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A simulation model for cement production.

Introduction

Cement in the general sense of the word, can be described as a material with adhesive and cohesive properties, which make it capable of bonding mineral fragment into a compact whole. This definition embraces a large variety of cementing materials Joseph (1824) patented the Portland cement and defined it as cement obtained by intimately heating a mixture of calcareous and argillaceous, or other silica-, iron oxide bearing materials together.

The historical perspective of cement use shows that the use of cementing material is one of the oldest engineering industry,starting from the ancient Romans when they made use of Volcanic ash and burnt marble and later learned to add lime and water, sand and crushed stone to produce cement for their roads bridges and buildings(Neville,1997).

In the developed countries, the cement industry has only recently recognized that it must transform its operations to meet the present day technological advancements. This can be accomplished only by infusing the micro processor--based computer systems into the basic fabrics of its business. Traditionally, the development and evaluation of cement production were accomplished subjectively by the usual or manual process and template manipulation (Sule, 1988), with the emergence of operation research and the use of digital computers and modeling, however more analytical--based procedures were applied in cement industries. This trend culminated in what is now known as simulation. Law and Kelton (1991) defined systems modeling and simulation as a "non-destructive" and non-expensive" way of testing and seeing the reliability of actual day-to-day industrial, production and commercial activities.

With the rapid development of technological know-how in all sphere of profession throughout the country especially in the communication company, production industries e.g., it is pertinent that the production process of cement should not be left behind as the demand for the product increases by the day, hence the production process is improved upon technologically by developing a model using a multipurpose computer based software known as JAVA.

Objectives of The Paper

The objectives of this paper are to:

1 model cement production process. 2 increase the production capacity of cement production 3 evaluate the benefits derived for using a model as an aid in production.

Research Methodology

The approach to this paper entails the development of user-friendly computer software (JAVA), a multipurpose computer programming language with regards to production statistics.

Visits to some cement manufacturing companies and computer programmers in Nigeria as well as on-line research on international companies were embarked upon. Intensive study and analysis of the manufacturing techniques adopted by different companies in cement production in order to establish manufacturing cost of cement were also carried out.

Project Significance

The successful execution of this paper will contribute to the knowledge of manufacturing engineers working in cement industries and computer aided design industries in Nigeria and to other countries in the world.

The simulation model for cement production will throw light on the fact that cement making industries in Nigeria can be developed upon for rapid development of indigenous technology in cement manufacturing industries.

Composition of Cement

Major Raw Materials For Cement Production

The major raw materials are Blasted Limestone, Crushed Limestone, Raw Meal, Gypsum, Red Alluvium, Clinker and Cake. Other raw materials needed for the cement production are:

--Coal for firming the kiln

--Sack for bagging

--Higher Explosive (HEX) for use in quarry

Cement Production Process

The process of manufacture of cement consists essentially of grinding the raw materials, mixing them intimately in certain proportion and burning the raw material in a large rotary kiln at a temperature of approximately 14000C,when the material sinters and partially fuses into balls known as clinker. The clinker is cooled and ground to a fine power, with some gypsum added, and the resulting product is the commercial Portland cement so widely used throughout the world.

Development of A Software Algorithm For Cement Production Process

The steps involved in the algorithm are as enumerated.

10 Start

15 Set up GUI application

20 Declare variable

25 Input explosive quality

30 Calculate available blasted limestone

35 calculate available crushed limestone

40 Calculates available raw meal

45 Calculate available clinker

50 Calculate available cake

55 Calculate available gypsum

60 Calculate available red-alluvium

65 Calculate expected blasted limestone

70 Calculate expected crushed limestone

75 Calculate expected raw meal

80 Calculate expected clinker

85 Calculate expected cake

90 Calculate expected gypsum

95 Calculate expected red-alluvium

100 Print available cement produced

105 Print expected cement produced

110 Input available crusher running hour

115 put available kiln running hour

120 Input available kiln running hour

125 input available roll press running hour

130 Input available cement mill running hour

135 Input available packer running hour

140 Input expected crusher running hour

145 Input expected kiln running hour

150 Input expected roll press running hour

155 Input expected cement mill running hour

160 Input expected packer-running hour

165 Print new available cement produced

170 Calculate raw material cost

175 Calculate labour cost

180 Calculate overhead cost

185 Calculate direct expenses

190 Calculate machine hour rate

195 Calculate manufacture cost for a bag of cement

200 Print manufacture cost for a bag of cement

205 Stop

Application Method For The Simulation Model

The method of applying the developed simulation model for the cement production process is as follows:

The user will have to edit cement ASC file and the interface is generated on the screen, the user will then have to enter the month and year of operation in their respective box after which the user will input the quantity of explosives available and required for that particular period to meet the production target. The user will then click on "Process", and automatically all other values for materials (available and expected) are displayed on the screen showing the expected quantity of cement and produced quantity of cement in bags for that period and simultaneously displaying the material limiting factor for that same period.

