total of 42 institutions. Thus these universities are not only embedded within the more concentrated, "top-25" network displayed in Figure 2, but also play key connective connective - An operator used in logic to combine two logical formulas. See first order logic. roles in the dissemination of knowledge across the full citation network consisting of all 443 cited and citing universities for the 40-year time period.
The authors next subjected the citation data to sub-period analyses, in order to examine longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. changes that might have occurred over the 40-year time period. Consistent with Phillips et al. (1999, p. 204), the first 10 years of the time period were not considered for inclusion in this longitudinal analysis, in order to avoid, "the irregularities that might occur during a journal's initial years of publication." Following Phillips et al. (1999) the authors also chose to examine multi-year time intervals to avoid the biasing effects of short-term fluctuations within a single issue or volume of the Journal. Five-year intervals were chosen to be consistent with the earlier analyses from this study, and the work of Carter and Ellram (2003). The authors further chose to examine three separate sub-periods to provide a reasonable but not overwhelming longitudinal contrast: period 4 (1980-84), period 6 (1990-94) and period 8 (2000-04). These periods were chosen rather than data from periods 3, 5 and 7 because: (1) the analyses presented in the earlier sections of this paper often showed significant differences between periods 7 and 8 versus earlier periods, and (2) period 6 had a higher proportion of citations from within the Journal as opposed to earlier and later periods, and the researchers wanted to include data from this time period in the longitudinal analyses.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The same methodology as described above was used to calculate the centrality rankings for the three sub-periods. The results of these sub-period analyses are shown in columns three through five of Table IX. These results display some interesting changes in the structure of the Journal's citation network over time. First, while ASU and MSU have been highly central in the network across the three sub-periods, MSU appears to have become more central over time. Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , ASU has become somewhat less central, yielding its top-ranked position to MSU in the final sub-period. It will be interesting to see the changes that might occur in another 10 years, given the recent movement of supply management faculty away from ASU and MSU.
Second, while the top eight ranked schools from the full, 40-year time period also appear in the 1990-94 and 2000-04 time periods, 12 of the universities which are ranked in the top-25 for the 1965-2004 time period do not appear in the top-25 for the 2000-04 time period. Many of the new entrants to the top-25 for the 2000-04 time period are schools which have had traditional logistics curricula that have been broadened to supply chain management programs, including Auburn University Auburn University, main campus at Auburn, Ala.; land-grant and state supported; opened 1859 as East Alabama Male College, reorganized 1872 as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama; became coeducational 1892; renamed Alabama Polytechnic Institute 1899, , Iowa State University Academics
ISU is best known for its degree programs in science, engineering, and agriculture. ISU is also home of the world's first electronic digital computing device, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer. , University of British Columbia Locations
The Vancouver campus is located at Point Grey, a twenty-minute drive from downtown Vancouver. It is near several beaches and has views of the North Shore mountains. The 7. and University of Nevada, Las Vegas. In addition, two universities from outside of North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. , Copenhagen Business School Source: FT Business Education Rankings
Source:  MBA
CBS' MBA study program is not listed in the major rankings. External links
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. was ranked 5th, 47th and 44th for the 1980-84, 1990-94 and 2000-04 sub-periods, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
The authors found a significantly greater number of citations per article over time, particularly in the last 15 years of the 40-year time period under investigation. In addition, there were a significantly greater proportion of citations to scholarly journals during the 2000-04 time period as compared with earlier periods, and during the 1990-99 time period as compared with earlier periods. These results are in line with Carter and Ellram's (2003) findings of a maturing of supply management as a scholarly discipline and their call for more rigorous research in terms of theory and practice. Research that simply provides summary statistics may be more understandable by practitioners. However such research usually does not make significant contributions to a scholarly field of knowledge. Further, such inquiry often lacks richness and generally does not provide tangible take-aways for managers. Even research which uses inferential statistics inferential statistics
see inferential statistics. without a priori a priori
In epistemology, knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences, as opposed to a posteriori (or empirical) knowledge, which derives from experience. theory may not provide significant contributions to theory or practice, as this research can capitalize on Cap´i`tal`ize on`
v. t. 1. To turn (an opportunity) to one's advantage; to take advantage of (a situation); to profit from; as, to capitalize on an opponent's mistakes s>. chance when such post hoc analyses are performed (Kerlinger 1986; Flynn et al. 1990). Like Carter and Ellram, the authors advocate the need for even greater theoretical richness and methodological rigor rigor /rig·or/ (rig´er) [L.] chill; rigidity.
rigor mor´tis the stiffening of a dead body accompanying depletion of adenosine triphosphate in the muscle fibers. of research that is published in the Journal in the future.
