A review of the extent, nature, characteristics and effects of bullying behaviour in schools.
Bullying behaviour no doubt is becoming a common feature, and a nightmare in schools all over the world. It is a worrisome practice in schools because it infringes on the child's right to human dignity Human dignity is an expression that can be used as a moral concept or as a legal term. Sometimes it means no more than that human beings should not be treated as objects. Beyond this, it is meant to convey an idea of absolute and inherent worth that does not need to be acquired and , privacy, freedom and security. The physical, emotional and educational consequences of bullying behaviour can never be underestimated. Therefore, this endeavour attempted to further expose us to the meaning, history, extent and nature of bullying behaviour in schools. The characteristics of bullies and their victims and the effects of bullying on the child's mental health were also discussed.
School has always been recognized as an institution for the transfer of knowledge and culture to the future generation. It is a dynamic human system dedicated to the nurturing of mutual growth and understanding between children and adults (Schultz, Glass & Kamholtz, 1987; Rutter, 1995).
In schools, the learners are the centre of focus. They are of utmost importance hence, adequate information about the students is necessary for any meaningful learning to take place. For teachers' efforts not to be wasted and for learners to change along with the set goals, such factors that affect learning and teaching, which include child growth, age, heredity heredity, transmission from generation to generation through the process of reproduction in plants and animals of factors which cause the offspring to resemble their parents. That like begets like has been a maxim since ancient times. , interest, home and social effects and violence in school (including school bullying and peer victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. ) need to be addressed.
From the psychological perspective, bullying as a behavioural Adj. 1. behavioural - of or relating to behavior; "behavioral sciences"
behavioral characteristics can be conceptualized in a number of ways. It can also be taken to be a subset of aggressive behaviours. As with aggressive behaviours generally, bullying intentionally causes hurt to the recipient. This hurt can be both physical and psychological. Bullying behaviour infringes upon the child's right to human dignity, privacy, freedom and security. It has an influence on the victim's physical, emotional, social and educational well being (Wet, 2005).
Bullies frequently target people who are different from themselves and they seek to exploit those differences. They select victims they think are unlikely to retaliate such as persons who are overweight, wear glasses, or have obvious physical differences like big ears or severe acne acne, common inflammatory disease of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands characterized by blackheads, whiteheads, pustules, nodules and, in the more severe forms, by cysts and scarring. The lesions appear on the face, neck, back, chest, and arms. . Such victims are common subjects of ridicule in the hands of bullies. However, these differences do not necessarily need to be physical, as students who learn at a different pace or are anxious or insecure in·se·cure
1. Lacking emotional stability; not well-adjusted.
2. Lacking self-confidence; plagued by anxiety.
in can also be targets for bullies. Bullies resort to this abusive behaviour as a way of dealing with difficult situations at home such as broken homes, or partial separation from parents. Some bullies may see their behaviours as normal because they grow up from families in which everyone regularly gets angry and shouts.
Whatever the situation or causes, bullies usually pick on others as a way of dealing with their own problems. In some cases, bullies pick on others because they need a victim (someone who seems emotionally or physically weaker), or because they try to gain acceptance and feel more important, popular, or in control. Thus, the thrust of this paper therefore is to bring to further knowledge the concept of bullying, the characteristics of the students who are bullied, the characteristics of the victims, the nature and extent of bullying and the outcome of bullying.
The Concept of Bullying
Bullying is not a new phenomenon among school children. Most adults can remember incidents of bullying in which they were the bullies or the intended victims. Bullying has only received research attention since the early 1970's when Dan Olweus, a Norwegian researcher began to study this area. At that time, strong societal interest in bullying/victim problem emerged in Scandinavia, where bullying was known as "mobbing". Olweus' 1978 book, "Aggression in the Schools--Bullies and Whipping Boys whipping boy
surrogate sufferer for delinquent prince. [Eur. Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 942]
See : Substitution ", is considered a landmark and the first systematic study of the phenomenon of bullying (Noelle, 2005)
Bullying can be described as repeated negative events, which over time are directed at special individuals and which are carried out by one or several other people who are stronger than the victim. Negative events can be aggressive physical contact in the form of fights and shoving, verbal threats and mockery Mockery
changed into lizard for mocking Demeter. [Rom. Myth: Metamorphoses, Zimmerman, 1]
pompous object of practical jokes. [Ger. , grimacing or cruel gesturing.
