A review on potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles. (Review).Summary
Recently, a review has already been made on the synthetic contraceptive agents whereas this review embraces the natural contraceptives upto year 2001 with 355 references. It also includes the isolation of their active principles, methods of analysis of active ingredients through TLC TLC total lung capacity; thin-layer chromatography.
1. thin-layer chromatography
2. , HPLC HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography.
high performance liquid chromatography.
HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography Lab instrumentation A highly sensitive analytic method in which analytes are placed , their side effects Side effects
Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm. and pharmacological action.
Key words: Medicinal plants, Anti-fertility activity, Adverse effects, TLC-autobiography
The population explosion is one of the major problems of present era in the world. The increment of population raises so many sufferings like lack of food, water, energy and raw material supply, decline in mortality etc. before human beings and it also has increased the life expectancy Life Expectancy
1. The age until which a person is expected to live.
2. The remaining number of years an individual is expected to live, based on IRS issued life expectancy tables. . In view of above discussion, scientists have started to tackle this serious problem by developing the effective contraceptives.
The term contraceptives refers to those chemical substances that inhibit either the sperms production and sperm motility in males or prevent the formation of ovum and produce some changes in the endometrium endometrium /en·do·me·tri·um/ (-me´tre-um) pl. endome´tria the mucous membrane lining the uterus.
n. pl. , rendering it non-receptive to a fertilized ovum in females (Haller, 1965; Pincus, 1965a, b; Pincus and Bialy bi·a·ly
n. pl. bia·lys
A flat, round baked roll topped with onion flakes.
Noun 1. , 1965; Tyler, 1967).
The adverse effects (Borell, 1970; Kannel, 1979; Takacs, 1979; Blashkova et al. 1981) caused by oral and injectible contraceptives are increased blood transminase, cholesterol levels, indigestion, weight gain, headache, depression, fatigue, hypermenorrhea and intermenorrheal bleeding (not exceeding by 8%). These also disturb the metabolism of lipid, protein, carbohydrates, enzymes and vitamins (Zaeslein-Buthe, 1971; Bingel and Benoit, 1973a, b; Spellacy, 1974).
One of the most challenging pursuits in the realm of pharmaceutical and medical sciences is the search for newer and more potent drugs with little toxic effects, self-administrable, less expensive and completely reversible. Much of these properties are observed in the drugs of plant origin. During the latter part of this century, the practice of herbalism herbalism /her·bal·ism/ (er´-) (her´bal-izm) the medical use of preparations containing only plant material. has become mainstream throughout the world. This is due in part to the recognition of the value of traditional medical systems, particularly of Asian origin, and the identification of medicinal plants from indigenous pharmacopeias. In the Western world, in particular, the developing concept that 'natural' is better than 'chemical' or 'synthetic' has led to the evolution of Neo-Western herbalism. In the US, often guised as food or food supplements, known as nutriceuticals, these formulations are readily available for those that wish to self-medicate (Lewis, 2001).
Among the three ways of controlling population i.e. Abortion, Sterilization or Contraception, the contraceptive way of birth control is one of the most popularizing ways nowadays and different types of contraceptive devices are being used which are:
1. Mechanical devices -- diaphragm, cervical cap cervical cap
A small, rubber, cup-shaped contraceptive device that fits over the uterine cervix to prevent the entry of sperm. , intrauterine intrauterine /in·tra·uter·ine/ (-u´ter-in) within the uterus.
Within the uterus.
Situated or occuring in the uterus. devices (IUD IUD Definition
An IUD is an intrauterine device made of plastic and/or copper that is inserted into the womb (uterus) by way of the vaginal canal. One type releases a hormone (progesterone), and is replaced each year. ).
2. Physiological devices -- oral pills.
3. Surgical devices -- tubectomy/vasectomy.
In females these devices act upon any of the reproductive organ/physiological aspect like, they may
1. Be anti-ovulatory.
2. Affect the union of ova and sperm.
3. Be abortifacient abortifacient /abor·ti·fa·cient/ (ah-bor?ti-fa´shent)
1. causing abortion.
2. an agent that induces abortion.
Causing or inducing abortion. .
4. Show anti-implantation activity.
5. Have effect on the uterus.
Male contraceptive (Sharma et al. 2001) are mainly directed towards:
1. Development of antispermatogenic agents to suppress sperm production.
2. Prevention of sperm maturation.
3. Prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens vas deferens: see reproductive system; vasectomy. .
4. Prevention of sperm deposition.
A few TLC systems (Beyermann and Roeder, 1967; Roeder, 1967; Szekacs and Kiembala, 1970) viz.
1. Ethyl Acetate -- Cyclohexane cyclohexane (sī'kləhĕk`sān), C6H12, colorless liquid hydrocarbon. It is a cyclic alkane that melts at 6°C; and boils at 81°C;. It is nearly insoluble in water. -- Acetone acetone (ăs`ĭtōn), dimethyl ketone (dīmĕth`əl kē`tōn), or 2-propanone (prō`pənōn), CH3COCH3 (v/v 25:75:10)
2. Ethyl Acetate -- Cyclohexane (v/v 54:46)
3. Choloroform -- Acetone (v/v 90:10) were found suitable for the separation and identification of contraceptives. The reagents used for identification were [H.sub.3][PO.sub.4] - MeOH (v/v 1:1) and [SbCl.sub.3] or [SbCl.sub.5] - AcOH (v/v 1:1) The quantitative determination was carried out by spectrophotometry spectrophotometry
Branch of spectroscopy dealing with measurement of radiant energy transmitted or reflected by a body as a function of wavelength. The measurement is usually compared to that transmitted or reflected by a system that serves as a standard. with the aid of calibration curve. The components after extracting with [CHCl.sub.3] from silica gel were identified by their [R.sub.f] values. After evaporating the solvent, the residue was dissolved in 20 ml Acetone -- Pyridine pyridine (pĭr`ĭdēn) or azine (ăz`ēn), C5H5N, colorless, flammable, toxic liquid with a putrid odor. It melts at −42°C; and boils at 115.5°C;. (v/v 10:1) mixture containing 0.1 ml nujol/100 ml. The solution is evaporated on mirror and analysis was carried out by IR reflective spectrography spec·tro·graph
1. A spectroscope equipped to photograph or otherwise record spectra.
2. A spectrogram.
spec and calculated by calibration curve. This combined procedure was found most appropriate and very sensitive to identify and for separating upto 0.01-1 mg.
Johnston (1981) used HPLC for determination of oral contraceptive formulations. The procedure involves a simple solvent extraction Solvent extraction
A technique, also called liquid extraction, for separating the components of a liquid solution. This technique depends upon the selective dissolving of one or more constituents of the solution into a suitable immiscible liquid solvent. followed by analysis on silica gel column with cyclohexane and 2-propanol as the mobile phase.
The various reviews (Jackson, 1959; Misra et al. 1961; Siegfried, 1966; Malhi and Trivedi, 1972; Orzechowski, 1972; Brondegnard, 1973; Hardman, 1974; Farnsworth et al. 1975; Kholkute et al. 1976b; San Martin Casamada, 1976; Bingel and Farnsworth, 1980; Woo et al. 1981; Farnsworth and Waller, 1982; Zhu, 1982; Bhargava, 1986c; Kong et al. 1986; Xie et al. 1986; Wong, 1987; Xu et al. 1987a) have been given on medicinal plants and their active principles for fertility regulation but the present review refer only natural contraceptives up to year 2001. The medicinal plants with their chemical substances are being summarized in the appendix (see page 245).
In addition to those plants listed, various other plant extract and plant products have also been used to control the fertility in either sex.
Korkhov et al. (Korkhov and Mats, 1983) summarised the contraceptive preparations of plant origin. Davis (1978) reported the composition containing an ovicide ovicide /ovi·cide/ (o´vi-sid) an agent destructive to the eggs of certain organisms.
an agent destructive to the ova of certain organisms, usually helminths and arthropods. podophylotoxin in the form of savin savin
a neurotoxic war gas similar to organophosphorus insecticides but considerably more toxic, as demonstrated in the Tokyo subway massacre in 1995. or savin oil, stilbestrol stil·bes·trol
a synthetic estrogen used in the treatment of female animals for infertility and bitches for urinary incontinence. and apiole made into tablets and when taken orally, it controls extrauterine extrauterine /ex·tra·uter·ine/ (-u´ter-in) outside the uterus.
Located or occurring outside the uterus. pregnancy.
Bagros (1979) mentioned that aqueous solution of tannin tannin, tannic acid, or gallotannic acid, astringent vegetable product found in a wide variety of plants. Sources include the bark of oak, hemlock, chestnut, and mangrove; the leaves of certain sumacs; and plant galls. (1-1%) has power to coagulate human cervical mucus cervical mucus Gynecology A viscous fluid that plugs the cervical os, and prevents sperm and bacteria from entering the uterus; at midcycle, under estrogenic influence, CM becomes thin, watery, and stringy, and allows free passage of sperm into the uterus. , seminal fluid seminal fluid
Semen, especially its fluid component without spermatozoa. and other mucin type of glycoprotein glycoprotein (glī'kōprō`tēn), organic compound composed of both a protein and a carbohydrate joined together in covalent chemical linkage. . According to Bagros (1976) supposition were formulated from tannin ethers, benzalkonium chloride benzalkonium chloride /ben·zal·ko·ni·um chlo·ride/ (ben?zal-ko´ne-um) a quaternary ammonium compound used as a surface disinfectant and detergent, topical antiseptic, and antimicrobial preservative. , carboxymethyl cysteine cysteine (sĭs`tēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian protein. and excipients in sufficient quantities. It acts as a barrier for sperm penetration and thus enhanced the possibility for contraception purposes.
n alkaline phytochemicals that contain nitrogen in a heterocyclic ring structure. They can have powerful pharmacological effects and are more often used in traditional medicine than in herbal treatments. (Coutinho, 1971; Trifunac and Bernstein, 1982) were described as short-term contraceptives. Coronaridine.HCl (Mehrotra and Kamboj, 1978) (30 mg/kg) given orally to rats on day 1-5 post-coitum prevented pregnancy. Only low order antifertility activity were found for isoflavones (Moersch et al. 1967) related to genistein in mice. Gallegos (1983) reported that the zoapatle was traditional remedy for fertility control.
Chow et al. (1980) observed that cytochalasin-A, was most effective spermicide spermicide /sper·mi·cide/ (sper´mi-sid) an agent destructive to spermatozoa.spermici´dal
An agent that kills spermatozoa, especially as a contraceptive. while cytochalasin-B had little or no effect on sperm motility even at 0.1%. In vitro experiments (Brown-Wood man and White, 1977) on human sperms indicated that quinine quinine (kwī`nīn', kwĭnēn`), white crystalline alkaloid with a bitter taste. Before the development of more effective synthetic drugs such as quinacrine, chloroquine, and primaquine, quinine was the specific agent in the treatment of . HCl is spermicidal sper·mi·cide
An agent that kills spermatozoa, especially one used as a contraceptive. Also called spermatocide.
sper enough for use in an intracervical device that it blocks sperm metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle: see Krebs cycle.
tricarboxylic acid cycle
or Krebs cycle or citric-acid cycle
Last stage of the chemical processes by which living cells obtain energy from foodstuffs. .
(3R) Classequinone (Guerra et al. 1985) when administered to rats at 200 [micro]g/100 g i.p. on the 4th day of gestation, inhibit implantation and caused abortion in 32.3% of implanted embryos.