While books (27.09 percent of total), scholarly management journals (11.70 percent of total), scholarly supply management journals (12.88 percent of total) and trade publications (10.32 percent of total) comprised the majority of the categories of citations found within the Journal over the 40-year period, there was significant change over this time period in the extant ex·tant
1. Still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct: extant manuscripts.
2. Archaic Standing out; projecting. theory and findings that journal contributors relied upon in developing and interpreting their research. Specifically, work which has been published in last 5-10 years of the 40-year time period has cited existing research from the fields of logistics and transportation, management and marketing to a significantly greater extent than in earlier periods, and the proportion of citations from OM/OR journals are significantly greater from 1985-2004 than in most of the earlier time periods. Conversely, the proportion of citations from scholarly supply management journals, and in particular from the Journal, reached a peak during the 1990-94 time period, and then declined during the 1995-99 and 2000-04 time periods. As was suggested earlier, these findings are consistent with the increased emphasis on a more encompassing view of supply chain management (Mentzer et al. 2001), and a shift from purchasing to a more holistic paradigm of supply management (Burt et al. 2003; Leenders et al. 2005) along with an integration of supply management within the broader supply chain (Carter 1999). In addition, the 11.27 percent of citations from within the Journal during the 2000-04 time period is largely in line with the within-journal citations of top publication outlets of other fields. For example, a review of the 2004 issues of the Journal of Operations Management Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. and the Journal of Marketing revealed average within-journal citations of 10.12 percent and 14.41 percent, respectively.
Our use of SNA to examine the citation network within the Journal suggests that while there is a relationship between the number of published articles and network centrality, this is not a one-to-one relationship. Fourteen of the 30 universities which are ranked in the top-25 for the aggregate number of articles across the 1965-2004 time period (Table VI) are not ranked among in the top-25 institutions based on citation network centrality for the same 40-year time period (Table IX). Further, six of the universities displayed in Table VI are not included in the top-25 ranked universities for any of the sub-periods shown in Table IX. Thus SNA provides a more in-depth examination of which universities provide thought leadership. Universities which are more centrally located within the Journal's citation network are more influential in terms of disseminating dis·sem·i·nate
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates
1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.
2. their knowledge to researchers at other schools. Future research might extend these current findings by examining the potential effect that a university's Journal ranking Static Journal Ranking
Journal ranking is widely used in academic circles in the evaluation of a journal's impact. Although there are several websites that release rankings of journals in specific areas of research, their audiences have only static access to ranking reports. system has on submissions to the Journal and on citations to the Journal by supply management scholars. In addition, researchers might examine how the presence of a doctoral program at a university may affect network centrality.
The Journal is being repositioned to not only "be THE journal of choice for A-level manuscripts in the supply chain field," but also to gain, "A-level status ... from top-tier academic institutions globally" (Email Correspondence, Institute for Supply Management[TM] 2006). As such, future research appearing in the Journal will need to be even more deductive and theoretically based than in the past, or use appropriate inductive inductive
1. eliciting a reaction within an organism.
a form of radiofrequency hyperthermia that selectively heats muscle, blood and proteinaceous tissue, sparing fat and air-containing tissues. , grounded theory approaches to develop new supply management theory. All of this means that the trends that were identified in this paper, including an increase in the proportion of scholarly citations, and an increased emphasis on the broader view of the supply chain in terms of the subdisciplines which are cited, will likely continue in the future. In addition, as the quality of research appearing in the Journal continues to improve, it is probable that the proportion of citations to the Journal will increase in the future. Further, as the Journal is repositioned to surpass its current status as the top-tier supply management journal, to become an A-level, general business scholarly Journal, we will likely see new entrants into future sub-period citation networks representing additional top-tier business schools.