Bullying occurs when a person willfully willfully adv. referring to doing something intentionally, purposefully and stubbornly. Examples: "He drove the car willfully into the crowd on the sidewalk." "She willfully left the dangerous substances on the property." (See: willful) and repeatedly exercises power over another with hostile or malicious intent. A wide range of physical or verbal behaviours of an aggressive or anti-social nature are encompassed by the term bullying. These include, humiliating hu·mil·i·ate
tr.v. hu·mil·i·at·ed, hu·mil·i·at·ing, hu·mil·i·ates
To lower the pride, dignity, or self-respect of. See Synonyms at degrade. , harassing and mobbing (Colvin, Tobin, Beard, Hagan & Sprague, 1998). Bullying may also assume less direct forms (sometimes referred to as "psychological bullying") such as gossiping, spreading rumours, and shunning or exclusion (O'Connel, Pepler & Craig, 1999).
However, the most widely used definition of bullying is that coined by Olweus (1978), which states that a person is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons. Negative actions are considered to be when someone purposefully pur·pose·ful
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.
2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look. inflicts, or tries to inflict injury or discomfort on another person. Negative actions may be both verbal (e.g. threatening, degrading TO DEGRADE, DEGRADING. To, sink or lower a person in the estimation of the public.
2. As a man's character is of great importance to him, and it is his interest to retain the good opinion of all mankind, when he is a witness, he cannot be compelled to disclose , teasing teasing
the act of parading a male before a female to see if she displays estrus, and is therefore in a state where mating is likely to be fertile. ) and non-verbal (e.g. hitting, kicking, slapping, pushing, vandalizing property, rude gestures, and making faces) (Olweus, 1993). Bullying may be carried out by a single person (the bully) or by a group against a single person (the victim) or by a group.
Langevin (2000) claimed that this definition requires that negative actions must be carried out repeatedly and intentionally to be considered bullying, which excludes occasional and less serious negative action. In order to be considered bullying, there should also be an actual or perceived power imbalance. That is, the person experiencing the negative actions has trouble defending him/ herself and is helpless to some degree against the harassing person or persons (Besag, 1991; Rigby & Slee, 1993).
Olweus (1993) opined that another distinction that is sometimes made in defining bullying is that of direct and indirect bullying. Direct bullying is defined as open attacks on the victim, while indirect bullying consists of social isolation and exclusion from the group. Smith and Sharp (1994) submitted that a further criterion is that bullying must be unprovoked on the part of the victim.
The Characteristics of Students who are Bullies
There are many common characteristics found in most bullies. Bosworth, Espelage and Simon (2001) opined that most bullies are male, popular, and often athletes. They have excellent social skills, with the ability to attract many followers followers
see dairy herd. , and easily manipulate others.
Bullies are psychologically strong and very popular among their peers. However, the peer status is important in terms of boosting their well being. Bullying behaviour is self reinforcing. When students find that putting others down give them approval from their peers, they are likely to do it repeatedly. Sometimes, they can easily butter up to adults, making them unsuspecting bullies (Bosworth, Espelage & Simon 2001).
Generally, a bully is someone who teases and intimidates other students, although there are many other ways to bully a fellow student. Many people feel that the typical bully comes from a broken home, but this is not necessarily true. Still, the less supervision a child gets at home, the more likely he is to be a bully. Different studies have proved that most bullies look for a victim who is smaller, younger and weaker. As a practice, bullies have more aggressive attitudes towards their social surroundings and a positive attitude about violence. Furthermore, it has been shown by different surveys that bullies are steered by impulses, they need to dominate others and do not show any empathy for the victim.