The user will also input the available and required machine running hour per period, clicking on "Process" will automatically display which of the machines will affect the optimum cement production for that particular period, note that the machine limitation will further reduce the quantity of cement produced under the "Quantity Produced", but does not affect the required or budgeted quantity of cement produced under the "Quantity Expected".

The beauty of the computer software developed is seen as it displays its result automatically and the ability of the machine limiting value to affect the quantity of cement produced which further affect optimum cement production.

Conclusion

With this type of simulation model, it is very easy and generates results quikly which hasten decision making process, and the quatity of cement produced is generated accurately bearing in mind the required raw materials and necessary machines at any giving period, and the time saved in the simulation process could be diverted for more production of cement.

Apart from saving time to produce cement, this model is more reliable, consistent and accurate compared to the existing process of producing cement.

The developed model is effective and accurate as it was able to forecast and generate the same output of cement at a very reduced time than that gathered from the manual method, these time saved in the production process could be diverted for more cement production therefore reducing the cost of production, this makes it more appealing and marketable.

Hence, from the investigation or research of this write-up, it can be justified that the simulation model is indeed a great tool that can be used to analyze, forecast and quickly project the achievement of optimum cement production in our industries

References

[1] Adejuyigbe, S.B., 2002, "CAD/CAM for Manufacturing. Topfun Publication," Nigeria

[2] Degarmo, A.B., 1988, "Materials and Processes in Manufacturing," Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.

[3] Dietel, P.J., 2003, "JAVA, How to Program," Prentice-Hall upper saddle River, New Jersey.

[4] Emory, S., 1984, "Computed Aided Manufacturing for Engineers," Prentice Hall international Inc. New-Delhi.

[5] Everret, C.K., 1993, "Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing," Prentice Hall international Inc. New-Delhi.

[6] Frederick, C.J., and James, H.B., 1983, "Cost and Optimization Engineering. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc. U.S.A.

[7] Groover, M.P., and Zimmers, E.W., 1984, "Automation, Production System and Computer Integrated Manufacturing,". Prentice Hall international Inc. Englewood cliff, New Jersey.

[8] Haslehurt, M., 1980, "Manufacturing Technology," Hazel Watson and Viney Ltd, Aylesbury, Bucks, London.

[9] Jain, R.K., 2001, "Production Technology," Khanna Publishers, new-Delhi India.

[10] Milner, D.A., and Vasiliou, V.C., 2002, "Production Management Process," Journal of Science and Technology research, 2 (1) Pp 21-24.

[11] Ronald O.P., 1993, "Computer Aided Manufacturing System," Prentice-Hall International Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

S.O. Ogbeide

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Ambrose Alli University,

P.M.B 14, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

E-mail: sammyogbes@yahoo.com
Table 1: Main compounds in cement

Name of compound       Oxide composition           Abbreviation

Tricalcium silicate    3CaO.Si[O.sub.2]            [C.sub.3]S

Dicalcium silicate     2CaO.Si[O.sub.2]            [C.sub.2]S
Tricalcium aluminate   3 CaO.[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]   [C.sub.3]A
Tetracalcium           4 CaO.A[L.sub.2][O.sub.3]   [C.sub.4]AF
  aluminoferrite       .[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]

Source: Neville (1997).

Table 2: Developed simulation model showing effect of limitations
on production level and manufacturing cost of cement for the month
of January.

WEST AFRICAN PORTLAND CEMENT PLC. EWEKORO WORKS.

                           MONTH OF OPERATION JANUARY

RAW MATERIAL NAMES          QTY PRODUCED   QTY EXPECTED
FACTOR

EXPLOSIVE (kg)                  5270           5270
LIMITING
BLASTED LIMESTONE (tones)      114069         114069
LIMITING
CRUSHED LIMESTONE (tones)      114067         114069
LIMITING
RAW MEAL (tones)               99186          99190
CLINKER (tones)                71274          71277
LIMITING
CAKE (tones)                   63720          71277
GYPSUM (tones)                  3888           4351
RED ALUVIUM (tones)             1875           2100
CEMENT IN BAGS                1389796        1554569

