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A rapid PSA half-life following docetaxel chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in hormone refractory prostate cancer.

Author(s): Mikael Hanninen, BMSc, MD (corresponding author) [1], Peter Venner Venner is a surname, and may refer to:
  • Charlie Venner
  • Thomas Venner
  • Stephen Venner
See also
  • Bamses Venner, Danish musical group

This page or section lists people with the surname Venner.
, MD, FRCPC FRCPC Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada  [2], Scott North, MD, FRCPC [3]


Advanced prostate cancer prostate cancer, cancer originating in the prostate gland. Prostate cancer is the leading malignancy in men in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death in men.  remains a therapeutic challenge for the clinical oncologist. Despite a constantly evolving understanding of the disease, the median overall survival (OS) for metastatic Metastatic
The term used to describe a secondary cancer, or one that has spread from one area of the body to another.

Mentioned in: Coagulation Disorders


pertaining to or of the nature of a metastasis.
 hormone refractory prostate cancer (mHRPC) is still under 2 years. Treatment of mHRPC with docetaxel in combination with prednisone prednisone (prĕd`nĭsōn): see corticosteroid drug.  has been shown to prolong survival by several months.[sup.1,2] Despite its adoption as a standard of care in men with mHRPC, there is still potential for serious toxicity to develop. This potential must be recognized, as only 36% to 48% of patients will experience a prostate-specific antigen prostate-specific antigen
n. Abbr. PSA
A protease secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. Serum levels are elevated in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.
 (PSA (Professional Services Automation) An information system designed to organize, track and manage all opportunities, work, resources, costs, revenues and invoices to improve the productivity and efficiency of the workforce. ) response (defined as a reduction in serum PSA of at least 50%) with this therapy.[sup.1,3]-[sup.6] This is particularly important when considering that men may be treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for survival improvement while being asymptomatic. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence to guide clinical decisions to continue or stop docetaxel treatment in asymptomatic patients once they start treatment.

Several prognostic factors in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC HRPC Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer
HRPC Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer
HRPC Hudson River Parks Conservancy
HRPC Health Research and Policy Center
) have been reported, including initial PSA, tumour Gleason grade and stage, as well as baseline hemoglobin, performance status and PSA doubling time doubling time Oncology A parameter used to determine tumor aggressiveness, which serves to prognosticate, measure therapeutic success, and quantify tumor kinetics and growth rate. Cf Gompertzian growth curve.  (PSADT).[sup.7,8] PSA response (defined as a 50% decline in baseline PSA) has also been proposed as a predictor of survival following chemotherapy for mHRPC.[sup.9] However, the magnitude of this benefit has been variable between studies and there is a need for better predictors of outcome from chemotherapy in mHRPC.[sup.10]-[sup.12]

After receiving docetaxel chemotherapy for mHRPC, patients differ not only in their percent PSA decline, but also in the rate at which they achieve this decline. We propose that patients who achieve a more rapid rate of PSA decline, measured as a shorter PSA half-life (PSAHL), may experience a longer OS than those who achieve a slower rate of PSA decline. Furthermore, we propose that the early rate of PSA decline, measured as PSAHL at 42 days (2 cycles) postchemotherapy, may also be associated with OS and allow for earlier prognostication than traditional measures obtained 84 days postdocetaxel (4 cycles).


Study design and data collection

After obtaining approval for the study through the Alberta Cancer Board (ACB ACB American Council of the Blind
ACB Asia Commercial Bank
ACB America's Community Bankers
ACB Adjusted Cost Base
ACB Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay
ACB Amphibious Construction Battalion (US Navy)
ACB Australian Cricket Board
) Research Ethics Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. These include the design and implementation of research involving human participants (human experimentation); animal experimentation; various aspects of  Board, patients having received docetaxel chemotherapy at a standard dose and schedule[sup.1] at the Cross Cancer Institute (Edmonton, AB, Canada) or Tom Baker Cancer Center (Calgary, AB, Canada) for prostate cancer from January 1, 2000, to November 1, 2006, were identified through the ACB Cancer Registry A cancer registry is a systematic collection of data about cancer and tumor diseases. The data is collected by Cancer Registrars. Cancer Registrars capture a complete summary of patient history, diagnosis, treatment, and status for every cancer patient in the United States, and . Inclusion criteria
For Wikipedia's inclusion criteria, see: What Wikipedia is not.