Sander (1940) reported a great spermatocidal efficiency of higher unsaturated fatty acids, which have originated from animal and plant fats and oils. Astedt et al. (1977) reported estradiol as an oral contraceptive without causing thromboembolic thromboembolic
pertaining to or emanating from thromboembolism.
see thromboembolic colic. incidents.
Sanyal (Sanyal, 1956b; Sanyal and Sarkar Sarkar could mean:
Li Keliang et al. (1995) reported that latex or polyurethane containing nonoxynol, iodophor iodophor (īō´dfôr),
n a loose chemical compound of iodine with certain organic compounds; e.g., polyvinylpyrrolidone. and an appropriate amount of distilled water, is used as contraceptive. Shlenker et al. (1993) reported methods of making biocide biocide (bī`əsīd'), synonym for pesticide. containing latex articles (condom) which acts as a chemical barrier against the transmission of disease causing microbes. According to Roland (1993) the use of latex rubber condom reduces the probability of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. infection by roughly a factor of three.
Recent biochemical approaches to post testicular testicular /tes·tic·u·lar/ (tes-tik´u-lar) pertaining to a testis.
Of or relating to a testicle or testis.
pertaining to the testis. epididymal epididymal
emanating from or pertaining to the epididymis.
epididymal segmental aplasia
a defect in mesonephric development in which part of the epididymis is missing. contraception include the work of Cooper and Yeung (1999). According to these biochemists, targeting a specific sperm protein acquired in the testes but depleted in the epididymis epididymis /ep·i·did·y·mis/ (-did´i-mis) pl. epididy´mides [Gr.] an elongated cordlike structure along the posterior border of the testis; its coiled duct provides for storage, transit, and maturation of spermatozoa and is by toxicant toxicant /tox·i·cant/ (tok´si-kant)
1. A poison or poisonous agent.
2. An intoxicant.
adj. that induce rapid infertility may also lead to the discovery of new contraceptives. These will require developing new organs-specific delivery of contraceptive drugs. Goldberg (1999) invented novel proteins and peptides derived from proteins unique to sperm and testes. These are useful in vaccines for contraception in mammals. These proteins and peptides are also useful in diagnostic assays for assessing infertility. Howett and Reider (1999) observed that broad-spectrum microbicidal and spermicidal composition containing anionic an·i·on
A negatively charged ion, especially the ion that migrates to an anode in electrolysis.
[From Greek, neuter present participle of anienai, to go up : ana-, ana- surfactants are used for preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Diclosed are microbicidal and spermicidal devices, methods and compositions containing sodium dodecyl sulfate Sodium dodecyl sulfate (or sulphate) (SDS or NaDS) (C12H25NaO4S),is an anionic surfactant that is used in household products such as toothpastes, shampoos, shaving foams and bubble baths for its thickening effect and its ability to or related anionic surfactants as active ingre dients for the control of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
The relative slow emergence of fertility control technologies for practical application clearly reflects the complexity of science and the requirement of multidisciplinary research approach. Effective immunocontraceptive vaccines will also be critically dependent on the design of the delivery systems. These will be unique to each species under study. A major challenge for free ranging species will be to ensure that the vaccine can induce a long-lasting immune response immune response
An integrated bodily response to an antigen, especially one mediated by lymphocytes and involving recognition of antigens by specific antibodies or previously sensitized lymphocytes. to a high percentage of the target population, thus reducing the frequency and, hence, the cost of vaccine application. Many of the delivery systems being considered will utilize recombinant organisms. Hence, considerations on the use of such organisms need to take into account the political, ethical and safety constraints prior to any environmental release. Also careful thought has to be given to ensure that the specificity can be built into the vaccines at several levels (Bradley et al. 1999).
From above discussion, it is evident that today is the need of hour to develop either potent oral or injectible, hormonal or biochemical contraceptives for controlling the population explosion of the world which cause no undesirable side effects. Some important factors (Iglesias, 1985; Arsyad, 1986) viz. LH-RH analogs, inhibition of leutinization/steroid formation etc. must be considered in the development and standardisation of new fertility regulating principles.
Appendix Name of the Plant/ Chemical Constituents (s) S.No. Part of the Plant/extract if any 1. Abrus precatorius PEP-103, PEP-104, Abridin, Dry extract from seeds Steroidal fraction. 2. Acacia arabica - 3. Acacia auriculiformis Two partially characterised triterpenoid saponins (Tg), containing acaciaside A and acaciaside B with the aglycon structure of acacic acid lactone. (I) 4. Acacia caesia Acacic acid saponin (I-VI) lupeol, [alpha]-spinosterol and stigmasterol. 5. Acacia catechu - 6. Acacia concinna Lupeol, [alpha]-spinosterol, Bark. hexacosanol, [alpha]- apinasterone, acacic acid, acacic acid lactone and an amorphous saponin. 7. Acalypha indica - 8. Achyranthes aspera - Methanolic, acetone, n-BuOH extract of aerial parts. 9. Achyranthes bidentata Achyranthes bidentata saponins. (ABS) 10. Adiantum capillus Isoadiantone. Whole plant/petroleum ether extract. 11. Aehonychon purpurea- Lithospermic acid. caemleum 12. Albizzia lebbek Lebbekanin-E. 13. Albizzia procera Oleanolic acid saponin and Seeds. proceric acid saponin mixture. 14. Anagallis arvensis - Whole plant. 15. Ananas comosus Steroids. 16. Andrographis - paniculata Leaves dry powder, powdered stem. 17. Androsace Triterpene glycosides. septentrionalis Plant extract. 18. Aristolochia indica Sesquiterpene, aristolochic acid. Roots/EtOH extract. 19. Asparagus pubescens - Root/methanolic extract. 20. Azadirachta indica Neem oil. Leaves, seeds/dry powder, hexane, ethanolic extract. 21. Balanites roxburghii - planch fruit pulp extract/ethanolic extract. 22. Barleria prionitis - Root extract. 23. Beaumontia grandiflora - Leaves extract. 24. Berberis sp. Berberis alkaloid. 25. Berberis chitria Palmitine hydroxide. 26. Brachybotrys Phenol carboxylic acids mainly paridiformis lithospermic acid. 27. Bursera fagaroides Glycosides Cortex/ethanolic extract. 28. Butea frondosa - Seeds/ethanolic extract. 29. Butea monosperma Butin. Seeds. 30. Calendula officinalis Saponins employed in extract form or pure form. 31. Calotropis procera Calotropin. Root. 32. Cannabis sativa - 33. Carica papaya - Fruit, drypowder of seed. 34. Casearia iticifolia Flavonoids, triterpenes Leaves. and Steroids. 35. Centella asiatica Isothankuniside and BK Compound [Methyl-5-hydroxy-3, 6-diketo-23 (or24)-norurs-12-en-28-oate] 36. Chordia dichotoma - Leaf extract. 37. Cichorium intybus - Seeds/ethanolic extract. 38. Citrus aurantium Cirantine. Peel. 38a. Clerodendrum serratum - Plants excludint root. 39. Colebrookia - oppositifolia Leaf extract. 40. Coleus barbatus - Hydroalcoholic extract. 41. Combretodendron africanum Tannins and saponisides. stem bark/aqueous extract. 42. Coccus lacca - 43. Curcuma longa 50% - ethanolic extract. 44. Curcuma zedoaria - Tubers. 45. Cyclamen persicum Saponins. 46. Cynoglossum officinale Acid preparations, eksi, cynokis imkis, lithospermic acid. 47. Cynomorum coccineum - Aqueous extract. 48. daphne species Yuahuatin. 49. Datura quercifolia Daturalactone ([DQ.sub.1]) 50. Daucus carota Volatile oil carbohydrate Seeds/alcoholic extract. fraction (CH) of carot seed oil. 51. Deutzia corymbosa - Whole plant/50% ethanolic extract 52. Dictamnus albus Fraxinellone. Root bark/methanolic and hexane extract. 53. Dieffenbachia amoena - Leaves/ aqueous extract 54. Dioscorea zingiberensis Saponins. 55. Diploclisia glaucescens Ecdysterone Stem. 56. Dipsacus mitis - Root/ethyl acetate extract 57. Echeveria gibbifiora - Aqueous crude extract 58. Echinops echinatus - Root/50% alcoholic extract. 59. Echium vulgare Ekis, cynokis, imkis, hthospermic acid. 60. Embelia ribes Embelin. Seeds or fruit berries/ petroleum ether, methanolic, henzene and chloroform extract. 61. Ensete superpa Kadalin. Seeds. 62. Ephedera gerardiana - Acetone extract. 63. Epilobium augustifolium - Hexane/aqueous extract. 64. Eupatorium brevipes Brevipenin. 65. Ferula jaesochkeana Ferujol. Aerial part/hexane extract. 66. Foeniculum vulgare Anethole Seeds. 67. Gardenia jasminoides Two new cycloartane triterpenoids Flowers/ethyl acetate namely gardenic acid and extract. gardenolic acid B. 68. Geranium lucidum - Acetone extract. 69. Gnaphalium indicum - Whole plant/50% ethanolic extract. 70. Gossypium barbadense - Seed/aqueous extract. 71. Gossypum herbaceum Cotton seed oil emulsion, gossypol, gossypol acetic acid and gossypol acetate. 72. Guetterda andamanica - Aerial parts/ethanolic extract. 73. Gypsophila paniculata Saponinu 74. Hedera nepalensis [beta]-amyrin, [beta]-sitosterol, Inflorescence. oleanolic acid and [beta]- sitosterol-D-glucosides, Nepalin-1 Nepalin-2, Nepalin-3. 75. Heliotropium n-hexacosanol, sitosterol, indicum Petroleum stigmasterol, chalinasterol and ether extract. campestrol. 76. Hibiscus macranthus - Aqueous extract. 77. Hibiscus rosasinensis - Flowers/benzene, chloroform and 50% EtOH extract. 78. Hyptis suabeoleus - Whole plant. 79. Ixora finlaysoniana - Serial part/crude ethanolic extract. 80. Juniperus communis - Acetone extract. 81. Lappula myosotis - 82. Lepidium capitatum - Whole plant/ benzene extract. 83. Lithospermum Phenol carboxylic acid. erythrorhizon 84. Lygodium flexuosum - Whole plant/ alcoholic extract. 85. Malvaviscus - conzattus Greenm Flowers/methanolic, 50% EtOH extract. 86. Marsdenia koi Steroidal glycoside: Whole plantlmethanolic Marsdekoiside A and B. extract. 87. Maytenus ilicifolia - Leaves/ethanolic extract. 88. Melodinusfusiformis Alkaloids: 11, 19(R)-dihydroxy tabersonine, 11-hydroxy-14, 15 [alpha]-epoxy tabersonine. - 89. Memcyclon lushingtonii Aerial parts/ethanolic extract. 90. Mentha arvensis - Leaves/petroleum ether, 50% ethanolic extract. 91. Mesuaferrea - Flowers. 92. Momordica augusti- - sepala L. Aqueous extract. 93. Momordica charantia [beta]-momorcharin and three Seeds/petroleum ether sterols. and benzene extract. 94. Momordica Momorcochin lochinchinensis Roots-tubers. 95. Momordica diocia - Tuber/zqueous extract. 