                                     YEAR 2004

RAW MATERIAL NAMES          LIMITING VALUE   LIMITING
FACTOR

EXPLOSIVE (kg)                   1.0         NOT
LIMITING
BLASTED LIMESTONE (tones)        1.0         NOT
LIMITING
CRUSHED LIMESTONE (tones)        1.0         NOT
LIMITING
RAW MEAL (tones)                 1.0         LIMITING
CLINKER (tones)                  1.0         NOT
LIMITING
CAKE (tones)                     0.89        LIMITING
GYPSUM (tones)                   0.89        LIMITING
RED ALUVIUM (tones)              0.89        LIMITING
CEMENT IN BAGS                   0.89        LIMITING

MACHINE NAME   AVAILABILITY (HOURS)   REQUIRED (HOURS)

CRUSHER                992                  992
RAW MILL               465                  465
KLIN                   589                  558
ROLL PRESS             388                  434
CEMENTMILL             496                  465
PACKER                 744                  744

MACHINE NAME   LIMITING VALUE   LIMITING FACTOR

CRUSHES             1.0         NOT LIMITING
RAWMILL             1.0         NOT LIMITING
KLIN               1.056        NOT LIMITING
ROLLPRESS          0.894        LIMITING
CEMENTMILL         1.067        NOT LIMITING
PACKER              1.0         NOT LIMITING

MACHINE NAME   COST DESCRIPTION       COST AMOUNT-

CRUSHES        DIRECT MATERIAL COST    348144711
RAWMILL        DIRECT LAB0UR COST      222766185
KLIN           DIRECT EXPENSES         262941835
ROLLPRESS      MACHINE HOUR RATE        4297588
CEMENTMILL     OVER HEAD COST          294606411
PACKER         COST PER UNIT BAG         677.93

Table 3: Manual method showing effect of limitations on production
level and manufacturing cost of cement for the month of January.

WEST AFRICAN PORTLAND CEMENT PLC. EWEKORO WORKS.

                           MONTH OF OPERATION JANUARY

RAW MATERIAL NAMES          QTY PRODUCED   QTY EXPECTED
FACTOR

EXPLOSIVE (kg)                  5270           5270
LIMITING
BLASTED LIMESTONE (tones)      114069         114069
LIMITING
CRUSHED LIMESTONE (tones)      114067         114069
LIMITING
RAW MEAL (tones)               99186          99190
CLINKER (tones)                71274          71277
LIMITING
CAKE (tones)                   63720          71277
GYPSUM (tones)                  3888           4351
RED ALUVIUM (tones)             1875           2100
CEMENT IN BAGS                1389796        1554569

                                     YEAR 2004

RAW MATERIAL NAMES          LIMITING VALUE   LIMITING
FACTOR

EXPLOSIVE (kg)                   1.0         NOT
LIMITING
BLASTED LIMESTONE (tones)        1.0         NOT
LIMITING
CRUSHED LIMESTONE (tones)        1.0         NOT
LIMITING
RAW MEAL (tones)                 1.0         LIMITING
CLINKER (tones)                  1.0         NOT
LIMITING
CAKE (tones)                     0.89        LIMITING
GYPSUM (tones)                   0.89        LIMITING
RED ALUVIUM (tones)              0.89        LIMITING
CEMENT IN BAGS                   0.89        LIMITING

MACHINE NAME   AVAILABILITY (HOURS)   REQUIRED (HOURS)

CRUSHER                992                  992
RAW MILL               465                  465
KLIN                   589                  558
ROLL PRESS             388                  434
CEMENTMILL             496                  465
PACKER                 744                  744

MACHINE NAME   LIMITING VALUE   LIMITING FACTOR

CRUSHES             1.0         NOT LIMITING
RAWMILL             1.0         NOT LIMITING
KLIN               1.056        NOT LIMITING
ROLLPRESS          0.894        LIMITING
CEMENTMILL         1.067        NOT LIMITING
PACKER              1.0         NOT LIMITING

MACHINE NAME   COST DESCRIPTION       COST AMOUNT-

CRUSHES        DIRECT MATERIAL COST    348144711
RAWMILL        DIRECT LAB0UR COST      222766185
KLIN           DIRECT EXPENSES         262941835
ROLLPRESS      MACHINE HOUR RATE        4297588
CEMENTMILL     OVER HEAD COST          294606411
PACKER         COST PER UNIT BAG         677.93

Table 4: Developed simulation model showing effect of limitations
on production level and manufacturing cost of cement for the month
of February.