The introduction and application of SNA in this paper also provides numerous additional avenues for future research. First, managers can use SNA to map the interactions of the members within their supply management organizations. This is particularly important, as much of the work that occurs within an organization is only partially reflected in formal organizational charts (Cross, Borgatti and Parker 2002). Further, while, "managers may be able to diagram accurately the social links of the five or six people closest to them, their assumptions about employees outside their immediate circle are usually off the mark" (Krackhardt and Hanson 2000, p. 104). SNA is a powerful tool that can allow managers to identify the most central personnel within their organizations--those who act as central connectors, boundary spanners and information brokers (Cross and Prusak 2002). It is these personnel whom managers should closely cultivate and oversee (Interview 2005).
Researchers could similarly use SNA to map the interactions of supply management personnel to better understand relationships such as those between personal attributes and positions within an informal social network of a supply management organization, and centrality within a network and an employee's influence and power. Researchers might also employ theory from organizational design and structure (Thompson 1967; Van de Ven, Delbecq and Koenig 1976; Mintzberg 1979) to compare formal structure, as represented by organizational charts, to informal social networks with the goal of better understanding the manner and effectiveness by which the supply management function is organized (Johnson and Leenders 2005).
Second, SNA could be used to examine more expansive, supply chain phenomena. From a managerial standpoint, organizations could apply SNA to map their upstream supply networks, as was executed on a smaller scale by Choi and Hong (2002). For example, a buying organization could include all of its key first-tier suppliers in the network, perhaps based on a criterion such as purchase volume or strategic importance. In turn, these first-tier suppliers could be asked to identify their key suppliers, based on the same criterion. By mapping this upstream supply chain network, the buying organization would be in a position to identify and perhaps consolidate the spend of its first tier suppliers in order to negotiate volume discounts. Researchers might also model an organization's supplier network to examine the horizontal linkages among first tier suppliers, with the goal of better understanding the diffusion of technology within an organization's supply base (Rogers and Shoemaker 1971).
There are several avenues for future research applications of SNA to the broader supply chain. SNA might be used to better understand how firms manage their supplier relationships from a portfolio perspective. For example, Uzzi (1996, 1997) proposed that firms can enhance their long-term competitiveness by developing interorganizational networks that include both collaborative and arm's length relationships. Researchers could extend Uzzi's work by investigating the potential relationship between the composition of governance structure portfolios within supplier networks and supply management performance. Researchers could also consider how collaborative, existing relationships within a supply management network could improve or conversely constrain con·strain
tr.v. con·strained, con·strain·ing, con·strains
1. To compel by physical, moral, or circumstantial force; oblige: felt constrained to object. See Synonyms at force.
2. , performance by limiting the ability of the buying organization to establish new supplier relationships.
Finally, researchers could extend extant findings regarding key interorganizational constructs such as trust (Smeltzer 1997), commitment (Kwon and Suh 2004), conflict (Morris and Carter 2005), opportunism Opportunism
squire’s wife matchmakes with money in mind. [Br. Lit.: Doctor Thorne]
shrewdly and unscrupulously becomes merchant prince. [Yiddish Lit. (Moore 1998) and communication (Claycomb and Frankwick 2004), to a network perspective. Once an upstream supply chain network has been mapped, the examination of the relationships among constructs could be considered across organizations. Uzzi (1996), for example, found that on an interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. level, a manager in one organization who maintained links to two managers in two separate organizations would act as a go-between and help to create direct trust between these two separate managers. Researchers could similarly examine the relationships between linked suppliers in a supplier network along the above constructs, to better understand how such supplier-supplier relationships might impact buyer-supplier relationships. Researchers could thus apply SNA to extend the current unit of analysis within supply management research beyond a single firm, or even a dyad dyad /dy·ad/ (di´ad) a double chromosome resulting from the halving of a tetrad.
1. Two individuals or units regarded as a pair, such as a mother and a daughter.
2. , to a network. It is the hope of the authors that this paper will stimulate supply management research that uses this more holistic, network paradigm.