96. Montanoa tomentosa (a)(-) Kaura-9 (11)-16 dien- Leaves/hexane, 19-oic acid (b) Kaurenoic acid aqueous extract. and (c) Monogynoic acid, Grandiflorenic acid (GA). 97. Moringa oleifera - Roots/aqueous extract. 98. Murraya exotica - Roots. 99. Murraya paniculata Yuehchukene. Roots 100. Myristica fragrans - Ethanolic extract. 101. Nelumbo nucifera - Seeds/petroleum ether extract. 102. Nicotiana tabaccum Nicotine. 103. Nigella sativa - Seeds/hexane extract. 104. Ocimum sanctum - Leaf powder. 105. Ophiopogon intermedius n-octacosanol, [beta]- Rhizome. sitosterol, diosgenin, ruscogenin, [beta]-sitosterol- [betal]-D-glucoside, dioscin and furostanol glycoside. 106. Paracynoglossum incretinum. Lithospermic acid. 107. Pentapanax leschenaultii Oleanolic acid (0.01%) leschenaultii Fruit/ triterpene glycosides. ethanolic extract. 108. Phytolacca americana Steroidal acidic saponin. Roots/EtOH extract. 109. Phtolacca dodecandra Saponins, lemmatoxin, BuOH extract of oleanoglycotoxin-A, sundried berries. lemmatoxin-C and oleanolic acid. 110. Piper betle L. Dry extract. - 111. Pipe longum Fruit/ Wax alkaloid and piperine. aceton, benzene and EtOH extract. 112. Pipe peopuloides Waxy alkaloid. petroleum ether extract. 113. Pisum sativum m-xylohydroquinone, oil from seeds. 114. Pithecolobium saman Samanin-D Flowers. 115. Pittosporum nilghrense Pittoside A and B. 116. Plantago ovata - 117. Plantanus orientails - Acetone extract. 118. Plumbago zeylanica Plumbgin free either glycosides or Roots/EtOH extract. tannins, plumbagin (I) 119. Plianthes tuberosa Oil. 120. Primula vulgaris Saponins. 121. Pseudolarix kaemferi - 122. Pueraria tuberosa - Tubers/50% ethanolic, D.C. and methanolic, crude powder, butanolic, hexane, chloroform, petroleum ether, benzene extract. 123. Pulmonaria mollis Phenol carboxylic acid 124. Punica grantum - Aqueous and MeOH extract. 125. Rauwolfia series Reserpine. 126. Rhoeo spathacea - 127. Ricinus communis - Seeds/methanolic extracts ether soluble fraction. 128. Ruellia prostrata Lupeol, sitosterol, stigmasterol Petroleum ether and and long chain ester ([C.sub.42- aqueous extract. [C.sub.60]) 129. Ruta graveolans Chalepensin (I). Root, stem and leaf/ chloroform extract. 130. Salsola 2-(4-acetoxypheny1)-2-chloro-N- tuberculatiformis methyl-ethylammonium chloride Shrub (Compound A). 131. Salviafruticosa - Leaves/aqueous and ethanolic extract. 132. Sapindus mukorosu Saponins [beta]-amyrin C-28 carboxylic acid type of sapogenins. 133. Saracaindica - 134. Schefflera capitata Schefferoside. 135. Senecio vulgaris Senicionine and Methanolic extract. senicionine-N-oxide. 136. Solanum crassypetalum - Aerial parts/ethanolic extract. - 137. Solanum xanthocarpum Solasodine. 138. Sophora japonica Sophoricoside, genistein, 138. Sophora japonica Sphoricoside, genisterin, kaempferol, sophorabioside, sophoraflavonoloside, rutin. 139. Spartiumjunceum - Broom 140. Stemodia durantifolia - 141. Sterculia foetida Oil 142. Stevia rebaudiana - Whole plant, aqueous extract. 143. Striga Iutea Acacetin, luteolin, flavones. Whole plant/petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. 144. Striga orobanchioides Apigenin and luteolin ethanolic extract. 145. Syzygium cumini - Alcoholic extract 146. Tabernaemontana Coronaridine. heyheana 147. Taxus baccata - Leaves/aqueous, alcoholic, petroleum ether extract. 148. Terminalia arjuna - Stem bark. 149. Terminalia chebula - Seeds. 150. Thalictrum species Triterpene glycosides, minus and foetidum. foetoside progenin, thalcosides. 151. Thespesia populnea (+) Gossypol. 152. Traqia involucerta - 153. Trichosanthes [beta]-Trichosanthin. cucumeroids Roots tubers. 154. Trichosanthes kirilowi Trichosanthin. Root tuber. 155. Trigonella foenum- - graecum Seed extract. 156. Tripterygium wilfordii Total glycosides, Diterpene epoxides, Triptolide , tripdiolide, triptolidenol, tripchlorolide, 16-hydroxytriptolide and T7/19 157. Uncaria tomentosa Tannin free extract. Root. 158. Vicoa indica - 159. Vinca rosea Vincristine. 160. Vitex negundo 'L' Flavonoid-rich fraction (5, 7, 3'- Seeds. trihydroxy-6, 8, 4'-trimethoxy flavones) 161. Xestospongia - wiedenmayeri Name of the Plant/ S.No. Part of the Plant/extract Uses 1. Abrus precatorius Oral contraceptive, prevents Dry extract from seeds implantationof fertilized ovum by inhibiting endometrial alkaline phosphate, induces 100% sterility in mice when injected one day pre and post coitum. Sperm anti-motility activity, Steroidal fraction indirectly influenced the pituitary level, leading to decrease in production and release of testosterone, resulting in significant alterations in the testis. 2. Acacia arabica Effective oral contraceptive in rats and inhibits implanation. 3. Acacia auriculiformis Caused obvious immobilisation of sperm at lowest concentration. ED = 0.35 mg/mL in physiol. saline. ED prevented sperm entry in human cervical mucus and caused death of treated sperm. 4. Acacia caesia Spermicidal agent. 5. Acacia catechu Effective oral contraceptive in rats and inhibits implantation. 6. Acacia concinna Spermicidal and semen Bark. coagulating activities. Saponin showed spermicidal activity at 0.004-0.125%. 7. Acalypha indica Post-coital antiferility activity. 8. Achyranthes aspera Anti-implantation activity, Methanolic, acetone, prevented pregnancy in 60% n-BuOH extract of female rats, dose = 75 mg/kg aerial parts. and for hamsters at [less than or equal to] 300 mg/kg. 9. Achyranthes bidentata Antifertility effect of ABS on rats and mice observed. On 1- 10 days of pregnancy of mice, admn. of ABS by gavage effectively prevented pregnancy. ABS caused dose dependent antifertility effect in mice and [ED.sub.50] was 218 mg/kg. 10. Adiantum capillus Inhibited post coital implantation Whole plant/petroleum in rats. ether extract. 11. Aehonychon purpurea- Contraceptive action. caemleum 12. Albizzia lebbek Spermicidal activity. 13. Albizzia procera Spermicidal activity at Seeds. 0.004-0.125%. 14. Anagallis arvensis Spermicidal and semen coagulating Whole plant. activities 15. Ananas comosus Abortifacient activity. 16. Andrographis Antispermatogenic and paniculata antiandrogenic effect. Significant Leaves dry powder, reduction in fertility and powdered stem. prolongation in gestation period after 3 and 4 weeks of feeding a group containing treated male Wistar mice and untreated female mice, on diets supplemented to extent of 0.75% by powdered stem. 17. Androsace Contraceptive and abortive action septentrionalis on rats and mice, prevented Plant extract. pregnancy in post-coital tests. [ED.sub.50] 100 mg/kg. 18. Aristolochia indica Antisperniatogenic and Roots/EtOH extract. antiandrogenic effects. 100% interceptive and anti-implantation activity, oral dose 100 mg/kg. 19. Asparagus pubescens 0.5-1.5 g/kg protected animals from Root/methanolic extract. conception for 4-14 gestational periods in rabbits, rats and mice. It inhibited fetal implantation. Its contraceptive effect may in part be due to its anti-implantation and/or a direct effect on the uterus. 20. Azadirachta indica Antispermatogenic activities and Leaves, seeds/dry histological changes in testes and powder, hexane, epididymides. Prevented pregnancy ethanolic extract. (100%) if taken before sexual intercourse and checked embryo implantation. Anti-implantational and abortifacient effects were observed in females mated by the males fed with the extract Completely abrogate pregnancy in rodents upto a concentration of 10%. Mechanism of action- By activating cell mediated immune reactions. Elicits less side effects than the steroidal contraceptives. Praneem polyherbal cream showed high contraceptive efficacy in rabbits and in monkeys after intravaginal application. 21. Balanites roxburghii Mass atrophy of spermatogenic planch fruit pulp elements due to secondary extract/ethanolic extract. effects of hyperglycemia in dogs. 22. Barleria prionitis Antifertility effect on male rats. Root extract. 23. Beaumontia grandiflora Showed anti-implantational, Leaves extract. abortifacient and luteolytic effects. 24. Berberis sp. Antifertility, antibacterial, antileukemic and antiulurous activity. 25. Berberis chitria Impairment of germ cells. 26. Brachybotrys Contraceptive action. paridiformis 27. Bursera fagaroides Human spermatozoa and those Cortex/ethanolic obtained from mouse epididymis extract. became agglutinated and immobilized in 100% with 30% of viability decrease. This effect occurred in 50% of pig's sperm and 50% of rabbits sperm when the concenteration was increased ten fold. 28. Butea frondosa Partial abortive in action in mice Seeds/ethanolic extract. and rats when given orally daily during the 1st 5 days of pregnancy. 29. Butea monosperma Potential male contraceptive with Seeds. minimal side effects. 30. Calendula officinalis Spermatocides, anti-blastocysts and abortion agents. 31. Calotropis procera Antispermatogenic effect and Icydig Root. cell atrophy. 32. Cannabis sativa Dosage of 14mg/kg for 90 days caused testicular lesions resulting in mass atrophy of spermatogenic elements. 33. Carica papaya Antispermatogenic effect. Possess Fruit, drypowder reversible male contraceptive of seed. potential and the effects appear to be mediated through the testis. Contraceptive effects are mainly post-testicular in nature without adverse toxicity and without influencing toxicological profile and libido of animals i.e. male albino rats. 34. Casearia iticifolia Antifertility activity. Leaves. 35. Centella asiatica Used as oral antifertility agents in albino mice and both compounds caused consistent reduction of fertility in female mice. 36. Chordia dichotoma Anti-implantational and Leaf extract. abortifacient effects were observed in females mated by the males fed with the extract. 37. Cichorium intybus Showed significant contraceptive Seeds/ethanolic extract. activity when administered orally to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats in days 1-10 postcoitum. 38. Citrus aurantium oral contraceptive. 0.75 mg/kg Peel. in 0.1% ethylene glycol daily on rabbit. 38a. Clerodendrum serratum Showed spermicidal activity. Plants excludint root. 39. Colebrookia Effect on testicular cell oppositifolia population. Leaf extract. 40. Coleus barbatus Folk medicine to interupt Hydroalcoholic extract. pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar rats on treatment with 880 mg/kg per day of etract before embryo implantation caused delayed fetal development and an anti- implantation effect and thus justifies its use for abortive purposes. 41. Combretodendron africanum Caused abortion at 1g/kg. s.c. in stem bark/aqueous extract. miee and rats. 0.05 g/kg dose ablished copulation for 30 days in female rabbits. Contain substances exhibiting estrogenic and possibly anti-estrogenic potency. It appeared as to be a potent secretagogue not requiring LHRH receptors. Blocks the estrous cycle in luteal phase of the mature female mice. 42. Coccus lacca Showed anti-progestational activity in rabbits. Exhibited 33.3% to 85.7% anti-implantation effect when given 1.25-50 mg/kg orally from days 1-5 of pregnancy. 