A peaceful campaign of progress and reform.
On October 3, 1993, the Federal Highway Administration The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two "programs," The Federal-aid Highway Program and the Federal Lands Highway (FHWA FHWA Federal Highway Administration (US DoT) ) celebrated 100 years of service to the country. General Roy Stone Roy Stone (October 16, 1836 – August 5, 1905) was an army officer during the American Civil War. He is most noted for his stubborn defense of the McPherson Farm during the Battle of Gettysburg.
Stone was born in Plattsburg, New York, to Ithiel V. and Sarah Stone. , the agency's first head, called the movement to improve the nation's roads a "peaceful campaign of progress and reform." Today, the 68,800-kilometer (42,800-mile) Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways is the most visible result, but the peaceful campaign continues as the FHWA adapts to the intermodal demands of the 1990s.
In the second half of the 19th century, the railroads dominated interstate travel, and the limited pre-railroad network of roads fell into neglect. In the 1880s, however, the growing popularity of a new mode of transportation, the "ordinary" bicycle--the type with the large front wheel--was the first sign of change. The speed and individual mobility afforded by the bicycle created a nationwide craze--complete with bicycle clubs, clothes, races, and touring guides--for what appeared to be the next important mode of transportation. With the introduction of the "safety" bicycle with two wheels of the same size and the pneumatic tire Noun 1. pneumatic tire - a tire made of reinforced rubber and filled with compressed air; used on motor vehicles and bicycles etc
bicycle wheel - the wheel of a bicycle in the late 1880s, the craze became an economic, political, and social force in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . By 1890, over one million bicycles were being manufactured in the country each year.
The biggest problem was that, outside the cities, the nation's bad roads made bicycling a laborious, dangerous process. As one contemporary slogan put it, the roads were, "Wholly unclassable, almost impassable, scarcely jackassable!" The Good Roads Movement The Good Roads Movement occurred in the United States between 1880 and 1916. Advocates for improved roads led by bicyclists turned local agitation into a national political movement.
Outside cities, roads were dirt or gravel; mud in the winter and dust in the summer. was a response to this problem. Bicycle groups, led by the League of American Wheelmen (L.A.W.), and manufacturers, led by Col. Albert Pope, worked at the federal, state, and local levels to secure road improvement legislation.
To build support for the movement, the bicycle groups tried to interest the farmers and their state and national organizations. The message was that bad roads, by increasing transportation expenditures, cost more than good roads. But the farmers weren't interested; they didn't want to be taxed to benefit, as they saw it, the city "peacocks" who wanted to get their relaxation riding bicycles at the farmers' expense. As a result, the Good Roads Movement was dominated by bicycle interests until the late 1890s.
General Stone, a Civil War hero and civil engineer, was one of the leaders of the movement, which rallied around a bill he had drafted in 1892 for consideration in the Congress. The bill called for creation of a two-year National Highway Commission to formulate plans for a national school of roads and bridges, to collect and disseminate information, and to prepare a comprehensive road exhibit for the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition World's Columbian Exposition, held at Chicago, May–Nov., 1893, in commemoration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Authorized (1890) by Congress, it was planned and completed by a commission headed by Thomas W. , which was to open in April 1893. The measure passed the Senate, but despite intense lobbying by Stone, the L.A.W., and other groups, failed in the House of Representatives.
In January 1893, Representatives Allan Durburow of Illinois and Clarke Lewis Clarke Lewis (November 8, 1840 - March 13, 1896) was a United States Representative from Mississippi. He was born in Huntsville, Alabama. He moved with his mother to Noxubee County, Mississippi in 1844 where he attended the district schools and Somerville Institute and also engaged of Mississippi succeeded in adding a provision to the Agriculture Appropriation Act An Appropriation Act is an Act of Parliament passed by the United Kingdom Parliament which, like a Consolidated Fund Act, allows the Treasury to issue funds out the Consolidated Fund. of 1894 to provide $10,000 "to make inquiry regarding public roads" and to disseminate the information. The Congress approved the act on March 3, and it was signed by President Benjamin Harrison that same day, his last in office.
Incoming President Grover Cleveland, beginning his second nonconsecutive term on March 4, chose J. Sterling Morton to be Secretary of Agriculture. Morton, a former secretary and acting governor of the Nebraska Territory The Nebraska Territory was a historic organized territory of the United States from May 30, 1854 until March 1, 1867 when Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state. It was established by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The territorial capital was Omaha. and the founder of Arbor Day, adhered to principles of rigid economy and strict conservatism. His initiation of the road inquiry reflected these principles.
On October 3, 1893, he signed a letter to General Stone, who had been chosen special agent and engineer for road inquiry. This letter is the charter for the new Office of Road Inquiry (ORI), the FHWA's first predecessor. After enunciating the statutory goals of the Appropriations Act, Morton reminded Stone that the work "will need to be of gradual growth, conducted at all times economically ... [with] no considerable expenditure for the present." Morton added that, "It must be borne in mind that the actual expense in the construction of these highways is to be borne by the localities and states in which they lie." The ORI began life in two small attic rooms of the main Agriculture Building, with General Stone and a stenographer An individual who records court proceedings either in shorthand or through the use of a paper-punching device.