Rigby (1996) discussed two possible conceptualizations of the bully. One is a child who is vicious and uncaring, the product of a dysfunctional family dysfunctional family Psychology A family with multiple 'internal'–eg sibling rivalries, parent-child– conflicts, domestic violence, mental illness, single parenthood, or 'external'–eg alcohol or drug abuse, extramarital affairs, gambling, . This bully has an aggressive temperament, and he/she is hostile and un-empathic in relations with others. The second conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: suggests that some bullies are in fact members of a group that builds its strength on harassing vulnerable children who are not members of their group. The bully may or may not be malicious in intent, and the members reassure themselves that no real harm is being done. Rigby (1996) called this type of bully a "passive bully" or "follower".
As for girls, they experience a different form of bullying. Although it is a more indirect form of bullying, social manipulation is very prevalent within females. Social manipulation can include many actions, including spreading gossip, telling lies, betraying trust, passing notes, ignoring the victim, or excluding the victim (Anonymous, 2001; Kenny, McEachan & Aluede, 2005).
The Characteristics of Students who are Victims of Bully
Victims of bullying are described as more anxious, careful and insecure compared to other students in general. They are not aggressive but have a negative self image. Olweus (1993) stated that bullying victim often lacks friends in the class and at school. Students exposed to long-term bullying can see the school environment as unfriendly, frightening, and go through a major part of school with anxiety and insecurity. The major dependence which bullying victims feel towards their families can also be explained by their vulnerability and their otherwise insecure situation. With respect to physical attributes, victims are physically weak than non-victims.
Bosworth, Espelage and Simon (2001) asserted that 30% to 40% of bullies show some level of depression, and their bullying is often a cry for help. Most likely the victims will be both less confident and unpopular. Therefore, many victims react by becoming upset or crying as a way of dealing with their anger or fear. Victims have a tendency to be depressed, anxious, shy and lonely (Drake, 2003).
Rubin (2003) maintained that from previous research, victims tend to have a lower self-esteem and a high level of depression. Victims tend to be physically smaller, more sensitive, unhappy, cautious, anxious, quiet and withdrawn than other children (Bryne, 1994). Most victims of bullying can be termed "passive" or "submissive sub·mis·sive
Inclined or willing to submit.
sub·mis " victims (Olweus, 1994). They are generally insecure and non-assertive, and react by withdrawing and crying when attacked by other students. In this sense, they are vulnerable to being victimized, as bullies know these children will not retaliate. A less common characteristic, the "provocative victim", has also been described. Olweus (1994) classified this type of victim of bullying as a combination of both anxious and aggressive traits, and these students sometimes provoke classmates Classmates can refer to either:
Active to an excessive or abnormal degree: an overactive child.
o and irritable irritable /ir·ri·ta·ble/ (ir´i-tah-b'l)
1. capable of reacting to a stimulus.
2. abnormally sensitive to stimuli.
3. prone to excessive anger, annoyance, or impatience. behaviour.
The Nature of Bullying
Bullying can take many forms and has been categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat in many ways by various researchers. Pearce (1991) identified three different kinds of bullies: the aggressive one, the anxious one and the passive one.
(a) the aggressive bully--is aggressive towards everybody, not just the weak. The aggressive bulies are insensitive, domineering dom·i·neer·ing
Tending to domineer; overbearing.
domi·neer , lacking in self-control; but, contrary to the psycho-dynamic notion, they are also high in self-esteem. Furthermore, most bullies would fall into this category.
(b). the anxious bully--is more disturbed. They share more of the victim's characteristics, such as low self-esteem, insecurity and loneliness, emotionally unstable and provocative. They are met likely to be victims themselves.
(c). the passive bully--is the one who engages in bullying in order to protect himself /herself and to achieve status. Apassive bully would be easily dominated and led, would be more sensitive to the sufferings of others but would do nothing about it and also would be reluctant to engage in active bullying.
Langevin (2000) classified bully into four, these include:
(a) Physical bullies- these are the easiest to identify. They act out their anger by hitting, shoving, or kicking their chosen target--or by damaging their victim's property.