43. Curcuma longa 50% Interference with spermatogenesis ethanolic extract. at later stages. 44. Curcuma zedoaria Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on Tubers. days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited implantation in 60% of animals and increased foetal loss. 45. Cyclamen persicum Immobilised human sperm (60-120x [10.sup.2] sperm/ml). 46. Cynoglossum officinale Cynokis and ekis decreased the wt. of ovaries [10-20 mg/kg s.c. (cynokis) or 30-100 mg/kg (imikis) for 14 days into female rat prior to copulation prolonged diestrus and decreased fertility. 47. Cynomorum coccineum Effect on epididymal sperm pattern. Aqueous extract. 48. daphne species Contraeeptive principle. [LD.sub.50] = 3.02 mg/kg. Abortifacient [min.sup.m] dose for monkey = 50 [micro]g/animal 49. Datura quercifolia Most effective antifertility agent. 25 mg/kg orally for 1-7 days of pregnancy. [DQ.sub.1] showed dose related response. 100 mg/kg from 1-7 days of pregnancy caused 73.3% anti-implantation effect. 50. Daucus carota Posesses weak estrogenic property Seeds/alcoholic extract. anti-pregnancy effect. Inhibits implantation effectively at doses 80 and 120 mg/mouse orally from day 4 to 6 post coitum. [F.D.sub.50] of CH = 2.9 ml/kg for termination of early pregnancy in mice. 51. Deutzia corymbosa Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats. Whole plant/50% ethanolic extract 52. Dictamnus albus Decreased fertility in rats when Root bark/methanolic administered orally on day's 1-10 and hexane extract. post-coitum. Fraxinellone showed antifertility activity by inhibition of implantation. 53. Dieffenbachia amoena Extract when given for 4 days Leaves/ aqueous extract during estrous cycle to female Wistar rats induced significant variations of LH, FSH, PRI, progresterone and 17 beta-estradiol levels. It led to temporary inhibition of ovulation. 54. Dioscorea zingiberensis Used as contraceptives. 55. Diploclisia glaucescens Spermicidal activity. Stem. 56. Dipsacus mitis Prevented pregnancy by 100% in adul Root/ethyl acetate but partially in rat when administe extract and 1-10 postcoitum respectively. Effective dose in both species was 150 mg/kg 57. Echeveria gibbifiora Guinea pig spermatozoa suffered a Aqueous crude extract hypotonic-like effect. Suitable for use as a vaginal barrier or male contraceptive agent. 58. Echinops echinatus Sperm antimotility, sperm density Root/50% alcoholic in cauda epididymis was reduced. extract. 59. Echium vulgare Decreased the weight of ovaries. 60. Embelia ribes Potent oral contraceptive. Prevent Seeds or fruit berries/ pregnancy 37-75%, reversible male petroleum ether, contraceptive at dose 80 mg/kg. methanolic, henzene Female autifertility principle 100 and chloroform extract. mg/kg. Control 57.5% 61. Ensete superpa Possesses antifertility activity. Seeds. 62. Ephedera gerardiana Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats. Acetone extract. 63. Epilobium augustifolium Reduction in weight of accessory Hexane/aqueous extract. sex organs. 64. Eupatorium brevipes Brevipenin has spermicidal activity. 65. Ferula jaesochkeana Contraceptive agents. Prevented Aerial part/hexane pregnancy in adult female rats when extract. administered orally on days 1-5 post coitum. Uterine histoarchitecture of treated rats appeared non-receptive for implantation. 66. Foeniculum vulgare Administered orally at 500 ml/kg. Seeds. on days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited imlantation in 60% of animals and increased foetal loss. Reduced secretory activity and weight of accessory sex glands. 67. Gardenia jasminoides Terminated early pregnancy in rats Flowers/ethyl acetate extract. 68. Geranium lucidum Inhibited pregnancy in 60% rats. Acetone extract. 69. Gnaphalium indicum Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats. Whole plant/50% ethanolic extract. 70. Gossypium barbadense Extract given to rats cause rapid Seed/aqueous extract. damage to testicular, liver, kidney and muscular tissues. 71. Gossypum herbaceum Gossypol-Oral contraceptive for man, Gossypol directly inhibited epididymal sperm motility in vitro and its injection inhibited sperm motility in vivo. Gossypol affect sperm motility by a mechanism which is related to the structure and functions of the plasma membrane. Dosage - 1.250-10 mg/kg for 5-14 week for rabbit. Gossypol acetic acid produces its contraceptive effect by depressing spermatogenic function through its direct action on Leydig cells. Gossypol acetate induced sterility at dose level of 5 or 10 mg/kg daily for 12 week. Potential vaginal contraceptive, no adverse effect on blood composition, hematological parameters and urinary secretions. Coprecipitation of gossypol and PVP prevented sperm motility when applied vaginally. Gossypol inhibits spermatogenesis in many mammals. Cotton seed oil emulsion also exhibited spermatozoal motility inhibition. Effects the physiomorphology of sertoli cells. 72. Guetterda andamanica Showed significant contraceptive Aerial parts/ethanolic activity when administered orally extract. to adult femal Sprague-Dawley rats in days 1-10 postcoitum. 73. Gypsophila paniculata Spermicidal actvity at dilution of 1:20 74. Hedera nepalensis Nepalin-1, 2 and 3 at 0.5, 0.25 and Inflorescence. 0.125% respectively, completely immobilised human sperm. 75. Heliotropium 40% antifertility activity at a indicum Petroleum dose in female albino rats. ether extract. 76. Hibiscus macranthus Effect on testicular function. Aqueous extract. 77. Hibiscus rosasinensis Antispermatogenic and anti Flowers/benzene, androgenic effect. Antifertility chloroform and 50% activity and anti-implantation EtOH extract. effect. Oral administration of benzene extract of flowers at 1 g/kg/day from day 5 to 8 of of gestation terminated pregnancy in about 92% animals Antifertility activity of benezene extract = 83.7% and alcoholic extract = 50% respectively. When administered during day 1-4 of gestation, exerted anti-implantation effect without affceting the tubal transport of zygote. 78. Hyptis suabeoleus Antifertility effect. Whole plant. 79. Ixora finlaysoniana Oral administration of extract to Serial part/crude adult female rats at 250 mg/kg dose ethanolic extract. on days 1-5 or 1-7 post-coitum prevented pregnancy in 100% rats. 80. Juniperus communis Inhibit pregnancy in 60% rats. Acetone extract. 81. Lappula myosotis Contraceptive action. 82. Lepidium capitatum Anti-implantation activity. Whole plant/ benzene extract. 83. Lithospermum Contraceptive action. erythrorhizon 84. Lygodium flexuosum Antiovulatory and anti-implantation Whole plant/ activity. alcoholic extract. 85. Malvaviscus Antispermatogenic effect. Effective conzattus Greenm male contraceptive 50mg/day for a Flowers/methanolic, period of 2 weeks. Methanolic 50% EtOH extract. extract interfered with the synthesis and/or release of gonadotropin(s) from the pituitary gland. The [LD.sub.50] of the extract was found to be 20g/kg body weight. 86. Marsdenia koi Both compounds exhibited good Whole plantlmethanolic antifertility activity. extract. 87. Maytenus ilicifolia Swiss mice was administered with a Leaves/ethanolic dose of 200mg/kg/day extract. intraperitoneally for 20 days, and at a dose of 800mg/kg/day orally for 30 days, which showed alternations like exfoliated germ cells, occasional germ cell death few vacuolized seminiferous tubules. 88. Melodinusfusiformis Show significant spermatocidal activity. Showed significant contraceptive 89. Memcyclon lushingtonii activity when administered orally Aerial parts/ethanolic to adult female in day's 1-10 extract. postcoitum. 90. Mentha arvensis Possess reversible antifertility Leaves/petroleum ether, property without adverse toxicity 50% ethanolic extract. in male mice. Reduces fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles, as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. 91. Mesuaferrea Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on Flowers. on days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited implantation in 60% of animals and increased foetal loss. 92. Momordica augusti- Pregnant animals aborted their sepala L. fetuses some hourse after Aqueous extract. administration. 93. Momordica charantia Antispermetogenic effect. Seeds/petroleum ether Momorcharins were teratogenic to and benzene extract. cultured mouse embryos at the early organogenesis state. Inhibited embryonic implantation and pregnancy. 94. Momordica An abortifacient protein induced lochinchinensis mid-term abortion in mice. Roots-tubers. 95. Momordica diocia Spermicidal activity. Tuber/zqueous extract. 96. Montanoa tomentosa Controls antifertility in female Leaves/hexane, rats and anti-implantation effects aqueous extract. for human and lower animals. Increased uterine contractions or induced labor or abortion. (a) at a dosage of 272 [micro]g/rat produced 100% resorption of fetuses. Possess unique antifertility activity in females. Inhibited implantation in rats and mice when administered on days 1-6 and in hamsters when administered on days 4-6 of gestation. 97. Moringa oleifera Oral administration of extract to Roots/aqueous extract. rats showed antiprogestational and antifertility activity. 98. Murraya exotica Strong anti-implantation activity Roots. in rats. 99. Murraya paniculata Potent anti-implantation activity Roots in rats at 3 mg/kg orally on pregnancy day 2. 100. Myristica fragrans Premature ejaculation. Ethanolic extract. 101. Nelumbo nucifera When administered to sexually Seeds/petroleum ether mature female albino Swiss mice at extract. Monogynoic acid, Grandiflorenic a dose of 3-mg/kg-body weight on altermate days for 15 days after 18 hours fasting, exhibited significant contraceptive, antiestrogenic and antiprogestational activities. 102. Nicotiana tabaccum Antiandrogenic effect. 103. Nigella sativa Showed significant antifertility Seeds/hexane extract. activity. Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited implantation in 60% of animals and increased foetal loss. Prevented pregnancy in Sprague- Dawley rats treated orally at 2 k/g daily does on day's 1-10 post- coitum. 104. Ocimum sanctum Atrophy of Leydig Cells. Leaf powder. 105. Ophiopogon intermedius Showed spermicidal activity. Rhizome. 106. Paracynoglossum incretinum. Decreased the weight of ovarie 107. Pentapanax leschenaultii Completely immobilised human leschenaultii Fruit/ spermatozoa. ethanolic extract. 