A court stenographer is an officer of the court and is generally considered to be a state or public official. , Robert Grubbs, being its first two employees.
Stone began by writing letters to the governors, their secretaries of state, the members of Congress, railroad presidents, and state geologists, with a general circular to the public, asking for information on highway laws, the location of materials suitable for roadbuilding, and rail rates for hauling roadbuilding material. Responses in hand, Stone completed the ORI's first bulletin by December 4, 1893: State Laws Relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the Management of Roads. Enacted from 1888--93. Eight more bulletins, most based on the new information, were released by the start of the next fiscal year (FY) in July 1894.
The ORI's annual budget was small ($10,000 for its first three years, $8,000 for the next four years, then $10,000 again), but Stone and his small staff of full- and part-time employees made the most of it. In addition to publishing technical and promotional literature, Stone was a popular speaker at good roads conventions, helped states draft road legislation, and initiated tests of road materials. He also cooperated with the Post Office Department in its experiments with Rural Free Delivery (RFD RFD
rural free delivery
Noun 1. RFD - free government delivery of mail in outlying country areas
rural free delivery ), begun in 1896, a program that finally convinced the nation's farmers of the value of good roads and brought them into the Good Roads Movement.
One of Stone's most enduring successes was the object lesson road program, begun in 1897. The idea, borrowed from Massachusetts, was to build short stretches of road to educate local engineers and, on the theory that "seeing is believing Seeing is believing is an idiom first recorded in this form in 1639 that means "only physical or concrete evidence is convincing".
Seeing is Believing may refer to:
On October 13, 1899, General Stone resigned. By then, largely through his efforts, the ORI had become the recognized national leader of the Good Roads Movement. Historian Bruce Seely summarized Stone's accomplishments, as well as the stamp he left on the agency he founded:
In the end, he pioneered three enduring patterns of activity for the ORI: build a reputation for technical knowledge, promote the gospel of good roads, and utilize cooperation to reach those goals. The first fulfilled the office's mandate from Congress, and the second grew from the promotional goals of the Wheelmen, but the third was Stone's hallmark, even if it was mecessitated by a small budget.
General Stone died on August 5, 1905, and was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery, 420 acres (170 hectares), N Va., across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C.; est. 1864. More than 60,000 American war dead, as well as notables including Presidents William Howard Taft and John F. Kennedy, Gen. John J. .
Turning Point: Birth of the Federal-aid Highway Program
In 1899, Martin Dodge, a former president of the Ohio State Highway Commission, was appointed director of the ORI, which was renamed the Office of Public Road Inquiries (OPRI OPRI Office de Protection contre les Radiations Ionisantes ). He expanded the promotional and technical activities of the agency, including cooperating with railroad companies and good roads promotional groups as a sponsor of Good Roads Trains. The trains toured the country from 1901 to 1903, demonstrating roadbuilding techniques with equipment borrowed from the manufacturers.
In an economy move, Dodge established the agency's first field structure to continue the popular object lesson road program and keep in touch with local developments. He divided the country into four divisions, with a full-time special agent in charge of the Eastern Division and part-time special agents for the Southern, Middle, and Western Divisions. To head the Eastern Division, Dodge chose Logan W. Page, a geologist who in 1900 had established the OPRI's laboratory for testing road materials in the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Chemistry.
In addition, Dodge launched the first inventory of all rural roads in the United States. Begun in 1904, the survey required over 60,000 communications--printed and typewritten--and several years to compile. Of 3,462,522 km (2,151,570 mi) of rural public roads, only 247,288 km (153,662 mi) had any kind of surfacing.
Dodge also pushed the OPRI into its next incarnation by helping to persuade Congress to increase the budget to $30,000 in 1903 and to elevate the agency to permanent status within the Department of Agriculture. The Agriculture Appropriation Act of 1906, signed by President Theodore Roosevelt on March 3, 1905, merged the OPRI with Page's Division of Tests to form the Office of Public Roads (OPR OPR Operator
OPR Office of Primary Responsibility
OPR Office of Population Research (Princeton University)
OPR Office of Professional Responsibility
OPR Office of Planning and Research ). The annual budget was $50,000 and the OPR was authorized to include 10 full-time positions. The act also provided that the director of the OPR "shall be a scientist and have charge of all scientific and technical work." Dodge, a lawyer, was not eligible.
Logan Page was appointed director of the OPR. As Seely has shown, Page moved the OPR into the forefront of the Progressive movement, which put its faith in an "ideology of reform through apolitical a·po·lit·i·cal
1. Having no interest in or association with politics.
2. Having no political relevance or importance: claimed that the President's upcoming trip was purely apolitical. expertise." He expanded the object lesson road program and the testing laboratory, revived good roads trains (1911-1916), built experimental roads to test building methods and materials, and increased the agency's lecture schedule--from 150 in 1905 to 1,135 in 1912. He also entered into a formal agreement with the Post Office Department to make OPR engineers available to inspect proposed RFD routes.