(b) Verbal bullies--they use words to hurt and humiliate their target, through either name--calling, insult or persistent and harsh teasing.
(c) Relationship bullies--they spread nasty rumours about their target. This behaviour is predominantly adopted by female bullies.
(d) Reactive victims--these are victims of bullying who turn into bullies themselves. Of course, their having been victims of bullying does not excuse their conduct; it only helps to explain it.
Aside the above classifications, other researchers (i.e. Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager & Short-Camilli, 2001; Rigby, 1996) noted that forms of bullying can be basically categorized into five as follows:-
(a) Physical aggressive (e.g. pushing, tripping, spitting)
(b) Social alienation In sociology and critical social theory, alienation refers to an individual's estrangement from traditional community and others in general. It is considered by many that the atomism of modern society means that individuals have shallower relations with other people than they would (e.g. excluding, coercing, other to reject or exclude a person)
(c) Verbal aggression (e.g. name calling, taunting, teasing)
(d) Intimidation (e.g. threats, intimidating in·tim·i·date
tr.v. in·tim·i·dat·ed, in·tim·i·dat·ing, in·tim·i·dates
1. To make timid; fill with fear.
2. To coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats. , coercing one to do what they would not ordinarily do)
(e) Relational bullying:- bullying that damages relationships (e.g. gossiping, spreading rumours, making racial slurs)
Bullying can take the form of direct and indirect, overt or very subtle, and it ranges in severity from mild to severe. There is overlap in the categorizations and again there is no one agreed upon Adj. 1. agreed upon - constituted or contracted by stipulation or agreement; "stipulatory obligations"
noncontroversial, uncontroversial - not likely to arouse controversy categorization (Rigby, 1996).
The more recent form of bullying is electronic bullying, which is otherwise known as digital bullying. This form of bullying is a new and insidious insidious /in·sid·i·ous/ (-sid´e-us) coming on stealthily; of gradual and subtle development.
Being a disease that progresses with few or no symptoms to indicate its gravity. development. It involves the sending of menacing messages through telephone calls or by Email messages. In addition, youths also create hate-filled web pages about a victim where they include personal information about the victim. This form of bullying is extra-ordinarily damaging to the child who is being victimized by it (Aluede, 2006). Moreover, mobile phones are a popular choice for bullies. They provide bullies with the perfect means of taunting their targets with little fear of being caught. Text messages provide complete anonymity. Many "Pay--As--You--Go" mobile phones can be bought over the counter and do not require proof of identity, nor is there any record kept of the new owner. Calls made from these types of mobile phones are difficult to trace (Anonymous, 2005).
The Extent of Bullying
Bullying among school children occurs worldwide. It takes place in small schools, large schools, single sex, co-educational schools, traditional and progressive schools. It occurs in both primary and secondary schools. The most common form of bullying for both sexes is verbal and includes teasing, harassment Ask a Lawyer
Country: United States of America
I recently moved to nev.from abut have been going back to ca. every 2 to 3 weeks for med. and name--calling. It is the most painful form and has the longest--lasting impact. However, extortion extortion, in law, unlawful demanding or receiving by an officer, in his official capacity, of any property or money not legally due to him. Examples include requesting and accepting fees in excess of those allowed to him by statute or arresting a person and, with , physical violence, nasty rumours, exclusion from the group, damage to property and threats are also regarded as bullying. The playground is the most common place for bullying to occur and most children believe that bullying cannot be stopped.
Bullying in schools across the world is beginning to assume a serious dimension. For example, in Australia, Prof. Ken Rigby reported that one student out of six between the ages of 9 and 17, is affected by bullying at least once a week. In American schools, there are approximately 2.1 million bullies and 2.7 million victims (Lumsdem, 2002).
For instance, in U.S., in a national study, Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Morton and Scheidt (2001) found that about 30% of 6th through 10th grade students had been involved in bullying incidents with moderate or frequent regularity. Similar prevalence rates were found in the State of Florida. For example, in a study by Bully Police, USA (n. d.) found that of the 2,701,022 school age children in Florida, approximately 442,157 students representing 16.37% were involved in bullying.
Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Morton and Scheidt (2001) added that limited available data show that bullying is much more common among younger teens than older teens. As teens grow older, they are less likely to bully others and to be the targets of bullies.
Rigby and Slee (1991) remarked that bullying occurs more frequently among boys than girls. Teenage boys are much more likely to bully others and also to be the targets of bullies. While both girls and boys say others bully them by making fun of the way they look or talk, boys are more likely to report being hit, slapped or pushed. Teenage girls are more often the targets of rumours and sexual comments.
Also, in a study of fourth--through eight--graders, above 15% of the respondents reported being severely distressed by bullying and 22% reported academic difficulties stemming from maltreatment maltreatment Social medicine Any of a number of types of unreasonable interactions with another adult. See Child maltreatment, Cf Child abuse. by peers (Hoover & Oliver, 1996). Gallagber's study (as cited in Nansel et al, 2001) reported that one out of four children is bullied, and one out of five defined himself/herself as a bully. In all, approximately 282,000 students are physically attacked in secondary schools every month. In the same view, Vail Vail (vāl), town (1990 pop. 3,569), Eagle co., W central Colo., on Gore Creek, in the Gore Range of the Rocky Mts.; founded as a ski resort 1962, inc. as a town 1966. (2002) claimed that many students avoid public areas of the school such as the cafeteria cafeteria: see restaurant. and restrooms in an attempt to elude e·lude
tr.v. e·lud·ed, e·lud·ing, e·ludes
1. To evade or escape from, as by daring, cleverness, or skill: The suspect continues to elude the police.
2. bullies. For some students, the fear is so great that they avoid school altogether, hence everyday approximately 160,000 students stay home from school because they are afraid of being bullied.
Olweus (1993) opined that teenage boys target boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. , teenage girls most often bully other girls, using more subtle and indirect forms of aggression than boys. For example, teenage girls, instead of physically harming others, they are more likely to spread gossip or encourage others to reject or exclude another girl. In addition, a survey published in "Pediatrics in Review" reveals that in Norway, 14% of children are either bullies or victims. In Japan, 15% of primary school pupils say that they are bullied, while in Australia and Spain, the problem prevails among 17% of the students. In Britain, one expert figures that 1.3 million children are involved in bullying.
In Israel, Professor Amos Rolider of Emek Yizre'el College surveyed 2,972 pupils in 21 schools. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the Jerusalem post, the professor found that "65% complained of being smacked, kicked, pushed or molested mo·lest
tr.v. mo·lest·ed, mo·lest·ing, mo·lests
1. To disturb, interfere with, or annoy.
2. To subject to unwanted or improper sexual activity. by fellow pupils" (Anonymous, 2003). Wet (2005) reported that in 1985, investigation on bullying conducted by the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA comprises the College of Letters and Science (the primary undergraduate college), seven professional schools, and five professional Health Science schools. Since 2001, UCLA has enrolled over 33,000 total students, and that number is steadily rising. , it was found that 7% of the youths who took part in the investigation victimized their fellow learners; 9% indicated that they were victims of bullies. Furthermore, 6% indicated that they were victims and bullies. Similarly, in a Norwegian study, in which 568,000 learners participated during 1983-1984, it was found that 9% of the participants were "now and then" "relatively regularly" or "regularly" victims of bullying; 7% were found guilty of bullying (Olweus, 1994).
According to Limber, Flerx, Nation and Melton mel·ton
A heavy woolen cloth used chiefly for making overcoats and hunting jackets.
[After Melton Mowbray, an urban district of central England.] , 1996 (cited in McEachern, Kenny, Blake & Aluede, 2005), one out of 12 secondary school children in the Netherlands is "very regularly" or "regularly" bullied. Nansel et al (2001) found that 60.9% of the 207 participants in a research project in Gauteng indicated that they were bullied during the 2002 school year. Northmore's study (as cited in Wet, 2005) of Johannesburg Centre for School Quality and Improvement (CSQI) points out that 90% of the learners at a Johannesburg school told CSQI that they were bullied in the previous year.