108. Phytolacca americana Spermatocidal agent possesses Roots/EtOH extract. weak estrogenic property; inhibit implantation at does 80 and 20 mg/mouse given orally. 109. Phtolacca dodecandra Prevented pregnancy or BuOH extract of decreased the embryonic count sundried berries. on days 1, 4 and 6 after coitus, had little or no effect on pregnancy at doses 100 [micro]g. after 15 min. compared to 50% in a control. Reduced sperm motility to 0% at 20 [micro]g/ml. 110. Piper betle L. Dry extract. Oral contraceptive prevents implantation of fertilized ovum. 111. Pipe longum Fruit/ Antispermetogenic effect. aceton, benzene Prevent implantation and EtOH extract. in 50% of rats. 112. Pipe peopuloides Post-coital antifertility petroleum ether extract. activity. 113. Pisum sativum Oral contraceptive inhibits endometrial development in rats. 114. Pithecolobium saman Spermicidal activity. Flowers. 115. Pittosporum nilghrense Killed human spermatozoa (0.125% I or II) 116. Plantago ovata Froms a gel in fallopian 117. Plantanus orientails Prevent implantation of 50% Acetone extract. or rats. 118. Plumbago zeylanica Effective antifertility agents. Roots/EtOH extract. Anti-implantation, abortifacient activity in rats, inhibit ovulation in rabbits. (I) has LD50 values of 4 and 6.5 mg/100g in mice and rats respectively. 119. Plianthes tuberosa Oral contraceptive prevents implantation of fertilized ovum. 120. Primula vulgaris Immobilized human sperm (60-120 x [10.sup.9] sperm/ml) at dilution of 1:1000. 121. Pseudolarix kaemferi Terminated pregnancy. 122. Pueraria tuberosa Post-coital contraceptive. Exhibit Tubers/50% ethanolic, 88.8% and 85.5% anti-implantation D.C. and methanolic, activity. Crude powder, ethanolic crude powder, butanolic, and butanolic extracts evoke a hexane, chloroform, significant antifertility activity petroleum ether, in rats, mice and hamsters whereas benzene extract. hexane, chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and banzene extracts are significantly effective to prevent implantation only in rats and mice. 123. Pulmonaria mollis Contracetive action. 124. Punica grantum Prevent implantation in 50% of rats Aqueous and MeOH extract. 125. Rauwolfia series Affect the fertilising capacity of human spermatozoa in vitro. 126. Rhoeo spathacea Stimulatory activity of uterus. 127. Ricinus communis When administered to adult female Seeds/methanolic rats and rabbits at doses up to 1.2 extracts ether soluble g/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively, fraction. showed anti-implantation and anticonceptive activities. 128. Ruellia prostrata 20% antifertility activity 10 Petroleum ether and mg/kg, 40% antifertility activity aqueous extract. in female rats 500 mg/kg. 129. Ruta graveolans Showed significant antifertility Root, stem and leaf/ activity in rats when administered chloroform extract. intragastrically on day 1-10 post coitum. I act at early stages of pregnancy. 130. Salsola Compound A had a contraceptive tuberculatiformis effect on female Wistar rats with Shrub a concomitant decrease in total body weight, uterus etc. Caused prolonged gestation in sheep and contraception in rats. 131. Salviafruticosa Viable fetuses reduced in females. Leaves/aqueous and ethanolic extract. 132. Sapindus mukorosu Spermicidal activity in human seme. 133. Saracaindica Showed anti-progestational activity in rabbits. Exhibited 33.3% to 85.7% anti-implantation effect when given 1.25 to 50 mg/kg orally from days 1-5 of pregnancy 134. Schefflera capitata Spermicidal activity. 135. Senecio vulgaris Administered orally to rats on days Methanolic extract. 1-10 postcoitum, decreased the no. of normal fetuses per pregnant rat. 136. Solanum crassypetalum Showed significant contrceptive Aerial parts/ethanolic activity when administered orally extract. to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats in days 1-10 postcoitum. 137. Solanum xanthocarpum Antispermatogenic/anti-androgenic properties. Effect on germ cells & Leydig cells. 138. Sophora japonica Contraceptive action or antifertili 138. Sophora japonica Contraceptive action or antifertility action in lab. animals. 139. Spartiumjunceum Reduced rate of fertility and Broom acrosin enzyme activity. Male adult rabbits and rats when treated with the drug showed a significant decrease in fertility. The antifertility effect is completely reversible. 140. Stemodia durantifolia Antifertility activity. 141. Sterculia foetida Chemosterilant in female housefly. 142. Stevia rebaudiana Desease in testosterone level. Whole plant, aqueous extract. 143. Striga Iutea Possesses significant antifertility Whole plant/petroleum activity in mice. Graded doses in ether and chloroform acacia suspension by oral extracts. administration from day 1 to day 4 of pregnancy showed dose-dependent anti-implantation activity (5-25 mg/kg body weight/day). Exhibits estrogenic property at their contraceptive dose level. 144. Striga orobanchioides Exhibited slight anti-estrogenic ethanolic extract. activity. Showed dose-dependent and significatn anti-implantation activity. Reduced weight of sex organs. 145. Syzygium cumini Antispermatogenic effect. Alcoholic extract 146. Tabernaemontana Prevents pregnancy in adult female heyheana rats on oral administration. 147. Taxus baccata Inhibited pregnancy in 60% of Leaves/aqueous, albino rats. alcoholic, petroleum ether extract. 148. Terminalia arjuna Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on Stem bark. days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited implantation in 60% of animals and increased foetal loss. 149. Terminalia chebula Administered orally at 500 ml/kg on Seeds. days 1-5 of pregnancy inhibited implantation in 60% of animals and increased foetal loss. 150. Thalictrum species Possesses estrogenic activity. minus and foetidum. Showed contraceptive activity, when administered s.c. to rats post coitum. Thalcosides has greatest contraceptive effect decreasing pregnancy by 50% at 0.25 mg/kg. 151. Thespesia populnea 100% inhibition of implantation in female ablino mice. 152. Traqia involucerta Effective oral contraceptive in rats and inhibits implantation. 153. Trichosanthes Induced mid term abortion in mice cucumeroids and twice as potent as Roots tubers. trichosanthin. 154. Trichosanthes kirilowi Induced mid-term abortion. Root tuber. 155. Trigonella foenum- Exerts both antifertility and graecum antiandrogenic activity. Dosage = Seed extract. 100 mg/day/male albino rat. 156. Tripterygium wilfordii Safe, reversible male antifertility agent. Antispermatogenic activity similar to that of gossypol (30 mg/kg in diet for 80 days). Induce complete infertility male rats and selected for further toxicological and pharmacological evaluation. 157. Uncaria tomentosa Prevent pregnancy in mice when Root. given orally. 158. Vicoa indica Possessed antifertility activity which is dose-related and was found to be free from side effects. 159. Vinca rosea Decrease in secretory activity of accessory sex glands. Epididymal dysfunction. 160. Vitex negundo 'L' 100% anti-implantation effects when Seeds. given orally from day 4-6 pregnancy. Dose 100 mg/kg i.p. for 45 days, azoospermia achieved without altering the metabolism and (or) libido. 161. Xestospongia Antifertility activity. wiedenmayeri Name of the Plant/ S.No. Part of the Plant/extract References 1. Abrus precatorius Zia-ul-Haque et al. 1983a, b, Dry extract from seeds Sinha and Mathur, 1990, Ratnasooria et al. 1991. 2. Acacia arabica Chowdhury et al. 1984. 3. Acacia auriculiformis Pakrashi et al. 1991. 4. Acacia caesia Banerji and Nigam, 1980. 5. Acacia catechu Chowdhury et al. 1984. 6. Acacia concinna Banerji et al. 1979, Banerji Bark. and Nigam, 1980, Kamboj and Dhawan, 1982. 7. Acalypha indica Hiremath et al. 1999. 8. Achyranthes aspera Prakash, 1986, Wadhwa et al. Methanolic, acetone, 1986. n-BuOH extract of aerial parts. 9. Achyranthes bidentata Zhu, 1982. 10. Adiantum capillus Murthy et al. 1984. Whole plant/petroleum ether extract. 11. Aehonychon purpurea- Mats et al. 1982. caemleum 12. Albizzia lebbek Varshney et al. 1979. 13. Albizzia procera Banerji et al. 1979. Seeds. 14. Anagallis arvensis Kamboj and Dhawan, 1982. Whole plant. 15. Ananas comosus Pakrashi and Basak, 1976. 16. Andrographis Shamsuzzoha et al. 1979, paniculata Akbarsha et al. 1990. Leaves dry powder, powdered stem. 17. Androsace Surina et al. 1971, septentrionalis Mats et al. 1984, Plant extract. Mats and Savchenko, 1986. 18. Aristolochia indica Pakrashi and Shaha, 1977, Roots/EtOH extract. Che et al. 1984, Gupta et al. 1996b. 19. Asparagus pubescens Nwafor et al. 1998. Root/methanolic extract. 20. Azadirachta indica Deshpande et al. 1980, Sinha Leaves, seeds/dry et al. 1984a, b, Tewari et al. powder, hexane, 1986, Prakash et al. 1988, ethanolic extract. Riar et al. 1988, Choudhary et al. 1990, Upadhyay et al. 1990, Garg et al. 1993, Juneja and Williams, 1993, Shaikh et al. 1993, Upadhyay et al. 1993, Garg et at. 1994, Juneja et al. 1994, Juneja and Williams, 1994, Jacobson, 1995, Kasturi et al. 1995, Talwar et al. 1997, Garg et al. 1998, Mukerjee et al. 1999, Awasthy, 2001. 21. Balanites roxburghii Dixit et al. 1981 b. planch fruit pulp extract/ethanolic extract. 22. Barleria prionitis Gupta et al. 2000. Root extract. 23. Beaumontia grandiflora Choudhary et al. 1990. Leaves extract. 24. Berberis sp. Kondo, 1976. 25. Berberis chitria Gupta et al. 1989a. 26. Brachybotrys Mats et al. 1982. paridiformis 27. Bursera fagaroides Huacuja et al. 1990. Cortex/ethanolic extract. 28. Butea frondosa Razdan et al. 1969, Seeds/ethanolic extract. Kapila et al. 1970. 29. Butea monosperma Dixit et al. 1981a, Seeds. Bhargava, 1986b. 30. Calendula officinalis Pakhurst and Stolzenberg, 1975. 31. Calotropis procera Gupta et al. 1990. Root. 32. Cannabis sativa Dixit, 1981. 33. Carica papaya Das, 1980, Chnoy and George, 1983, Fruit, drypowder Lohiya and Goyal, 1992, Chinoy et of seed. al. 1994, Lohiya et al. 1994, Lohiya et al. 1999a, Lohiya et al. 1999b, Udoh and Kehinde, 1999, Lohiya et al. 2000, Pathak et al. 2000, Stokes, 2001. 34. Casearia iticifolia Weniger et al. 1982. Leaves. 35. Centella asiatica Dutta and Basu, 1968. 36. Chordia dichotoma Choudhary et al. 1990. Leaf extract. 37. Cichorium intybus Keshri et al. 1998. Seeds/ethanolic extract. 38. Citrus aurantium Ghosh et al. 1955. Peel. 38a. Clerodendrum serratum Setty et. al. 1976. Plants excludint root. 39. Colebrookia Gupta et al. 2001. oppositifolia Leaf extract. 40. Coleus barbatus Almeida and Lemonica, 2000. Hydroalcoholic extract. 41. Combretodendron africanum Bouquet et al. 1967, stem bark/aqueous extract. Benie et al. 1990 42. Coccus lacca Suganthan and Santhakumari, 1979. 43. Curcuma longa 50% Purohit, 1991. ethanolic extract. 44. Curcuma zedoaria Seshadri and Pillai, 1981. Tubers. 