As with Page's predecessors, he believed in cooperation, that working with, rather than dictating to, the highway community would get the best results. When the state highway agencies decided to form their own organization, Page was present at the creation of the American Association American Association refers to one of the following professional baseball leagues:
By this time, the growth in automobile travel had increased pressure on the federal government to provide funds for road building outside federal reserves. The issue wasn't whether the federal role would expand--the issue was how The key issues were whether the federal government would build the roads or provide aid to states or counties; whether the emphasis would be on getting the farmer out of the mud or building longdistance roads; and how much aid would be provided.
To help find answers, the Post Office Appropriation Bill for FY 1913 appropriated 8500,000 for an experimental post road program, which the OPR administered in cooperation with states and counties. From the standpoint of road improvement, the experimental program had limited success, but it provided valuable experience that helped shape the OPR's mission. The most important lesson was that cooperating with the nation's 3,000 diverse counties would be a lot more difficult than working with the 48 states.
In December 1915, AASHO ratified a federal-aid bill that largely reflected Page's Progressive views, including his preference for a federal program of aid to technically proficient state highway agencies. The bill was introduced by Senator J. H. Bankhead of Alabama, and Page and the OPR and Rural Engineering (OPRRE), as the OPR had been renamed in 1915, provided extensive technical assistance during the debates on Capitol Hill in 1916. The final version of the Bankhead Bill, modified but still reflecting Page's views, was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on July 11, 1916, launching the federal-state partnership known as the Federal-aid Highway Program.
The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 authorized $75 million over five years--but only $5 million for the first year--to be apportioned ap·por·tion
tr.v. ap·por·tioned, ap·por·tion·ing, ap·por·tions
To divide and assign according to a plan; allot: "The tendency persists to apportion blame as suits the circumstances" by formula--based on land area, population, and post road mileage--to state highway agencies. Funding was restricted to rural post roads and the federal share of project costs was 50 percent, with a limit of $10,000 per mile. The states would prepare the plans and control construction and maintenance, subject to federal approval and inspection. The act also authorized $10 million for roads on federal lands.
Regulations implementing the new law were drafted, and Page invited the states to Washington for an August 16 meeting to comment on them. The day before, AASHO members met at the Raleigh Hotel to prepare their suggestions. On Wednesday, August 16, the formal meeting took place in the auditorium of the National Museum--today's Smithsonian Museum of Natural History--with 35 states represented. Virtually all of the states' suggestions were adopted. The regulations were issued September 1, 1916, less than two months after enactment of the law.
Turning Point: Clarification of the Federal-aid Highway Program
To accommodate the new program, Page established the agency's first formal field organization of 10 district offices with delegated operating responsibility and authority. He also reorganized the Washington headquarters, grouping all existing divisions into the Engineering Branch and the Management and Economics Branch, and providing for two general inspectors who reported directly to him.
At the start of the program, 11 states did not have a state highway agency and many others required legislative changes to comply with the 1916 law. By June 1917, all the states except one were in compliance, with technical experts in charge of agencies that had the authority to administer the federalaid program. The exception was Indiana, which was delayed by a state constitutional challenge.
In April 1917, the initial federalaid highway program was severely hindered by United States entry into World War I. The war reduced the supply of men and materials for road work. Meanwhile, the nation's road network was under severe stress. The railroads were unable to handle all war shipments, giving the fledgling trucking industry the opportunity to fill the void--with even the best roads suffering the consequences. By war's end War's End is a journalistic comic about the Bosnian War written by Joe Sacco. It contains two stories; the first, Christmas with Karadzic, about tracking down and meeting the Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić, and the second, Soba , only five federal-aid projects, totalling 28.3 km (17.6 mi), had been completed.
On December 9, 1918, Page died of a heart attack while attending a meeting of AASHO's Executive Committee in Chicago. Page's successor almost didn't take the job. Thomas H. MacDonald, chief engineer of the Iowa State Highway Commission, was asked to take over the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR (Business Process Reengineering) See reengineering.
BPR - Business Process Re-engineering ), as the OPRRE had been renamed in 1918, but he hesitated because the $4,500 salary was too low. He took the job on April 1, 1919, pending review of compensation. On July 1, 1919, he was appointed chief of the bureau with a salary of $6,000 and retained the position, through various title changes, until March 1953.
As with Page, MacDonald's tenure was marked by the spirit of cooperation and consensus. He never lost sight of the view expressed in his first communication, dated May 25, to BPR field staff: "Our success will depend largely upon the attitude of mind and confidence we establish on the part of the state officials."
Legislation in 1919 increased federal-aid highway funding, but the states, hampered by inflation, postwar strikes, shipping problems, and shortages, were slow to respond. This limited progress, three years into the program, gave competing forces within the highway community the opportunity to revive the arguments that the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 had been intended to settle--notably the debate over federal versus federal-aid construction and over long-distance versus farm-to-market roads.