In Nigeria, however, there are little or no adequate statistical facts (as at now) to show the number of students affected by bullying. Nevertheless, Umoh (2000) noted that cases of bullying have been reported in many schools in Nigeria It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome. Command Secondary School,Ipaja,Lagos Nigeria This is an incomplete list of but that the deviant deviant /de·vi·ant/ (de´ve-int)
1. varying from a determinable standard.
2. a person with characteristics varying from what is considered standard or normal.
adj. act is not usually given the desirable attention. Bullying has most of the time been ignored by many teachers, counsellors and school administrators because of its silent but adverse effect. Some school personnel even see it as not a serious problem and consequently pay little or no attention to the behaviour. This lukewarm luke·warm
1. Mildly warm; tepid.
2. Lacking conviction or enthusiasm; indifferent: gave only lukewarm support to the incumbent candidate. attitude promotes the deviant behaviour and discourages researchers into bullying. This may be responsible for the paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of literature on bullying among secondary school students in Nigeria (Asonibare, 1998, as cited in Idowu & Yahaya, 2006).
The Effects of Bullying
Bullying can have devastating dev·as·tate
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.
2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark. effects on victims. For the victims of bullying, they go to school everyday fearing harassment, taunting and humiliation. For all potential educators, it is very important to realize that bullying is a problem, so that we can work to prevent it now or in the future (Anonymous, 2005).
There are many repercussions repercussions npl → répercussions fpl
repercussions npl → Auswirkungen pl of bullying that are quite shocking. According to Kerlikowske (2003) these include:
(1) Children who are bullied are more likely to be depressed; 26% of girls who were frequently bullied reported depression as opposed to 8% of girls who were not. Similarly the boys who were bullied and reported depression were 16% as against 3% who were not.
(2) Victims are more likely to be suicidal su·i·cid·al
1. Of or relating to suicide.
2. Likely to attempt suicide. , with 8% for girls and 4% for boys, compared to 1% overall for non-victims of bullying.
(3) Bullies are more likely to carry weapons, with 43% carrying weapons to school at least once a week, compared to 8% who were not carrying weapons.
(4) 46% of bullies are more likely to be injured in·jure
tr.v. in·jured, in·jur·ing, in·jures
1. To cause physical harm to; hurt.
2. To cause damage to; impair.
3. while 16% of bullies are not likely to be injured.
(5) As one middle-school student expressed it "there is another kind of violence, and that is violence by talking. It can leave you hurting more than a cut with knife. It can leave you bruised bruise
v. bruised, bruis·ing, bruis·es
a. To injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of (part of the body) without breaking the skin, as by a blow.
b. inside" (National Association of Attorneys General The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) is an organization in the United States of U.S. state Attorneys General which, according to the organization itself, " , 2000).
(6) Students who are targeted by bullies often have difficulty concentrating on their school work, and their academic performance tends to move from "marginal to poor" (Ballard, Tucky & Remley, 1999). Typically, bullied students feel anxious, and this anxiety may in turn produce a variety of physical or emotional ailments
(7) Rates of absenteeism ab·sen·tee·ism
1. Habitual failure to appear, especially for work or other regular duty.
2. The rate of occurrence of habitual absence from work or duty. are higher among victimized students than rates among non-bullied peers, as are drop-out rates. Nansel et al (2001) observed that "youths who are bullied generally show higher levels of insecurity, anxiety, depression, loneliness, unhappiness, physical and mental symptoms, and low-self esteem.
(8) Long--term effects on victims--persistent bullying during the school years may have long--term negative effects on the victims many years beyond school (Olweus, 1993). Chronic bullies seem to maintain their behaviours into adulthood thus influencing their ability to develop and maintain positive relationships (Oliver, Hoover & Hazier, 1994).
(9) Drake (2003) found that victims of bullies tend to be less popular in school than other students not involved in bullying. As a result of being bullied, 16% boys and 31% girls reported being absent from school in attempt to avoid being victimized (Rigby, 1997).