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Craig R. Carter is an associate professor of supply chain management in the college of business administration at the University of Nevada University of Nevada could refer to either of the universities in the Nevada System of Higher Education:
Rudolf Leuschner is a doctoral student in the Fisher College Fisher College - Formerly known as Fisher Junior College, also known as The Fish or The Fishbowl, is a two-year college located in Boston, Massachusetts. It was founded in 1903 as a girls-only business school. of Business at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio Columbus is the capital and the largest city of the American state of Ohio. Named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, and assumed the functions of state capital in 1816. .
Dale S. Rogers is a professor of logistics and supply chain management and Director, Center for Logistics Management at the University of Nevada in Reno, Nevada.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of David Schultz There are a number of articles with the title Dave, or David Schultz:
Table I MEAN NUMBER OF CITATIONS PER ARTICLE Analysis of Variance (a) Sum of Mean Source DF Squares Square F Value p > F Model 7 17,246 2464 66.07 < 0.0001 Error 148 5,519 37 Corrected total 155 22,765 [R.sup.2]: 0.7576 Coefficient of variation: 43.9507 Root MSR: 6.1065 Mean number of citations per article: 13.89 Time Period Mean Duncan's Grouping* (8) 2000-04 39.47 A (7) 1995-99 21.78 B (6) 1990-94 12.95 C (5) 1985-89 8.85 D (4) 1980-84 7.70 D (3) 1975-79 5.26 D (2) 1970-74 7.65 D (1) 1965-69 8.16 D (a) Dependent variable = average number of citations per issue. Independent variable = 5-year time period where 1 = 1965-69, 2 = 1970-74, 3 = 1975-79, 4 = 1980-84, 5 = 1985-89, 6 = 1990-94, 7 = 1995-99, 8 = 2000-04. *Differences noted at a significance level of p < 0.05. Table II CITATIONS BY CATEGORY Total 1965-2004 1965-69 1970-74 1975-79 Category (%) (%) (%) (%) Accounting 0.62 0.00 0.66 0.17 Book 27.09 38.07 38.17 32.35 Business periodical 3.05 2.49 3.96 3.29 Conference proceedings 2.21 2.71 0.88 4.15 Dissertation 1.09 1.30 2.09 2.42 Economics 1.15 1.95 0.77 0.35 Finance 0.17 0.00 0.22 0.17 Legal 2.32 8.79 7.04 7.79 Legal -- Scholarly 0.24 1.30 0.11 0.35 Logistics and 3.16 0.22 0.00 0.35 transportation Management 11.70 3.80 6.71 6.40 Marketing 6.88 1.08 2.97 5.02 OM/OR 6.30 1.41 1.76 3.81 Other 2.12 5.97 1.87 4.15 Other -- scholarly 1.55 1.19 0.55 0.35 Psychology 1.38 1.95 1.76 0.52 Purchasing 12.88 1.84 11.77 11.42 Report 4.32 10.85 3.85 3.63 Report -- website 0.39 0.00 0.00 0.00 Sociology 0.49 0.33 0.33 0.17 Trade publication 10.32 14.75 14.30 12.28 Working paper 0.59 0.00 0.22 0.87 1980-84 1985-89 1990-94 1995-99 2000-04 Category (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Accounting 0.00 0.12 0.85 0.90 0.81 Book 30.21 28.81 22.58 25.14 22.62 Business periodical 4.81 3.12 3.46 3.15 2.26 Conference proceedings 2.01 2.64 3.07 2.21 1.66 Dissertation 0.94 1.32 1.37 0.82 0.58 Economics 0.40 0.84 0.65 0.78 1.89 Finance 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.04 0.41 Legal 2.94 0.60 0.65 1.52 0.03 Legal -- Scholarly 0.40 0.00 0.07 0.16 0.12 Logistics and 1.20 0.36 