The turning point that made the Federal-aid Highway Program a success came in 1921. MacDonald worked with AASHO to draft legislation that addressed the major concerns about the program. The proposal retained the federal-aid principle, but satisfied supporters of long-distance roads by restricting funds to a federal-aid system, to be linked at state lines, comprising 7 percent of total public road distance--322,134 km (200,170 mi) out of 4,601,914 km (2,859,575 mi)-- and requiring that paved surfaces should be at least 5.5 meters (18 feet) wide.
In these and other ways, the Federal Highway Act of 1921, signed by President Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2 1865 – August 2 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 on November 9, resolved the decade-long debates over highway policy and unified the highway community behind MacDonald, who emerged from the debates as its technical and political leader. With the program solidified and post-war problems resolved, a highway improvement boom began in the 1920s that coincided, but did not keep pace with, the continuing growth in auto travel--vehicle registrations totalled 10.4 million in 1921 and 26 million in 1931.
MacDonald and the BPR were involved in wide-ranging activities during the 1920s, aside from administering the Federal-aid Highway Program. Research aimed at finding the best roadbuilding techniques, particularly in light of the increasing volume of heavy trucks, continued throughout the decade. In November 1920, MacDonald helped found the National Advisory Board on Highway Research--renamed the Highway Research Board in 1925, and the Transportation Research Board in 1974--to address fundamental questions in highway transport. The BPR launched transportation surveys in cooperation with the states to examine every aspect of highway transportation, from ownership of motor vehicles to driver behavior.
In other areas, the BPR worked with AASHO to create the U.S. numbered highway system (1925-1926) to replace the names--the Lincoln Highway
During the Depression, economic pump priming pump-prim·ing or pump priming
Government action taken to stimulate the economy, as spending money in the commercial sector, cutting taxes, or reducing interest rates.
Noun 1. legislation under Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt continued federal funding for road building. The funding was aimed at creating jobs quickly, rather than achieving the connected system of good roads that was the primary goal of the Federal-aid Highway Program. Because of state financial difficulties, the legislation temporarily abandoned the matching share concept that was fundamental to the program.
On July 1, 1939, the BPR was renamed the Public Roads Administration (PRA PRA - PRAgmatics.
The language used by COPS for specification of code generators.
["Metalanguages of the Compiler Production System COPS", J. Borowiec, in GI Fachgesprach "Compiler-Compiler", ed W. Henhapl, Tech Hochs Darmstadt 1978, pp. 122-159]. ) and shifted to the new Federal Works Agency. By then, the distance of paved roads had increased from 622,800 km (387,000 mi) in 1921 to 2,199,900 km (1,367,000 mi). But increasing numbers of vehicles had created congestion The condition of a network when there is not enough bandwidth to support the current traffic load.
congestion - When the offered load of a data communication path exceeds the capacity. in urban areas while the higher speeds possible in the more powerful cars of the time combined with out-of-date highway designs to create safety problems nationwide--and a call for better highways.
Turning Point: Launching the Interstate Highway Program
By the early 1930s, proposals to build a network of superhighways for the United States were common, a vision waiting for the right moment. In part because of the job-creating potential of such a network, President Franklin Roosevelt was enthusiastic. He favored a self-supporting network of toll superhighways on "excess right-of-way" that could be rented and eventually sold to help pay for the network. Given the continuing interest, the Congress, in Section 13 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act The following bills and Acts of Congress in the United States have been known as the Federal-Aid Highway Act:
The study was assigned to the BPR, which reported its findings in a 1939 report entitled Toll Roads The following is a list of toll roads. Toll roads are roads on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. This list also contains toll bridges and toll tunnels. Lists of these subsets of toll roads can be found in List of toll bridges and List of toll tunnels. and Free Roads. The report demonstrated that a network of six toll superhighways would not be financially feasible. Instead, the report endorsed "A Master Plan for Free Highway Development," the first formal description of the future interstate system An interstate system can refer to
In 1941, the President appointed the National Interregional in·ter·re·gion·al
Of, involving, or connecting two or more regions: interregional migration; interregional banking. Highway Committee, headed by MacDonald, to study the need for a nationwide expressway system. The committee had essentially completed its work by year's end, but America's entry into World War II following the attack on Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor, land-locked harbor, on the southern coast of Oahu island, Hawaii, W of Honolulu; one of the largest and best natural harbors in the E Pacific Ocean. In the vicinity are many U.S. military installations, including the chief U.S. in December delayed completion.