(10) Bullying does not just affect the victim, but it also has consequences for the bully. First, for the victim, bullying can cause physical, academic, social and psychological problems. Some of the physical symptoms include headaches and migraines (tool) MIGRAINES - A graphical user interface for evaluating and interacting with the Aspirin neural network simulation.
Utilities exist for moving quickly from an Aspirin description of a network directly to an executable program for simulating and evaluating that network. , skin problems such as eczema eczema (ĕk`səmə), acute or chronic skin disease characterized by redness, itching, serum-filled blisters, crusting, and scaling. , psoriasis psoriasis (sôrī`əsĭs), occasionally acute but usually chronic and recurrent inflammation of the skin. The exact cause is unknown, but the disease appears to be an inherited, possibly autoimmune disorder that causes the , athletes foot, ulcers, sweating, trembling trembling
visible muscle tremor caused by fever, fear, weakness, electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, and neuromuscular disease.
trembling disease , shaking, palpitations and panic attacks panic attacks,
n.pl distressing episodes where an individual experiences palpitations, anxiety, apprehension, sweating, trembling, etc. Can last several minutes and recur unpredictably. , irritable bowel syndrome irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), condition characterized by frequently alternating constipation and diarrhea in the absence of any disease process. It is usually accompanied by abdominal pain, especially in the lower left quadrant, bloating, and flatulence. , aches and pains in the joints and muscles; and frequent illness such as viral infections viral infection,
n an infection by a pathogenic virus. A virus acts on the cell nucleus, taking over the genetic material within the nucleus and replicating itself. and second, for the bully, they are seldom able to conclude friendship, they are often anti-social adults and the bullying is sometimes the first stepping stone to juvenile crime and criminal activities (Aluede, 2006; Wet, 2005).
(11) The psychological scars left by bullying often endure for years. For instance, the feelings of isolation and the loss of self-esteem that victims experience seem to last into adulthood (Clarke & Kiselica, 1997).
Bullying is not just isolated behaviour on the part of its perpetrators; instead it is part of a more generally anti-social and rule-breaking (conduct-disordered) behaviour pattern. Therefore, students (particularly boys) who bully others are especially likely to engage in other anti-social/delinquent behaviours such as vandalism, shop lifting, truancy and frequent drug use; and these may continue into young adulthood.
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Anonymous (2003). August 22, Bullying: What can you do about it? Awake, pp 3-11.
Anonymous (2005). The nature and extent of bullying at school. Retrieved on September 18 2006 from http://goliath.ecnext.com/comsite5/bin/ pdinventory.
Ballard, M., Tucky, A., & Remley, T.P. Jr. (1999). Bullying and violence: A proposed prevention program, NASSP NASSP National Association of Secondary School Principals
NASSP North American Society of Social Philosophy Bulletin, 38-47.
Besag, V. (1991). Parents and teachers working together. Essex: Longman Publishers.
Bosworth, K., Espelage, D.L. & Simon, T.R. (2001).Short-term stability and prospective correlates of bullying in middle-school students: An examination of potential demographic, psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. , and environmental influences. Violence and Victims, 16(4), 411-426.
Bryne, B.J., (1994). Bullies and victims in a school setting with reference to some Dublin Schools Coordinates: The Dublin School is a preparatory private high school with a small student body. It is located in Dublin, New Hampshire at a high altitude, near Dublin Lake and Mount Monadnock. There are usually only about 130 students enrolled per year. . Irish Journal Psychology, 15, 574-586.
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Oyaziwo Aluede, Ph.D, Fajoju Adeleke, MBA MBA
Master of Business Administration
Noun 1. MBA - a master's degree in business
Master in Business, Master in Business Administration , Don Omoike, Ph.D and Justina Afen-Akpaida, M. Ed. Ambrose Alli University Ambrose Alli University is a University in Nigeria established in 1981. It was established by the then governor of Bendel State (now Edo and Delta States), Professor Ambrose Folorunso Alli (1979-1983). , Ekpoma.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Professor Oyaziwo Aluede at email@example.com.