Inclusion criteria are a set of conditions that must be met in order to participate in a clinical trial.
 for the study were: confirmation of mHRPC by 3 sequential rises in PSA with a castrate castrate /cas·trate/ (kas´trat)
1. to deprive of the gonads, rendering the individual incapable of reproduction.

2. a castrated individual.

 level of serum testosterone (<50 ng/dL) and metastatic disease on imaging (x-ray, computed tomography Computed tomography (CT scan)
X rays are aimed at slices of the body (by rotating equipment) and results are assembled with a computer to give a three-dimensional picture of a structure.
 or bone scan Bone scan
An x-ray study in which patients are given an intravenous injection of a small amount of a radioactive material that travels in the blood. When it reaches the bones, it can be detected by x ray to make a picture of their internal structure.

A retrospective chart review was carried out on eligible patients. The data collected were: dates of initial prostate cancer diagnosis, HRPC diagnosis (defined as the date of the third consecutive PSA rise), metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis, chemotherapy failure (defined as a 50% rise from the nadir achieved on chemotherapy) and death. Laboratory results at the time of docetaxel initiation (including hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase alkaline phosphatase /al·ka·line phos·pha·tase/ (ALP) (fos´fah-tas) an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of orthophosphate from orthophosphoric monoesters under alkaline conditions.  and lactate dehydrogenase lactate dehydrogenase
n. Abbr. LDH
Any of a class of enzymes found in the liver, kidneys, striated muscle, and heart muscle that catalyze the reversible conversion of pyruvate and lactate.
) and all available PSA measurements were also collected. Finally, the dates and total number of cycles of docetaxel administered were obtained.

Overall survival from the date of diagnosis of HRPC to death or last follow-up was calculated irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.

irrespective of
preposition despite 
 demonstrable metastatic disease on imaging. Overall survival from the date of initiation of docetaxel chemotherapy was calculated as the time from the first day of docetaxel administration to the date of death.

The PSA doubling time (PSADT) was determined retrospectively, using PSA data available immediately after the diagnosis of HRPC (Box 1).

Percent PSA decline and PSAHL were determined after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (day 42) and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy (day 84). The baseline PSA for both of these calculations was the PSA immediately prior to docetaxel initiation. The PSAHL calculation is expanded in Box 2.

Patients who experienced a rise in PSA relative to their baseline at 42 days (29 patients) or at 84 days (33 patients) after chemotherapy onset were excluded from PSAHL determination, as the calculation would yield a negative number.

Statistical analysis

Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to estimate OS from diagnosis of HRPC and from the first administration of docetaxel. Overall survival was also analyzed after stratifying patients by PSA response (50% decline from baseline) and by PSAHL at 42 days postdocetaxel and at 84 days post-docetaxel initiation. The log-rank chi-square statistic was applied using different PSAHL values to stratify strat·i·fy  
v. strat·i·fied, strat·i·fy·ing, strat·i·fies
1. To form, arrange, or deposit in layers.

 data for OS. The optimal PSAHL stratification value was the value that provided the greatest survival differentiation. This optimal PSAHL stratification value was determined independently using the 42-day postdocetaxel data and the 84-day postdocetaxel data.

Box 1.

Calculation of PSA doubling time

PSADT = (0.693 x t) / [In (PSA2) - In (PSA1)] Where: "t" is the time (in days) between PSA measurements, "PSA2" is the PSA defining HRPC (third rising PSA), "PSA1" is the next available PSA level

PSA = prostate-specific antigen; PSADT = prostate-specific antigen doubling time; HRPC = hormone-refractory prostate cancer

Box 2.