WEST AFRICAN PORTLAND CEMENT PLC. EWEKORO WORKS

MONTH OF OPERATION       FEBRUARY                 YEAR    2004

RAW MATERIAL NAMES          QTY        QTY        LIMITING   LIMITING
FACTOR                      PRODUCED   EXPECTED   VALUE

EXPLOSIVE (kg)              4760       4760       1.0        NOT
LIMITING
BLASTED LIMESTONE (tones)   103029     103030     1.0        NOT
LIMITING
CRUSHED LIMESTONE (tones)   103028     103030     1.0        NOT
LIMITING
RAW MEAL (tones)            89589      89591      1.0        NOT
LIMITING
CLINKER (tones)             64378      64380      1.0        NOT
LIMITING
CAKE (tones)                64378      64380      1.0        NOT
LIMITING
GYPSUM (tones)              3928       3930       1.0        NOT
LIMITING
RED ALUVIUM (tones)         1893       1896       1.0.       NOT
LIMITING
CEMENT IN BAGS              1404141    1404144    1.0        NOT
LIMITING

MACHINE NAME   AVAILABILITY (HOURS)   REQUIRED (HOURS)

CRUSHER                896                  896
RAW MILL               420                  420
KLIN                   532                  532
ROLL PRESS             392                  392
CEMENTMILL             448                  420
PACKER                 672                  672

MACHINE NAME   LIMITING VALUE   LIMITING FACTOR   COST
AMOUNT-N-

CRUSHER             1.0         NOT LIMITING      DIRECT
RAWMILL             1.0         NOT LIMITING      DIRECT
KLIN                1.0         NOT LIMITING      DIRECT
ROLLPRESS           1.0         NOT LIMITING      MACHINE
CEMENTMILL         1.067        NOT LIMITING      OVER
PACKER              1.0         NOT LIMITING      COST

MACHINE NAME   DESCRIPTION     COST
AMOUNT-N-

CRUSHER        MATERIAL COST   351738060
RAWMILL        LAB0UR COST     224993750
KLIN           EXPENSES        265654410
ROLLPRESS      HOUR RATE       4342695
CEMENTMILL     HEAD COST       297646500
PACKER         PER UNIT BAG    675.81

Table 5: Manual method showing effect of limitations on production
level and manufacturing cost of cement for the month of February.

WEST AFRICAN PORTLAND CEMENT PLC. EWEKORO WORKS

MONTH OF OPERATION       FEBRUARY                 YEAR    2004

RAW MATERIAL NAMES          QTY        QTY        LIMITING   LIMITING
FACTOR                      PRODUCED   EXPECTED   VALUE

EXPLOSIVE (kg)              4760       4760       1.0        NOT
LIMITING
BLASTED LIMESTONE (tones)   103029     103030     1.0        NOT
LIMITING
CRUSHED LIMESTONE (tones)   103028     103030     1.0        NOT
LIMITING
RAW MEAL (tones)            89589      89591      1.0        NOT
LIMITING
CLINKER (tones)             64378      64380      1.0        NOT
LIMITING
CAKE (tones)                64378      64380      1.0        NOT
LIMITING
GYPSUM (tones)              3928       3930       1.0        NOT
LIMITING
RED ALUVIUM (tones)         1893       1896       1.0.       NOT
LIMITING
CEMENT IN BAGS              1404141    1404144    1.0        NOT
LIMITING

MACHINE NAME   AVAILABILITY (HOURS)   REQUIRED (HOURS)

CRUSHER                896                  896
RAW MILL               420                  420
KLIN                   532                  532
ROLL PRESS             392                  392
CEMENTMILL             448                  420
PACKER                 672                  672

MACHINE NAME   LIMITING VALUE   LIMITING FACTOR   COST
AMOUNT-N-

CRUSHER             1.0         NOT LIMITING      DIRECT
RAWMILL             1.0         NOT LIMITING      DIRECT
KLIN                1.0         NOT LIMITING      DIRECT
ROLLPRESS           1.0         NOT LIMITING      MACHINE
CEMENTMILL         1.067        NOT LIMITING      OVER
PACKER              1.0         NOT LIMITING      COST

MACHINE NAME   DESCRIPTION     COST
AMOUNT-N-

CRUSHER        MATERIAL COST   351738060
RAWMILL        LAB0UR COST     224993750
KLIN           EXPENSES        265654410
ROLLPRESS      HOUR RATE       4342695
CEMENTMILL     HEAD COST       297646500
PACKER         PER UNIT BAG    675.81

Table 6: Comparison of Cement produced between the simulation model
and manual method for January and February.

Period   Production Using   Production Using   Production
         Developed          Manual Method     Differences
         Software(bags)     (bags)              (bags)

1        1 389 799          1 389 796          3
2        1 404 143          1 404 141          2
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Author:Ogbeide, S.O.
Publication:International Journal of Applied Engineering Research
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:2522
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