0.85 4.18 6.65 transportation Management 9.09 7.68 11.81 15.19 15.04 Marketing 4.95 6.00 5.35 8.11 10.22 OM/OR 4.28 6.60 7.51 5.65 9.52 Other 4.14 1.32 1.63 2.25 0.70 Other -- scholarly 0.80 0.72 2.28 1.76 2.00 Psychology 2.27 1.80 1.11 1.19 1.22 Purchasing 16.31 12.24 19.13 12.61 13.18 Report 3.88 5.64 4.63 3.89 2.76 Report -- website 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.90 0.64 Sociology 0.40 0.84 0.13 0.61 0.64 Trade publication 10.03 17.89 11.81 8.31 6.74 Working paper 0.94 1.32 1.04 0.61 0.32 Table III MEAN PROPORTION OF CITATIONS FROM SCHOLARLY JOURNALS Analysis of Variance (a) Sum of Mean Source DF Squares Square F Value p > F Model 7 2.8477 0.4068 27.47 < 0.0001 Error 148 2.1917 0.0148 Corrected total 155 5.0395 [R.sup.2]: 0.5651 Coefficient of variation: 31.6706 Root MSR: 0.1217 Mean proportion of citations from scholarly journals: 38.42% Time Period Mean Duncan Grouping* (8) 2000-04 59.83% A (7) 1995-99 50.90% B (6) 1990-94 48.69% B (4) 1980-84 38.20% C (5) 1985-89 35.72% C D (3) 1975-79 29.36% D (2) 1970-74 27.88% D (1) 1965-69 15.37% E (a) Dependent variable = average proportion of citations from the journal per issue. Independent variable = 5-year time period where 1 = 1965-69, 2 = 1970-74, 3 = 1975-79, 4 = 1980-84, 5 = 1985-89, 6 = 1990-94, 7 = 1995-99, 8 = 2000-04. *Differences noted at a significance level of p < 0.05. Table IV RESULTS OF MANOVA: CATEGORIES OF SCHOLARLY JOURNALS BY TIME PERIOD Numerator Denominator Statistic Value F Value DF DF p > F Wilks' lambda 0.1458 3.72 84 847.07 < 0.0001 Pillai's trace 1.3753 2.91 84 1,001 < 0.0001 Hotelling-lawley 3.0338 4.89 84 562.35 < 0.0001 Roy's greatest 2.1485 25.60 12 143 < 0.0001 root Results of Duncan's range test* Logistics and transportation: Period 8 > Period 7 > Periods 1-6 Management: Periods 7 and 8 > Period 6 > Periods 2-5 > Period 1 Marketing: Period 8 > Periods 3-7 > Periods 1-2 OM/OR: Periods 8, 7, 6, 5, 3 > Periods 1, 2, 4 Purchasing/supply management: Period 6 > Periods 2-5 and 7, 8 > Period 1 *Duncan's range test was performed for statistically significant, univariate analysis of variances (p < 0.05, adjusted for [alpha] inflation). Period 1 = 1965-69, Period 2 = 1970-74, Period 3 = 1975-79, Period 4 = 1980-84, Period 5 = 1985-89, Period 6 = 1990-94, Period 7 = 1995-99, Period 8 = 2000-04. Table V MEAN PROPORTION OF CITATIONS FROM THE JOURNAL Analysis of Variance (a) Sum of Mean Source DF Squares Square F Value p > F Model 6 0.1009 0.0168 2.62 0.0199 Error 130 0.8361 0.0064 Corrected total 136 0.9370 [R.sup.2]: 0.1077 Coefficient of variation: 59.97 Root MSR: 0.0802 Mean proportion of citations from the Journal: 13.37% Time Period Mean (%) Duncan Grouping* (6) 1990-94 18.66 A (4) 1980-84 16.02 B (7) 1995-99 13.06 B C (2) 1970-74 12.37 B C (3) 1975-79 11.49 B C (8) 2000-04 11.27 B C (5) 1985-89 10.62 C (a) Dependent variable = average proportion of citations from the Journal per issue. Independent variable = 5-year time period where 1 = 1965-69, 2 = 1970-74, 3 = 1975-79, 4 = 1980-84, 5 = 1985-89, 6 = 1990-94, 7 = 1995-99, 8 = 2000-04. *Differences noted at a significance level of p < 0.05. Table VI NUMBER OF ARTICLES BY INSTITUION: 1965-2004 University Number of Articles (Rank) Arizona State