During the war, civilian road building was, as in World War I, put on hold for the most part. The PRA focused on war-related activities, such as enhancing road access to defense plants, but its most remarkable achievement was the Alaska Highway Alaska Highway, all-weather road, 1,523 mi (2,451 km) long, extending NW from Dawson Creek, British Columbia, to Fairbanks, Alaska. An extension of an existing Canadian road between Dawson Creek and Edmonton, Alta., the Alaska Highway was constructed (Mar.–Sept. . In February 1942, President Roosevelt approved construction of a road across Canada Across Canada was an afternoon program that formerly aired on The Weather Network. The segment ran from early 1999 until mid 2002. The show ran from 3:00PM ET until 7:00 PM ET. from Dawson Creek, British Columbia
In 1943, the Congress added a provision to the Federal-Aid Highway Amendment Act calling for a national expressway study. In response, President Roosevelt transmitted Interregional Highways, the study prepared by MacDonald's committee, to Congress in January 1944. This report refined the concept presented in the 1939 master plan and recommended a rural network of 54,550 km (33,900 mi), plus 8,050 km (5,000 mi) of urban routes.
With the report in hand, Congress acted. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, signed on December 20, called for designation of a 64,375-km (40,000-mi) network, to be called the National System of Interstate Highways. Routes were to be selected by the state highway agencies, with PRA concurrence CONCURRENCE, French law. The equality of rights, or privilege which several persons-have over the same thing; as, for example, the right which two judgment creditors, Whose judgments were rendered at the same time, have to be paid out of the proceeds of real estate bound by them. Dict. de Jur. h.t. , but no funds were authorized for the new network. Following coordination with the states and the Department of Defense, the PRA announced selection of the general location of 60,670 km (37,700 mi) on August 2, 1947.
The 1944 act did not provide funds specifically for construction of the interstate system. The importance of the National System of Interstate Highways was such that the states were expected to give priority in the use of regular federal-aid funds for its construction. For the most part, though, that did not happen and only a small amount of mileage was constructed. The first funding for the interstate system, approved in 1952, amounted to $25 million annually in FYs 1954 and 1955, followed by 1954 legislation authorizing $175 million a year for FYs 1956 and 1957. During this early period, therefore, little work on the toll-free network was accomplished, although the success of the Pennsylvania Turnpike The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway system operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in the state of Pennsylvania, USA. The turnpike system encompasses 532 miles (855 km) in three distinct sections. , the first 260-km (160-mi) segment of which opened in 1940, prompted several states, particularly in the densely populated Northeast, to construct toll superhighways in interstate system corridors.
The PRA was transferred to the Department of Commerce in 1949 and renamed the BPR. MacDonald retired in July 1951, but stayed on--in a job that now paid $16,000 a year--at President Harry Truman's request. Shortly after President Dwight D. Eisenhower's first term began on January 20, 1953, MacDonald left office, after 34 years, on March 31, 1953, replaced by Francis V. duPont.
Development of the interstate system had a strong new advocate in the White House. As a young officer in 1919, the President had participated in the first transcontinental army convoy, which took nearly two months to go from Washington, D.C., to San Francisco, and thereby learned the value of good two-lane roads. During World War II, he had seen the efficient German autobahn network first hand and recognized its value. Given these experiences, the new president was committed to providing such highways for the United States.
He appointed a committee, under General Lucius Clay Noun 1. Lucius Clay - United States general who commanded United States forces in Europe from 1945 to 1949 and who oversaw the Berlin airlift (1897-1978)
Lucius DuBignon Clay, Clay , to devise a plan for financing the network. The committee's report, transmitted to Congress in February 1955, proposed to complete the interstate system at a cost of $27 billion in 10 years. Bonds would be issued to finance construction, to be repaid over 32 years from the existing two-cent federal motor-fuel tax. Clay's plan failed in 1955, largely because conservative members of Congress objected to the $12 billion in interest payments that would go along with the proposed $20 billion bond sale.
Despite extensive debate in and out of Congress in 1955, no alternative plan emerged that was acceptable to the many competing forces contending for a share of the vast program. The interstate system had considerable support, but even its supporters disagreed on the details.
In 1956, Congress approved a plan for an expanded 66,000-km (41,000-mi) National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, as it was now called, that gave each of the competing forces something with which to be satisfied. The new Highway Trust Fund, an accounting mechanism for restricting highway user tax revenue to highway purposes, met the president's goal of avoiding deficit spending Deficit spending
When government spending overwhelms government revenue resulting in government borrowing.
Expenditures that are in excess of revenues during a given period of time. by including a an anti-deficit provision. Taxes on truckers went up, but not too much to lose their support. Urban areas did not get the control they wanted, but the bulk of funding would be spent in the cities. Rural officials, who did not believe the interstate system would benefit them, received continued funding for federal-aid secondary roads.
President Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act and the Highway Revenue Act of 1956 on June 29, ushering in Noun 1. ushering in - the introduction of something new; "it signalled the ushering in of a new era"
first appearance, introduction, debut, entry, launching, unveiling - the act of beginning something new; "they looked forward to the debut of their new product line" the interstate era. His role had been to push for its construction, without insisting on financing details that would have jeopardized the primary goal. In October 1990, the name of the system was changed by federal law to honor his role: The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways.