45. Cyclamen persicum Primorac et al. 1985. 46. Cynoglossum officinale Man'ko et al. 1977. 47. Cynomorum coccineum El rahman et al. 1999. Aqueous extract. 48. daphne species Hu et al. 1984. 49. Datura quercifolia Chandhoke, 1978, Chandhoke et al. 1978a. 50. Daucus carota Sharma et al. 1976, Seeds/alcoholic extract. Tung et al. 1981, Chu et al. 1985. 51. Deutzia corymbosa Prakash, 1986. Whole plant/50% ethanolic extract 52. Dictamnus albus Woo et al. 1987. Root bark/methanolic and hexane extract. 53. Dieffenbachia amoena Costa de Pasquale et al. 1984. Leaves/ aqueous extract 54. Dioscorea zingiberensis Applezweiz, 1977, Szechwan Institute of Biology, 1978. 55. Diploclisia glaucescens Bandara et al. 1989. Stem. 56. Dipsacus mitis Kitchla et al. 1999. Root/ethyl acetate extract 57. Echeveria gibbifiora Delgado et al. 1999. Aqueous crude extract 58. Echinops echinatus Sharma et al. 1988, Root/50% alcoholic Chaturvedi et al. 1995a, b. extract. 59. Echium vulgare Man'ko et al. 1977. 60. Embelia ribes Das, 1966, Kholkute et al. Seeds or fruit berries/ 1978, Seshadri et al. 1978, petroleum ether, Purandare et al. 1979, methanolic, henzene Krishnaswamy and and chloroform extract. Purushottaman, 1980a, b, Prakash, 1981, Dixit and Bhargava, 1983, Agarwal et al. 1986, Prakash et al. 1986, Roy Chaudhary et al. 2001. 61. Ensete superpa Amonkar et al. 1978. Seeds. 62. Ephedera gerardiana Prakash, 1986. Acetone extract. 63. Epilobium augustifolium Hiermann and Bucar, 1997. Hexane/aqueous extract. 64. Eupatorium brevipes Guerrero et al. 1988. 65. Ferula jaesochkeana Singh et al. 1985, Aerial part/hexane Prakash et al. 1991. extract. 66. Foeniculum vulgare Seshadri and Pillai, 1981, Seeds. Farooq et al. 1991 67. Gardenia jasminoides Xu and Gao, 1986, Flowers/ethyl acetate Xu et al. 1987b. extract. 68. Geranium lucidum Prakash, 1986. Acetone extract. 69. Gnaphalium indicum Prakash, 1986. Whole plant/50% ethanolic extract. 70. Gossypium barbadense Thomas et al. 1991. Seed/aqueous extract. 71. Gossypum herbaceum National Co-ordination group on male antifertility agents, 1978, Chang et al. 1980, Chien et al. 1980, Waller et al. 1980, Hoshiai et al. 1981, Liu, 1981, Murthy et al. 1981, Shi et al. 1981, Tso and Lee, 1981a, b, Ye et al. 1981, Cameron et al. 1982, Hadley and Burgos, 1982, Hoffer, 1982, Hoshiai et al. 1982, Jensen et al. 1982, Kalla, 1982, Kalla et al. 1982, Kulkarni, 1982, Lei, 1982, Shandilya et al. 1982, Tso and Lee, 1982a, b, Zhou, 1982, Zhou et al. 1982a, b, Gu, 1983, Gu et al. 1983, Hong et al. 1983, Kennedy et al. 1983, Lei, 1983, Posinovec, 1983, Prasad and Diczfalusy, 1983, Shi and Friend, 1983, De Peyester, 1984, Gu et al. 1984a, b, Nordenskjoeld and Lambert, 1984, Qian and Wang, 1984, Xiao and Gu, 1984, Kainz et al. 1985a, b, Kalla et al. 1985, Matlin et aT. 1985, Sadykov et al. 1985, Segal, 1985, Stephens et al. 1985, Wang etal. 1985,Walleretal. 1986, Abou_Donia et al. 1989, Kanwar et al. 1989, Gupta et al 1996a, Coutinho, 2002. 72. Guetterda andamanica Keshri et al. 1998. Aerial parts/ethanolic extract. 73. Gypsophila paniculata Abd-Elbary and Nour, 1979. 74. Hedera nepalensis Pant et al. 1988b. Inflorescence. 75. Heliotropium Andhiwal et al. 1985. indicum Petroleum ether extract. 76. Hibiscus macranthus Moundipa et al. 1999. Aqueous extract. 77. Hibiscus rosasinensis Kholkute et al. 1976a, Singwi and Flowers/benzene, Lall, 1981, Singh et al. 1982, chloroform and 50% Bhattacharya et al. 1984, Pal et EtOH extract. al. 1985, Pakrashi et al. 1986, Reddy et al. 1997. 78. Hyptis suabeoleus Saluja and Santarin, 1997. Whole plant. 79. Ixora finlaysoniana Singh et al. 1993. Serial part/crude ethanolic extract. 80. Juniperus communis Prakash, 1986. Acetone extract. 81. Lappula myosotis Mats et al. 1982. 82. Lepidium capitatum Singh et al. 1984. Whole plant/ benzene extract. 83. Lithospermum Mats et al. 1982. erythrorhizon 84. Lygodium flexuosum Gaitonde and Mahajan, 1980. Whole plant/ alcoholic extract. 85. Malvaviscus Dixit and Bhargava, 1978, Joshi et conzattus Greenm al. 1980, Verma et al. 1980, Joshi Flowers/methanolic, et al. 1981, Saluja and Santarin, 50% EtOH extract. 1983, Pakrashi et al. 1985, Banerjee et al. 1999. 86. Marsdenia koi Yuan et al. 1991. Whole plantlmethanolic extract. 87. Maytenus ilicifolia Leaves/ethanolic extract. 88. Melodinusfusiformis He et al. 1992. Keshri et al. 1998. 89. Memcyclon lushingtonii Aerial parts/ethanolic extract. 90. Mentha arvensis Mathur, 1991, Leaves/petroleum ether, Sharma and Jacob, 2001. 50% ethanolic extract. 91. Mesuaferrea Seshadri and Phillai, 1981. Flowers. 92. Momordica augusti- Aguwa and Mittal, 1983. sepala L. Aqueous extract. 93. Momordica charantia Chan et al. 1984, Chan et al. Seeds/petroleum ether 1986, Ng et al. 1986, Tam and benzene extract. et al. 1986, Yeung et al. 1986, Neseem et al. 1998. 94. Momordica Yeung et al. 1988. lochinchinensis Roots-tubers. 95. Momordica diocia Dhawan et al. 1980. Tuber/zqueous extract. 96. Montanoa tomentosa Gallegos, 1977, Leaves/hexane, Mateos and Noriega, 1977, aqueous extract. Hahn et al. 1981, Levine et al. 1981, Bejar et al. 1984, Gallegos, 1985. 97. Moringa oleifera Shukla et al. 1988. Roots/aqueous extract. 98. Murraya exotica Kong et al. 1985a, Roots. Kong et al. 1986b. 99. Murraya paniculata Kong, 1985, Kong et al. Roots 1985a, b, Kong et al. 1986a. 100. Myristica fragrans Misra and Shukla, 1980. Ethanolic extract. 101. Nelumbo nucifera Mazumder et al. 1992. Seeds/petroleum ether extract. 102. Nicotiana tabaccum Londonkar et al. 1998. 103. Nigella sativa Seshadri and Pillai, 1981, Seeds/hexane extract. Kong et al. 1986b, Keshri et al. 1995 104. Ocimum sanctum Singh, 1997. Leaf powder. 105. Ophiopogon intermedius Rawat et al. 1988. Rhizome. 106. Paracynoglossum incretinum. Man'ko et al. 1977. 107. Pentapanax leschenaultii Pant et al. 1988a. leschenaultii Fruit/ ethanolic extract. 108. Phytolacca americana Shaaban and Ahmed, 1959. Roots/EtOH extract. 109. Phtolacca dodecandra Pakhurst and Stolzenberg, BuOH extract of 1975, Stolzenberg and sundried berries. Pakhurst, 1975, Stolzenberg et al. 1976. 110. Piper betle L. Dry extract. Das, 1976. 111. Pipe longum Fruit/ Das , 1966, Das, 1976, aceton, benzene Raman et al. 1976, Malini et and EtOH extract. al. 1999. Roy Chaudhary et al. 2001. 112. Pipe peopuloides Chandhoke et al. 1978a. petroleum ether extract. Prakash, 1986. 113. Pisum sativum Sanyal et al. 1950, Sanyal, 1956a, Sanyal, 1960, Sanyal, 1965. 114. Pithecolobium saman Varshney and Khanna, 1978. Flowers. 115. Pittosporum nilghrense Jain et al. 1980. 116. Plantago ovata Nandi et al. 1982 117. Plantanus orientails Prakash, 1986. Acetone extract. 118. Plumbago zeylanica Chowdhury et al 1982, Roots/EtOH extract. Prasad and Diczfalusy, 1983, Bhargava, 1984. 119. Plianthes tuberosa Das, 1976, Chattopadhyay et al. 1983. 120. Primula vulgaris Primorac et al. 1985. 121. Pseudolarix kaemferi Xu and Gao, 1986. 122. Pueraria tuberosa Prakash et al. 1985, Tubers/50% ethanolic, Prakash, 1986, D.C. and methanolic, Shukla, 1996. crude powder, butanolic, hexane, chloroform, petroleum ether, benzene extract. 123. Pulmonaria mollis Mats et al. 1982. 124. Punica grantum Prakash, 1986. Aqueous and MeOH extract. 125. Rauwolfia series Pellegatti, 1966, Zipper et al. 1982, Chan and Tang, 1984. 126. Rhoeo spathacea Weinger et al. 1982. 127. Ricinus communis Okwuasaba et al. 1991. Seeds/methanolic Salhab et al. 1999. extracts ether soluble fraction. 128. Ruellia prostrata Andhiwal et al. 1986. Petroleum ether and aqueous extract. 129. Ruta graveolans Kong et al. 1989. Root, stem and leaf/ chloroform extract. 130. Salsola Louw et al. 1997, tuberculatiformis Louw et al. 2000. Shrub 131. Salviafruticosa Elbeticha et al. 1998. Leaves/aqueous and ethanolic extract. 132. Sapindus mukorosu Setty et al. 1976. 133. Saracaindica Suganthan and Santhakumari, 1979. 134. Schefflera capitata Jain et al. 1977. 135. Senecio vulgaris Tu et al. 1988. Methanolic extract. 136. Solanum crassypetalum Keshri et al. 1988. Aerial parts/ethanolic extract. 137. Solanum xanthocarpum Dixit and Gupta, 1982, Gupta et al. 1989b. 138. Sophora japonica 138. Sophora japonica He et al. 1982. 139. Spartiumjunceum Baccetti et al. 1993, Broom Chen et al. 1993. 140. Stemodia durantifolia Weniger et al. 1982.] 141. Sterculia foetida Beroza and Brecque, 1967. 142. Stevia rebaudiana Melis, 1999. Whole plant, aqueous extract. 143. Striga Iutea Hiremath and Rao, 1990, Whole plant/petroleum Hiremath et al. 1990. ether and chloroform extracts. 144. Striga orobanchioides Hiremath et al. 1997, ethanolic extract. Hiremath et al. 2000. 145. Syzygium cumini Sinha et al. 1986. Alcoholic extract 146. Tabernaemontana Meyer et al. 1973. heyheana 147. Taxus baccata Garg, 1972 Leaves/aqueous, alcoholic, petroleum ether extract. 148. Terminalia arjuna Seshadri and Pillai, Stem bark. 1981, Chauhan et al. 1990. 149. Terminalia chebula Seshadri and Pillai, Seeds. 1981. 150. Thalictrum species Mats et al. 1988 minus and foetidum. 151. Thespesia populnea Murthy et al. 1981. 152. Traqia involucerta Chowdhury et al. 1984. 153. Trichosanthes Yeung and Li, 1987. cucumeroids Roots tubers. 154. Trichosanthes kirilowi Yeung and Li, 1987. Root tuber. 155. Trigonella foenum- Kamal et al. 1993. graecum Seed extract. 156. Tripterygium wilfordii Zheng et al. 1985, Zhen et al. 1995, Lue et al. 1998, Huynh et al. 2000. 157. Uncaria tomentosa Keplinger 1982. Root. 158. Vicoa indica Gandhi et al. 1983, Dhall and Dogra ,1988. 159. Vinca rosea Akbarsha et al. 1995. Averel et al. 1996. 160. Vitex negundo 'L' Bhargava, 1984a, b, Seeds. Bhargava, 1986a, Bhargava 1989. 161. Xestospongia Coral et al. 1995. wiedenmayeri
Abd-Elbary A, Nour SA (1979) Correlation between the spermicidal activity and the homolytic index of certain plants saponins. Pharmazie 34 (9): 560-561
Abou-Donia MB, Othman MA, Obih P (1989) Interspecies comparison of pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of (+/-)-gossypol in male Fischer-344 rats and male B6C 3F mice. Toxicology 55(1-2): 37-51
Agarwal S, Chauhan S, Mathur R (1986) Antifertility effects of embelin in male rats. Andrologia 18 (2): 125-131
Aguwa CN, Mittal GC (1983) Abortifacient effects of the roots of Momordica augustisepala. J Ethnopharmac 7: 169-174
Akbarsha MA, Stanley A, Averal HI (1995) Effect of vincristine vincristine /vin·cris·tine/ (vin-kris´ten) an antineoplastic vinca alkaloid; used as the sulfate salt in the treatment of various neoplasms, including Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Kaposi's on Leydig cell Leydig cell
See interstitial cell. and accessory reproductive organs Reproductive organs
The group of organs (including the testes, ovaries, and uterus) whose purpose is to produce a new individual and continue the species.