Calculation of percent PSA decline and PSAHL

PSAHL = (0.693 x t) / [In (PSA2) - In (PSA1)] Where: "t" is the time (in days) between PSA measurements, "PSA2" is the PSA 42 days or 84 days after docetaxel initiation, "PSA1" is the PSA immediately prior to docetaxel initiation

PSA = prostate-specific antigen; PSAHL = prostate-specific antigen half-life

Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses were then performed using known prognostic factors in HRPC (initial PSA, Gleason score Gleason score Oncology A value derived from the Gleason grading system which is the sum of the 2 most predominant histologic patterns seen in prostate CA , stage, age, hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase), in addition to PSA decline and PSAHL 42 days (2 cycles) and 84 days (4 cycles) postdocetaxel initiation.


Patient characteristics

A total of 154 patients fulfilled the criteria for mHRPC. The mean number of cycles of docetaxel administered was 6 (range 1 to 26). The clinical and pathological characteristics, biochemistry, PSA and treatment variables are summarized in Table 1.

PSA response and PSA half-life

The mean PSA decline 42 days after docetaxel initiation was 17% (range, −951% to 99%). Seventy-one percent of patients (84/119) with available PSA measurements at this time point, achieved a PSA decline. PSAHL was determined in these patients and ranged from 6 days (very rapid rate of PSA decline) to 12 734 days (very slow rate of PSA decline), with a mean PSAHL of 404 days. By applying the log-rank chi-square statistic using different PSAHL values to stratify data, the optimal PSAHL stratification for OS at this time point (42 days postdocetaxel) was 71 days. Using this cutoff, 55 patients achieved a rapid rate of PSA decline (PSAHL [less than or equal to]71 days) and 35 patients achieved a slow rate of PSA decline (PSAHL >71 days) after 42 days of docetaxel.

The mean PSA decline 84 days after docetaxel initiation was 10% (range, −1841% to 100%), with 92/126 patients (73%) with available PSA measurements achieving a PSA decline at this time point. PSAHL was determined in these patients and ranged from 13 days (very rapid rate of PSA decline) to 3151 days (very slow rate of PSA decline), with a mean of 136 days. By applying the log-rank chi-square statistic using different PSAHL values to stratify data, the optimal PSAHL stratification for OS at this time point (84 days postdocetaxel) was 70 days. Using this cutoff, 47 patients achieved a rapid rate of PSA decline (PSAHL [less than or equal to]70 days) and 45 patients achieved a slow rate of PSA decline (PSAHL >70 days) after 84 days of docetaxel.

Kaplan-Meier survival analysis

During the follow-up period, 54% of patients died and disease progression was documented in 74% of all patients. The median OS from diagnosis of HRPC was 49 months and the median OS from initiation of docetaxel was 16 months for the entire group. For those patients with a PSA rise at 42 days, the median OS was 12.1 months; for those patients with a PSA rise at 84 days, the median OS was 11.5 months.

Stratifying patients by those having no or any PSA decline ([greater than or equal to]0%) at 84 days after docetaxel initiation did not predict OS (p = 0.84). However, stratifying patients by PSA response, as defined as a [greater than or equal to]50% PSA decline, correlated with OS, with a median survival of 22 months in patients with a PSA response compared with 16 months in those without a PSA response (p = 0.0028) (Fig. 1). After excluding patients with a PSA rise following docetaxel, PSA response was no longer associated with OS.

Using early PSAHL data (determined 42 days postdocetaxel initiation), it was not possible to demonstrate an association with survival, even with the optimal PSAHL stratification of 71 days (p = 0.20). Using PSAHL data determined at 84 days postdocetaxel initiation, we found a strong association with OS was demonstrated, with a median survival of 25 months in patients with a rapid rate of PSA decline (PSAHL <70 days) compared with a median survival of 15 months in patients with a slow rate of PSA decline (PSAHL [greater than or equal to]70 days) (p = 0.00051) (Fig. 2).

Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analysis

Hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, PSA response and PSAHL (determined 84 days after docetaxel initiation) correlated with OS in the univariate analysis. After correcting for these factors in multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.

multivariate analysis,
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously.
, only PSA response and PSAHL determined 84 days after docetaxel initiation correlated to OS (hazard ratio The hazard ratio in survival analysis is the effect of an explanatory variable on the hazard or risk of an event. For a less technical definition than is provided here, consider hazard ratio to be an estimate of relative risk and see the explanation on that page.  0.08 [0.021-0.34]) (Table 2).


Prostate-specific antigen half-life is a simple tool to deter-mine the rate of decline of PSA following chemotherapy. The only parameters required to calculate it are the baseline PSA (before chemotherapy), the PSA after chemotherapy and the number of days between the 2 PSA determinations (i.e., 42 or 84 days). Prostate-specific antigen half-life assumes that tumour killing after docetaxel is logarithmic logarithmic

pertaining to logarithm.

logarithmic relationship
when the logs of two variables plotted against each other create a straight line.
 (as opposed to PSA response, which assumes it to be linear). This idea is somewhat analogous to PSADT, which assumes that tumour growth is logarithmic. In this multi-centre, retrospective analysis of mHRPC, we have demonstrated that when applied to patients having received 4 cycles of chemotherapy, the survival differentiation between a low PSAHL (<70 days) and a high PSAHL ([greater than or equal to]70 days) is greater than the survival differentiation between a PSA response and no PSA response. This result was independent of other known markers of survival and was a better predictor of survival than PSA response. Interestingly, we did not find an association between PSADT and survival following doc-etaxel chemotherapy in our study, even if previous investigators have noted such an association.[sup.8] This finding may be explained by the fact that our PSADT data was determined retrospectively, and included PSA measurements determined at different time points following treatment.

The relatively large survival difference (10 months) seen in patients with a rapid rate of PSA decline is particularly compelling given that patients who experienced a rise in PSA 84 days after starting docetaxel were excluded from PSAHL analysis. Exclusion of these nonresponders was necessary because, mathematically, it is not possible to calculate a PSAHL for a patient whose PSA is rising (a negative number of days for PSAHL would result). Exclusion of this high-risk group high-risk group Epidemiology A group of people in the community with a higher-than-expected risk for developing a particular disease, which may be defined on a measurable parameter–eg, an inherited genetic defect, physical attribute, lifestyle, habit,  is expected to bias the PSAHL results, resulting in a more homogeneous cohort (with a longer survival). However, we found that segregating these patients according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 PSAHL (even after excluding the high-risk patients) actually yielded groups with more distinct OS compared with a PSA response-based segregation. If patients with a PSA rise on chemotherapy had been similarly excluded prior to stratifying patients based on PSA response, the survival difference between patients achieving a PSA response and those without a PSA response would no longer be significant.

A recent subgroup analysis Subgroup analysis, in the context of design and analysis of experiments, refers to looking for pattern in a subset of the subjects[1]. See also
  • Post-hoc analysis

 of the TAX 327 study has suggested that the optimal PSA decline cutoff to stratify patients based on survival is a PSA decline of 30%.[sup.13] In this analysis, a survival difference of 8.6 months (21.6 months vs. 13.0 months) was demonstrated between groups with a PSA decline of 30% versus those without a PSA decline of 30%. In our study, stratifying patients based on PSAHL was associated with an even greater survival difference (10 months). Furthermore, PSAHL analysis requires that patients with a rising PSA be excluded from analysis, which should result in a more homogenous homogenous - homogeneous  group, as previously discussed, yet this method still stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.

Arranged in the form of layers or strata.
 patients to a greater degree than a 30% PSA decline.