The Interstate Era Gets Underway
Bertram D. Tallamy, chairman of the New York State Thruway The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. Built in the 1950s by the State of New York in order to connect the major cities of New York, it is the longest toll road in the Authority, was Eisenhower's choice to get the program underway. Tallamy was the second federal highway administrator and the first to be confirmed by the Senate. The first administrator, John Volpe, held the office on an interim basis, from October 1956 to February 1957, until Tallamy was confirmed and took office in 1957.
At first, the interstate highway program ran into serious problems that prompted speculation on whether the program should be scrapped: allegations of corruption, financial problems, and protests against construction of the interstate routes.
An article in the July 1960 issue of Reader's Digest Reader's Digest
U.S.-based monthly magazine. Founded by DeWitt and Lila Wallace, it was first published in 1922 as a digest of articles of topical interest and entertainment value condensed from other periodicals. , entitled "Our Great Big Highway Bungle," was typical of the many articles and television reports of corruption. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the subhead sub·head
n. In both senses also called subheading.
1. The heading or title of a subdivision of a printed subject.
2. A subordinate heading or title.
Noun 1. , "Haste, waste, mismanagement mis·man·age
tr.v. mis·man·aged, mis·man·ag·ing, mis·man·ag·es
To manage badly or carelessly.
mis·manage·ment n. and outright graft are making a multibillion-dollar rathole Noun 1. rathole - a hole (as in the wall of a building) made by rats
hole - an opening into or through something
2. rathole - a small dirty uncomfortable room out of the Federal Highway Program." The BPR responded to the allegations in several ways, including detailed rebuttals and speeches pointing out that the abuses were minor within the context of the much larger, efficiently run program.
When Rex Whitton became federal highway administrator in 1961, he confronted the problem by strengthening procedures--for example, instituting unannounced sampling of materials nearly every month--and establishing an office of audits and investigations, headed by a former agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), division of the U.S. Dept. of Justice charged with investigating all violations of federal laws except those assigned to some other federal agency. . Meanwhile, a special investigative committee of the House Committee on Public Works public works
Construction projects, such as highways or dams, financed by public funds and constructed by a government for the benefit or use of the general public.
Noun 1. , established in 1959 under Representative John A. Blatnik, found that some allegations were valid, but confirmed the BPR's, the states', and industry's view that, overall, the program was well run.
The first sign of financial trouble was the release, in January 1958, of the 1958 Interstate Cost Estimate, the first to be based on detailed information from the states. During the debates in 1955 and 1956, the BPR had estimated the cost of the 64,375-km (40,000-mi) proposed network to be $27 billion--federal share: $25 billion. The 1958 estimate, which by law covered only 62,035 km (38,548 mi) of the authorized distance--66,000 km (41,000 mi), later expanded to 68,880 km (42,800 mi)--indicated the cost would be $37.6 billion. A few months later, in August, legislation increased annual authorizations for the interstate program, in part because of the higher cost, to accelerate completion, and to pump public works funding into a recessionary economy. The legislation also temporarily set aside the pay-as-you-go feature of the Highway Trust Fund, with the resultant shortfall in revenue made up by borrowing from the general treasury and imposing quarterly limitations on spending. The result of these financial difficulties was concern that the program was too costly.
The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1959 temporarily increased the federal gas tax by a penny, to four cents, and lowered interstate authorizations to address immediate fiscal problems. For the longer range, Congress approved legislation in 1961 restoring the pay-as-you-go provision, making the four-cent gas tax permanent, and adjusting other highway user taxes, thus restoring the fiscal solvency that has characterized operation of the Highway Trust Fund ever since.
The third problem facing the interstate program was more difficult. Protests against urban freeway construction began soon after the program was authorized. The first formal recognition of the problem occurred in September 1957. During a conference in Hartford on "The New Highways: Challenge to the Metropolitan Region," city planners, led by critic and author Lewis Mumford Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. Particularly noted for his study of cities and urban architecture, he had a tremendously broad career as a writer that also included a period as an influential literary , urged suspension of all urban interstate construction until comprehensive land use plans could be developed. During the early 1960s, the problem was compounded by increasing criticism of the adverse environmental impacts of interstate construction in rural as well as urban areas.
The problems confronting the interstate highway program, particularly the urban and environmental controversies, were a shock to the highway community, which had expected to apply technical expertise to the new program for the benefit of a grateful nation. Instead, the highway community was on the defensive.
The BPR's response to the new challenge was diverse. The agency, for example, joined with AASHO in national conferences on urban planning urban planning: see city planning.
Programs pursued as a means of improving the urban environment and achieving certain social and economic objectives. and in working with urban groups to find better ways to fit the new freeways into an urban setting. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 included an early legislative attempt to address the problem, requiring the planning process to be "continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive."