University 119 (1) Michigan State University 104 (2) Bowling Green State University 26 (3) The Ohio State University 23 (4) Pennsylvania State University 21 (5) Western Michigan University 20 (6) University of Arkansas 20 (6) Florida State University 17 (8) Indiana University 17 (8) University of Oklahoma 17 (8) University of Minnesota 16 (11) University of Wisconsin 15 (12) University of Maryland 14 (13) Harvard University 12 (14) University of Georgia 12 (14) University of Western Ontario 12 (14) Auburn University 12 (14) Air Force Institute of Technology 12 (14) University of Bath 11 (19) University of North Florida 11 (19) George Washington University 11 (19) Virginia Tech 10 (22) Stanford University 9 (23) University of Birmingham 9 (23) University of Michigan 9 (23) Lehigh University 9 (23) Clemson University 9 (23) University of Cincinnati 9 (23) Old Dominion University 9 (23) University of Pennsylvania 9 (23) Table VII EXAMPLE ADJACENCY MATRIX OF FIVE UNIVERSITY CITATION NETWORK University University University University University A B C D E University A 15 0 4 0 University B 16 0 0 0 University C 4 5 0 0 University D 3 3 0 0 University E 0 3 0 0 Table VIII MEASURES OF CENTRALITY FOR FIVE UNIVERSITY CITATION MATRIX Actor (University) Degree Betweenness University A 23.0000 3.0000 University B 26.0000 2.0000 University C 0.0000 0.0000 University D 4.0000 0.0000 University E 0.0000 0.0000 Table IX INSTITUTIONAL THOUGHT LEADERSHIP: CENTRALITY WITHIN THE CITATION NETWORK Centrality Centrality Centrality Centrality (Ranking) (Ranking) (Ranking) (Ranking) University 1965-2004 1980-84 1990-94 2000-04 Arizona State 0.1441 (1) 0.1059 (1) 0.1431 (1) 0.1120 (2) University Michigan 0.1329 (2) 0.0686 (3) 0.1429 (2) 0.1592 (1) State University Western 0.0358 (3) N/R 0.0676 (3) 0.0264 (4) Michigan University Bowling Green 0.0252 (4) N/R 0.0291 (4) 0.0202 (7) State University The Ohio 0.0244 (5) 0.0368 (11) 0.0031 (23) 0.0166 (8) State University University of 0.0203 (6) 0.0476 (7) 0.0044 (17) 0.0394 (3) Maryland George 0.0195 (7) N/R 0.0095 (13) 0.0134 (9) Washington University University of 0.0191 (8) 0.0537 (6) 0.0037 (21) 0.0043 (19) Minnesota University of 0.0140 (9) 0.0174 (16) N/R N/R Arkansas Louisiana 0.0123 (10) 0.0320 (13) 0.0113 (12) N/R State University Oklahoma 0.0112 (11) N/R N/R 0.0241 (5) State University Indiana 0.0107 (12) N/R N/R N/R University University of 0.0103 (13) 0.0555 (5) N/R N/R North Carolina University of 0.0098 (14) 0.0398 (9) 0.0025 (24) N/R Nebraska Pennsylvania 0.0092 (15) 0.0099 (20) 0.0159 (8) N/R State University University of 0.0090 (16) 0.0190 (15) 0.0131 (10) N/R Georgia University of 0.0087 (17) 0.0596 (4) N/R N/R Texas University of 0.0084 (18) 0.0822 (2) N/R N/R Illinois Florida State 0.0081 (19) 0.0040 (25) N/R 0.0078 (10) University Harvard 0.0072 (20) 0.0389 (10) N/R N/R University University of 0.0072 (21) N/R 0.0092 (14) 0.0050 (15) Toledo University of 0.0066 (22) N/R N/R 0.0238 (6) Nevada, Las Vegas Purdue 0.0060 (23) N/R N/R N/R University University of 0.0059 (24) N/R N/R N/R Oklahoma University of 0.0058 (25) N/R N/R 0.0030 (25) North Florida Size of 443 85 147 201 network (number of university) N/R, not ranked in the top-25 for the sub-period.