We also studied the relationship between early PSAHL (determined after only 42 days or 2 cycles of docetaxel) and OS. The potential advantage of finding an association at this earlier time point would be to allow oncologists to predict survival earlier in the course of treatment and tailor the subsequent therapy accordingly. Unfortunately, neither PSAHL nor PSA response determined 42 days postdocetaxel correlated to survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis or Cox-regression analysis. This finding may be a result of a delayed PSA response to docetaxel noted in some patients such that a minimum number of cycles must be administered before a conclusion can be drawn about the effectiveness of the treatment. Thus, if patients are tolerating therapy, a minimum of 4 cycles of treatment should be given before making decisions about the effectiveness of treatment.


For men who are taking docetaxel therapy to palliate pal·li·ate
To reduce the severity of; to relieve somewhat.

palliate (pal´ēāt),
v to reduce the severity of.
 cancer symptoms, improvements in quality of life should supersede To obliterate, replace, make void, or useless.

Supersede means to take the place of, as by reason of superior worth or right. A recently enacted statute that repeals an older law is said to supersede the prior legislation.
 laboratory values in determining whether or not to continue therapy. However, due to survival improvements seen in randomized clinical trials randomized clinical trial,
n a clinical study where volunteer participants with comparable characteristics are randomly assigned to different test groups to compare the efficacy of therapies.
, many men are offered chemotherapy to improve survival, even if they are asymptomatic. In these patients, early determination of who will benefit most from chemotherapy before toxicity arises would be very beneficial. We hope that PSAHL will help oncologists and their patients to decide whether to carry on with or discontinue docetaxel after 4 cycles of treatment. In particular, we feel that PSAHL may be of use in patients experiencing treatment-related side effects Side effects

Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm.

The major limitation of our study is the retrospective nature of the analysis; this limits the data collection to what is available in the charts and electronic records. Larger, prospective studies are required to further validate this new clinical tool. A larger study will also allow for a more definitive analysis of PSAHL determination at earlier time points after docetaxel initiation.

This paper has been peer-reviewed.

Competing interests: None declared.


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(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male.
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Any of a group of hormones that mainly influence the development of the male reproductive system.
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Medical specialty dealing with the urinary system and male reproductive organs. It traces its origin to medieval lithologists, itinerant healers who specialized in surgical removal of bladder stones.

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Of, relating to, or producing a toxic effect on cells.

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a trypanocidal agent that is also toxic, causing degeneration of the liver, kidney and adrenal glands. It is also an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase, some types of growth factors, and causes suppression of the adrenal cortex, leading to investigations of its usefulness
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Figures and Tables

Fig 1.: Overall survival stratified by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (PSA decline [greater than or equal to]50%) 84 days after starting docetaxel. [Figure omitted]

Fig 2.: Overall survival stratified by prostate-specific antigen half-life, determined 84 days after starting docetaxel. [Figure omitted]

Table 1.: Baseline demographics, biochemistry and cancer characteristics [Table omitted]

Table 2.: Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analysis for survival using known prognostic factors in hormone refractory prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen half-life [Table omitted]

Author Affiliation(s):

[1] From the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB;

[2] Division Director, Medical Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB;

[3] Department of Medicine, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB

Correspondence: Dr. Mikael Hanninen, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Alberta, Dvorkin Lounge, Walter Mackenzie Walter C. Mackenzie, O.C., (1909–1978) was a Canadian surgeon and academic.

He was a professor and chairman of the Department of Surgery at the University of Alberta’s Faculty of Medicine. From 1959 to 1973, he was Dean of the Faculty of Medicine.
 Centre, 8440 112 Street, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R7; fax 780-665-7289;
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Title Annotation:Original Research; prostate specific antigen
Author:Hanninen, Mikael; Venner, Peter; North, Scott
Publication:Canadian Urological Association Journal (CUAJ)
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Oct 1, 2009
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