Similarly, to address environmental concerns, the BPR modified its policies, for example by issuing instructions in 1963 regarding assessment of impacts on fish and wildlife areas. But as with urban problems, legislative solutions were required, notably the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, which resulted in formal environmental assessment of all federal-aid highway projects, and the Department of Transportation Act of 1966, which applied Section 4(f) restrictions on construction of roads on publicly owned Publicly owned can refer to:
These steps helped, but could not resolve all controversies. Accordingly, the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 authorized withdrawal of controversial interstate segments and substitution of urban mass transportation projects (expanded to allow substitute highway projects by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1976). Although controversies continued, the withdrawal option provided a safety valve safety valve, device attached to a boiler or other vessel for automatically relieving the pressure of steam before it becomes great enough to cause bursting. that brought many interstate battles to an end, beginning with the 1974 withdrawal of portions of I-95 and I-695 in Boston and ending with with-drawal of I-205 bus lanes in Portland, Ore., in 1989.
The Department of Transportation Act also changed the name of the BPR. On April 1, 1967, the agency became the Federal Highway Administration, part of the new U.S. Department of Transportation. The Bureau of Public Roads became one of three bureaus of FHWA, the others being the Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety--now the Associate Administrator for Motor Carriers--and the National Highway Safety Bureau--which became the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, often pronounced "nit-suh") is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, part of the Department of Transportation. (NHTSA NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (US government) ) in March 1970. On August 10, 1970, the agency was again reorganized, and the BPR was abolished, bringing to an end a name that dated to July 1, 1918, when Logan Page was director.
Although the FHWA's primary goal has been completion of the interstate system, the years since the start of the interstate highway program have included many other activities:
* FHWA has continued its extensive program of cooperation with other federal agencies in the construction of roads on federal lands. Facilities such as the Blue Ridge Parkway The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty. It runs for 469 miles (755 km) through the famous Blue Ridge, a major mountain chain that is part of the Appalachian Mountains. , including the award-winning Linn Cove Viaduct Linn Cove Viaduct is a 1243-foot concrete segmental bridge which snakes around the slopes of Grandfather Mountain in North Carolina. It was completed in 1983 at a cost of $10 million and was the last section of the Blue Ridge Parkway to be finished. , are nationally recognized scenic highways.
* Safety has been a continuing focus. Hazard elimination and rail-highway crossing safety programs, design changes such as the concept of a forgiving roadside, and the shift of traffic from conventional roads to the interstate system have combined with NHTSA vehicle safety initiatives and the efforts of private groups to lower the fatality rate fa·tal·i·ty rate
See death rate.
see case fatality rate. to under two per 100 million vehicle miles (compared with, for example, 3.3 in 1980).
* Motor carrier safety programs have played an important part in this reduction. These programs were strengthened by passage of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986, which required bus and truck drivers have a single commercial driver's license Noun 1. driver's license - a license authorizing the bearer to drive a motor vehicle
driver's licence, driving licence, driving license
license, permit, licence - a legal document giving official permission to do something
based on uniform standards for testing drivers; creation of a central clearinghouse for complete driving records; and mandatory penalties for serious traffic violations and felony convictions.
* After the loss of 46 lives in the collapse of the Silver Bridge between Point Pleasant, W.Va., and Gallipolis, Ohio Gallipolis is a chartered village in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Gallia CountyGR6. The municipality is located in southern Ohio on the Ohio River. , on December 15, 1967, national concern about bridge safety led to the establishment of the National Bridge Inspection Standards under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 and the Special Bridge Replacement Program (SBRP SBRP Superfund Basic Research Program
SBRP Schachbund Rheinland-Pfalz
SBRP South Bend Raceway Park (North Liberty, IN)
SBRP Scottish Borders Rural Partnership (UK)
SBRP Special Bridge Replacement Program ) in the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1970. The Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program Noun 1. rehabilitation program - a program for restoring someone to good health
program, programme - a system of projects or services intended to meet a public need; "he proposed an elaborate program of public works"; "working mothers rely on the day care replaced the SBRP under the Surface Transportation Assistance Act The Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 was a comprehensive transportation funding and policy act. 87 Stat. 2136
Effective in 1983, Section 405 () was enacted to encourage employee reporting of noncompliance with safety regulations governing commercial of 1978 and is funded today at over $2.76 billion a year.
* Beginning with MacDonald's participation in the 1925 Pan-American Road Congress in Argentina, the BPR/FHWA has played a growing role internationally. Construction activity has included the Inter-American Highway and additional projects in Central America Central America, narrow, southernmost region (c.202,200 sq mi/523,698 sq km) of North America, linked to South America at Colombia. It separates the Caribbean from the Pacific. , reconstruction of war-damaged roads in the Philippine Islands beginning in 1946, and construction and training programs in Asia and the Middle East. In recent years, emphasis has also been placed on development of cooperative agreements for technology sharing with countries, such as Japan and the nations of Europe, that have common problems.
* The original mission "to collect and disseminate information" has remained an important part of the program. FHWA has continued an aggressive research and implementation program on such topics as congestion, the environment, safety, and pavements and bridges. The Demonstration Projects Program, initiated in 1969, borrowed the "seeing is believing" idea of the object lesson road program and continues today under Technology Applications.