Mentioned in: Choriocarcinoma . Current Science 68: 1053-1057
Akbarsha MP, Manivannan B, Hamid KS, Vijayan B (1990) Antifertility effect of Andrographis paniculata Andrographis paniculata,
n See kalmegh. (Nees) in male albino albino (ălbī`nō) [Port.,=white], animal or plant lacking normal pigmentation. The absence of pigment is observed in the body covering (skin, hair, and feathers) and in the iris of the eye. rats. Indian J Experimental Biology 28: 421-426
Almeida FCG FCG First Consulting Group
FCG Foreign Clearance Guide
FCG Fatigue Crack Growth
FCG Flux Compression Generator
FCG Guinean Civic Forum (Guinea-Bissau)
FCG Fisheries Consultative Group (ASEAN-SEAFDEC) , Lemonica IP (2000) The toxic effects of Coleus coleus (kō`lēəs), common name for a genus of plants with large colorful leaves native to tropical Asia and Africa. Several species are grown as ornamentals. Plants of the genus Coleus are in the family Labiatae (mint family). barbatus B. on the different periods of pregnancy in rats. J Ethnopharmac 73(1-2): 53-60
Amonkar AJ, Trivedi GK, Bhattacharya SC (1978) Structure of Kadalin, a biologically active component of Banakadali (Ensete superba). Indian J Chemistry Sec B, 16B (1): 12-15
Andhiwal CK, Has C, Varshney RP (1985) Chemical and Pharmacological studies of Heliotropium indicum. Indian Drugs 22(11): 567-569
Andhiwal CK, Has C, Varshney RP (1986) Antifertility screening and phytochemical phy·to·chem·i·cal
A nonnutritive bioactive plant substance, such as a flavonoid or carotenoid, considered to have a beneficial effect on human health. investigation of Ruellia prostrata poir. J Indian Chem Soc 63 (10): 934
Applezweiz, N (1977) Dioscorea-the pill crop. Crop. Resour. [Proc Annu Meet Soc Econ Bot] 17th (Published 1977): 149-163
Arsyad KM (1986) The possibilities of developing male contraceptives. Medica medica (māˑ·dē·k 12(4): 342-351
Astedt B, Svanberg L, Jeppsson S, Liedholm P, Rannevik G (1977) The natural estrogenic hormone estradiol as a new component of combined oral contraceptives. British Medical Journal The British Medical Journal, or BMJ, is one of the most popular and widely-read peer-reviewed general medical journals in the world. It is published by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (owned by the British Medical Association), whose other 1(6056): 269
Averal HI, Stanley A, Murugaian P, Palanisamy A, Akbarsha MA (1996) Specific effect of Vincristine on epididymis. Indian J Experimental Biology 34: 53-56
Awasthy KS (2001) Genotoxicity Genotoxic substances are a type of carcinogen, specifically those capable of causing genetic mutation and of contributing to the development of tumors. This includes both certain chemical compounds and certain types of radiation. of a crude leaf extract of Neem in male germ cells of mice. Cytobios 106 Suppl 2: 151-164
Baccetti B, Burrini AG, Chen JS, Collodel G, Giachetti D, Matteucci F, Menesini-Chen MG, Moretti E, Piomboni P, Sensini C (1993) Evaluation of the antifertility activity of the broom Spartium junceum Spartium junceum
shrub in the family Fabaceae. Contains the quinolizidine alkaloid cytisine which causes convulsions and fatal respiratory failure. Called also Spanish broom. in the mammalian male. Zygote zygote: see reproduction. 1(1): 71-78
Bagros M (1976) Contraceptive compositions. Ger. offen 2, 619 464 (Cl. A61K45/00), 11 Nov, Brit. Appl. 75/18, 527, 02 May 1975: 19 pp
Bagros M (1979) Research on the coagulation of cervical secretion envisaged as contraceptive process. Therapie 34(4): 523-527
Bandara BMR BMR basal metabolic rate.
basal metabolic rate
n See basal metabolic rate.
basal metabolic rate. , Jayasinghe L, Karunaratne V Wannigamma GP, Bokel M, Kraus W, Sotheswaram S (1989) Ecdysterone from stem of Diploclisia glaucescens. Phytochemistry phytochemistry,
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Banerjee R, Pal AK, Kabir SN, Pakrashi A (1999) Antiovulatory faculty of the flower of Malvaviscus conzattii. Phytother Res Mar 13(2): 169-171
Banerji R, Nigam SK(1980) Chemistry of Acacia cocinna and A. caesia bark. J Indian Chem Soc 57(10): 1043-1044
Banerji R, Srivastava AK, Misra G, Nigam SK, Singh S, Nigam SC, Saxena RC (1979) Steroid and triterpenoid saponins triterpenoid saponins (trīˈ·terˑ·p as spermicidal agents. Indian Drugs 17(1): 6-8
Bejar E, Enriquez R, Lozoya X (1984) The in virro effect of grandiflorenic acid and zoapatle aqueous crude extract upon spontaneous contractility contractility /con·trac·til·i·ty/ (kon?trak-til´i-te) capacity for becoming shorter in response to a suitable stimulus.
a capacity for becoming short in response to suitable stimulus. of the rat uterus during oestrus Oestrus /Oes·trus/ (es´trus) a genus of botflies. O. o´vis deposits its larvae in nasal passages of sheep and goats, and may cause ocular myiasis in humans.
n. cycle. J Ethnopharmac 11: 87-97
Benie TIA (1) (Telecommunications Industry Association, Arlington, VA, www.tiaonline.org) A membership organization founded in 1988 that sets telecommunications standards worldwide. It was originally an EIA working group that was spun off and merged with the U.S. , Tahiri C, Duval J, Thieulant ML (1990) Combretodendron africanum bark extract as an antifertility agent. I: Estrogenic effects in vivo and LH release cultured gonadotrope cells. J Ethnopharmac 29(1): 13-23
Beroza M, Brecque GCL GCL - General Control Language. A portable job control language.
["A General Control Interface for Satellite Systems", R.J. Dakin in Command Languages, C. Unger ed, N-H 1973]. (1967) Chemosrerilant activity of oils, especially oil of Sterculia foetida in the housefly. J Econ Entomology entomology, study of insects, an arthropod class that comprises about 900,000 known species, representing about three fourths of all the classified animal species. 60(1): 196-199
Beyermann K, Roeder E (1967) Thin layer chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate chemical compounds . It involves a stationary phase consisting of a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide, or cellulose immobilised onto a flat, and infrared spectrographic spec·tro·graph
1. A spectroscope equipped to photograph or otherwise record spectra.
2. A spectrogram.
spec determination of microgram microgram /mi·cro·gram/ (µg) (mi´kro-gram) one millionth (10-6) of a gram.
Abbr. amounts as illustrated by the analysis of oral contraceptives. Fresenius Z Analytical Chemistry 230(5): 347-355
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Bhargava SK (1984b) Estrogenic and pregnancy interceptory effects of the flavonoids flavonoids,
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Bhargava SK (1986a) Antifertility effects of the flavonoids (VI-VII) of Vitex negundo L. seeds in dogs. Plant Med Phytother 20(2): 188-198
Bhargava SK (1986b) Estrogenic and post coital co·i·tus
Sexual union between a male and a female involving insertion of the penis into the vagina.
[Latin, from past participle of co anticonceptive activity in rats of butin isolated from Butea monosperma seed. J Erhnopharmac 18(1): 95(101)
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Bhargava SK (1989) Antiandrogenic effects of a flavanoid-rich fraction of Vitex negundo seeds: a histological and biochemical study in dogs. J Ethnopharmac 27(3): 327-339
Bhattacharya K, Kabir SN, Pal AK, Pakrashi A (1984) Effect of benzene extract of Hibiscus hibiscus: see mallow.
Any of about 250 species of shrubs, trees, and herbaceous plants that make up the genus Hibiscus, in the mallow family, native to warm temperate and tropical regions. rosa-sinesis flowers on facultative delayed implantation and uterine uptake of estrogen in mice. IRCS IRCS Institute for Research in Cognitive Science (University of Pennsylvania)
IRCS Indian Red Cross Society
IRCS Infrared Camera and Spectrograph
IRCS International Radio Call Sign
IRCS Improved Radar Calibration System Med Sci 12(9): 841-842
Bingel AS, Benoit PS (1973a) Oral contraceptives. Therapeutics versus adverse reactions adverse reactions,
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Bingel AS, Benoit PS (1973b) Oral contraceptives. Therapeutics versus adverse reactions, with an outlook of future, II. J Pharma Sciences 62(3): 349-362
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Blashkova O, Sasko A, Pontuch A, Veselska T, Lipovska A, Kostolny I (1981) Side effects of oral contraceptives. Bratisl Lek Lek (lĕk), northern arm of the Rhine River, 40 mi (64 km) long, branching from the Neder Rijn (Lower Rhine), central Netherlands, and flowing W into the Nieuwe Maas (New Meuse) River. It is navigable for its entire length. Listy 75(2): 167-172
Borell U (1970) Side effects of fertility controlling agents. Contr Hum Fert Proc Nobel Symp 15th: 321-335
Bouquet A, Debray MM, Dauguet JC, Girre A, Leclair JF, Le Naour M, Patay R (1967) Pharmacological activity of Combretodendron africanum bark with special regard to its abortive and estrous es·trous
Relating to or being in estrus.
pertaining to or emanating from estrus.
estrous cycle cycle-disturbing activity. Therapie 22(2): 325-326
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Brondegaard VJ (1973) Contraceptive plant drugs. Planta Medica 23(2): 167-172
Brown-Woodman PD, White IG (1977) Investigation of the spermicidal action of quinine and emetine emetine /em·e·tine/ (em´e-ten) an alkaloid derived from ipecac or produced synthetically; its hydrochloride salt is used as an antiamebic.
an alkaloid derived from ipecac or produced synthetically. . Theriogenology 8(4): 199
Cameron SM, Waller DP, Zaneveld LJD LJD Little Jimmy Dickens (country music singer) (1982) Vaginal spermicidal activity of gossypol gossypol /gos·sy·pol/ (gos´i-pol) a toxin found in cottonseed and detoxified by heating; it has male antifertility properties, apparently having its effects in the seminiferous tubules.
n. in Macaca Macaca
genus of Old World monkeys very popular in zoos and for some aspects of human laboratory medicine. See macaque. aretoides. Fertil Steril 37(2): 273-274
Chan SYW SYW So You Wanna ....
SYW Seven Years' War
SYW Synod Youth Workshop , Tang LCH LCH Launch
LCH London Clearing House
LCH Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (medicine; immune system disorder)
LCH Light Combat Helicopter
LCH Lake Charles, LA, USA - Municipal (Airport Code) (1984) Effects of reserpine reserpine (rĕsûr`pēn), alkaloid isolated from the root of the snakeroot plant (Rauwolfia serpentina), a small evergreen climbing shrub of the dogbane family native to the Indian subcontinent. on fertilising capacity of human spermatozoa spermatozoa
see spermatozoon. . Contraception 30(4):363-369
Chan WY, Tam PPL PPL - Polymorphic Programming Language. An interactive, extensible language, based on APL, from Harvard University.
["Some Features of PPL - A Polymorphic Programming Language", T.A. Standish, SIGPLAN Notices 4(8) (Aug 1969)]. , Choi HL, Ng TB, Yeung HW (1986) Effects of momorcharins on the mouse embryo at the early organogenesis organogenesis /or·ga·no·gen·e·sis/ (or?gah-no-jen´e-sis) the origin and development of organs.organogenet´ic
The formation and development of the organs of living things. stage. Contraception 34(5): 537-544
Chan WY, Tam PPL, Yeung HW (1984) The termination of early pregnancy early pregnancy Obstetrics First trimester of pregnancy in the mouse by [beta]-momorcharin. Contraception 29(1): 91-100
Chandhoke N (1978) Daturalactone (DQ) isolated from Datura datura,
n See jimsonweed.
a genus of toxic plants in the family Solanaceae; contain tropane alkaloids including hyoscine (scopolamine), hyoscyamine, atropine which cause excitement, restlessness, pupillary dilation, dryness quercifolia- a new interceptive agent. Indian J Exp Biol 161(4): 419-421
Chandhoke N, Gupta S (1978a) Estrogenic activity of DQ, a steroidal lactone lactone /lac·tone/ (lak´ton) a cyclic organic compound in which the chain is closed by ester formation between a carboxyl and a hydroxyl group in the same molecule.
n. isolated from Datura quercifolia. Indian J Exp Biol 16(6): 48-52 Chandhoke N, Gupta S, Dhar S (1978b) Interceptive activity of piper, their natural amides and semi-synthetic analogs. Indian J Pharmac Sciences 40(4): 113-116
Chang MC, Gu Z, Saksena SK (1980) Effects of gossypol on fertility of male rats, hamsters and rabbits. Contraception 21(5): 461-469
Chattopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay U, Mathur PP, Saini KS, Chosal S (1983) Constituents of Amaryllidaceae Part 4. Effects of hippadine, an Amaryllidacene alkaloid, on testicular functions in rats. Planta Medica 49(4): 252-254
Chaturvedi M, Mali PC, Dixit VP (1995a) Antifertility effects of the root of Echinops echinatus (Roxb.) in male rats. J Environ Pollution 2(4): 153-157
Chaturvedi M, Mali PC, Dixit VP (1995b) Fertility regulation in male rats with the help of Echinops echinatus (Roxb.) root extract. J Phytol phy·tol
A liquid alcohol used in the synthesis of vitamins E and K. Res 8(2): 115-118
Chauhan S, Agarwal S, Mathur R (1990) Vasal va·sal
Of, relating to, or connected with a vessel or duct of the body. assault due to Terminalia arjuna Terminalia arjuna,
n See arjuna. , W., A. bark in albino rats. Andrologia 22(5): 491-494
Che CT, Ahmed MS, Kang SS, Waller DP, Bingel AS, Martin A, Rajamthendran P, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lankin DC, et al. (1984) Studies on Aristolochia III- Isolation and biological evaluation of Aristolochia indica Aristolochia indica,
n See Indian birthwort. roots for fertility regulating activity. J Nat Products 47(2): 331-341
Chen JS, Menesini-Chen MG, Giachetti D, Matteucci F, Barbetti M, Sensini C, Baccetti B (1993) Correlation between male fertility and acrosin-like protease protease /pro·te·ase/ (pro´te-as) endopeptidase.
Any of various enzymes, including the proteinases and peptidases, that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of proteins. activity in rats treated with Spartium junceum. Zygote 1(4): 309-313
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A rapidly evaporating oil of plant derivation, especially an essential oil, that is capable of distillation and that does not leave a stain. Also called ethereal oil. from Daucus carota Daucus carota,
n See Queen Anne's lace.
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Davis GLR GLR Great Lakes Region
GLR Global Learning Resources, Inc (Fremont, CA)
GLR Greater London Radio
GLR Generalized Likelihood Ratio
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Any of numerous tropical American plants of the genus Echeveria, having thick, succulent leaves often clustered in a showy rosette. gibbiflora aqueous crude extract on guinea pig guinea pig (gĭn`ē), domesticated form of the cavy, Cavia porcellus, a South American rodent. It is unrelated to the pig; the name may refer to its shrill squeal. spermatozoa. Phytother Res 13(1): 46-49
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plant member of family Cannabidaceae; called also Indian hemp, hemp, 'grass'.
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powerful Sicilian boxer; won match for Anchises against Dares. [Rom. Lit.: Aeneid]
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The genital passages of the urogenital system.
The organs involved in reproduction. of dog (Canisfamilaris). A histopathological approach. Int J Androl 5(3): 295-307
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Gaitonde BB, Mahajan Mahajan is an Indian surname, found among the Vaishya castes (business communities). In India surname Mahajan is used by two communities: - one residing in North of India(mainly on the Amritsar to Jammu belt) and another belonging to North Maharashtra. RT (1980) Antifertility activity of Lygodium flexuosum. Indian J Med Res 72: 597-604
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Garg S, Doncel G, Chabra S, Upadhyay SN, Talwar A talwar, talwaar, or tulwar (Devanagari: तलवार) is a type of sword prevalent in medieval India dating back to at least the 13th century. It bears a resemblance to the Persian shamshir and the Turkish kilic. GP (1994) Synergistic spermicidal activity of Neem seed extract, reetha saponins and quinine hydrochloride hydrochloride /hy·dro·chlo·ride/ (-klor´id) a salt of hydrochloric acid.
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A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.
Notes: of germ cells and leydig cells in rat and dog made infertile in·fer·tile
Not capable of initiating, sustaining, or supporting reproduction.
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HKS Hrvatski Košarkaški Savez (Croatian Basketball Federation)
HKS Silver Hake
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Any of various evergreen shrubs or trees, mainly from Australia and New Zealand, that make up the genus Pittosporum (family Pittosporaceae), commonly known as Australian laurel. They are planted especially as ornamentals in warm regions. nilghrense Wight et. Apnott. Indian J Pharmac Sci 42(1): 12-13
Jam GK, Sarin sarin (zärēn`), volatile liquid used as a nerve gas. It boils at 147°C; but evaporates quickly at room temperature; its vapor is colorless and odorless. JPS JPS Jewish Publication Society
JPS John Peter Smith (Hospital; Texas)
JPS Justice & Public Safety
JPS Jean Piaget Society
JPS Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome
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Kalla NR, Foo JTW JTW Japan Times Weekly (publication)
JTW Journey to the West (movie; literature)
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An instrument that produces a chromatogram.
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To separate and analyze by chromatography. fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rabbits. Adv Contracept 15(2): 141-161
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pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from sheep.
ovine atopic dermatitis
symmetrical erythema, alopecia, lichenification, excoriation on woolless areas; sporadic cases, recur each summer. corticosteroid-binding globulin corticosteroid-binding globulin
See transcortin. (CBG CBG
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2. cathartic (1, 2).
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plant toxins, e.g. lantadenes A, B, found in Lantana camara, icterogenins A, B, C, found in Lippia spp. Called also triterpene acids.
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Misra N, Sareen KN, Amma MKP MKP Mankind Project
MKP MAP Kinase Phosphatase
MKP Maoist Communist Party (Turkey)
MKP Maurin Kiribati Pati (Kiribati)
MKP Multidimensional Knapsack Problem
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Murthy RSR RSR Regular sinus rhythm, see there , Basu DK, Murti VVS VVS Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund Stuttgart (Public Transit Authority in Stuttgart, Germany)
VVS Very Very Small Inclusions (high quality of diamond)
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1. and testicular and adrenal adrenal /ad·re·nal/ (ah-dre´n'l)
2. adrenal gland.
3. pertaining to an adrenal gland.
1. steroidogenesis steroidogenesis /ste·roi·do·gen·e·sis/ (ste-roi?do-jen´e-sis) production of steroids, as by the adrenal glands.steroidogen´ic
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Prasad Prasāda (Sanskrit: प्रसाद), prasād/prashad (Hindi), Prasāda in (Kannada), prasādam (Tamil), or prasadam MRN MRN Motor Racing Network
MRN Medical Record Number
MRN Magnetic Resonance Neurography
MRN Medicare Remittance Notice
MRN Matières Radioactives Naturelles
MRN Meteorological Rocket Network
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DRK Devnet Resource Kit
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Shlenker RRT RRT Rapid Response Team
RRT Registered Respiratory Therapist
RRT Renal Replacement Therapy
RRT Regional Response Team
RRT Right Side (philately)
RRT Relative Retention Time
RRT Round Robin Test
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Counteracting or preventing the formation of malignant tumors; anticancer.
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R. Unny, (1) A.K. Chauhan, (1) Y.C. Joshi, (1) M.P. Dobhal, (2) and R.S. Gupta (3)
(1) Chemical Laboratory, University of Rajasthan University of Rajasthan is the oldest university in the Indian state of Rajasthan.It was set up on 8 January 1947 as the University of Rajputana and was renamed to its current name in 1956. , Jaipur, India
(2) Roswell Park Cancer Institute The Roswell Park Cancer Institute is a cancer research and treatment center located in Buffalo, New York. Founded in 1898 by Dr. Roswell Park, it was the first dedicated medical facility for cancer treatment and research in the United States. , Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.
(3) Reproductive Physiology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
Y C. Joshi, Chemical Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004, India
Tel.: ++91-141-546038; e-mail: drycj@Jahoo.com