* Attempts to control outdoor advertising along the interstate system began with the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1958, which authorized the "Bonus Program" of payments to states that agreed to control signs located within 660 feet of the interstate system in accordance with national standards (23 states participated). With support from President Lyndon Johnson's wife Lady Bird, the Highway Beautification Highway beautification is the addition of flowers and other plants to the sides of highways to make them look more pleasant to drivers. It often involves removing or banning billboards. Act of 1965 launched a new phase in the effort to control outdoor advertising, but one that has been complicated by subsequent amendments.
* The Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 increased the gas tax by five cents--one cent for mass transit--and adjusted other highway-user taxes to fund restoration of highway and bridge conditions. The act also established a 10-percent goal for participation of disadvantaged business enterprises (DBE DBE
Dame Commander of the British Empire
DBE Dame (Commander of the Order) of the British Empire ), exclusive of women business enterprises (WBE WBE Women's Business Enterprise
WBE Women-owned Business Enterprises
WBE Woman-owned Business Enterprise
WBE Web-Based Education
WBE World Business Exchange
WBE Warner Bros. ), in federal-aid highway projects. The definition of "DBE" was expanded to include WBEs in 1987. In 1992, participation by DBEs, including WBEs, exceeded 14 percent.
Turning Point: The Post-Interstate Era
Today, the interstate system is essentially complete--99.7 percent open to traffic at the end of 1992. With the end of the interstate highway program in sight, FHWA began working with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials and other groups within the highway community in the late 1980s to explore options for the future.
When, shortly after taking office in 1989, Secretary of Transportation Samuel Skinner called for development of a National Transportation Policy (NTP (Network Time Protocol) A TCP/IP protocol used to synchronize the real time clock in computers, network devices and other electronic equipment that is time sensitive. It is also used to maintain the correct time in NTP-based wall and desk clocks. ), FHWA's earlier work helped establish the highway goals identified in the NTP, which was released in March 1990. Most notably, the NTP called for designation of a National Highway System (NHS NHS
National Health Service
NHS (in Britain) National Health Service ) to consist of the interstate system and other principal arterials of national significance, improved to appropriate standards.
The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-240; ISTEA, pronounced Ice-Tea) is a United States federal law that posed a major change to transportation planning and policy, as the first U.S. of 1991 (ISTEA ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
ISTEA Initial Screening Training Effectiveness Analysis ), embodying many of the NTP's concepts plus others initiated by Congress, is a major restructuring of the federal-aid highway program, retaining some traditional types of program while putting them in a new context. On the traditional side, ISTEA funded interstate completion and maintenance, bridge replacement and rehabilitation, and a Surface Transportation Program for all roads All Roads is a 2001 interactive fiction game by Jon Ingold that placed first at the 2001 Interactive Fiction Competition. It also won the XYZZY Awards for Best Game, Best Setting and Best Story and was nominated for Best Individual Puzzle and Best Writing. except those classified as rural minor collectors or local roads. It also directs the FHWA to develop a proposal for designation of the NHS, subject to congressional approval.
At the same time, ISTEA stressed increased flexibility of choice among modal options, including bicycling and walking, in making transportation choices. In other areas, ISTEA emphasized environmental enhancement, preservation rather than expansion of the highway network, strengthened statewide and metropolitan planning, greater authority for states to establish their own standards off the NHS, increased reliance on public/private partnerships to finance needed projects, revitalized research and technology transfer, particularly in the areas of intelligent vehicle-highway systems and high-speed rail High-speed rail is a type of passenger rail transport that operates significantly faster than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions include 200-320 km/h (125-200 mph) - depending on whether the track is upgraded or new - by the European Union and above 90 mph , and scenic byways and recreational trails.
More broadly, ISTEA declared that the policy of the United States is to develop a National Intermodal Transportation System:
The National Intermodal Transportation System shall consist of all forms of transportation in a unified, interconnected manner, including the transportation systems of the future, to reduce energy consumption and air pollution while promoting economic development and supporting the nation's preeminent position in international commerce.
Just as the agency has adapted to each previous turning point, FHWA has been adjusting to the shape of its intermodal future. Headquarters and field offices have been restructured and such activities as the "FHWA 2000" initiative, the follow-up business planning initiatives, and diversity sensitivity training have helped prepare the agency for the future.
From the day General Stone moved into his attic office at the Department of Agriculture, the agency has been evolving. So change is nothing new for FHWA. At 100, it continues to evolve to meet the transportation needs of the nation.
(1) America's Highways 1776-1976: A History of the Federal-aid Program, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1976.
(2) Bruce E. Seely. Building the American Highway System: Engineers as Policy Makers, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, Pa., 1987.
(3) Philip P. Mason. The League of American Wheelmen and the Good-Roads Movement, 1880-1905, Ph.D thesis, University of Michigan (body, education) University of Michigan - A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries. , 1957.
(4) Albert C. Rose. Historic American Roads: From Frontier Trails to Superhighways, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1976.
OFFICE OF ROAD INQUIRY TO FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION
Office of Road Inquiry
Office of Public Road Inquiries
Office of Public Roads
Office of Public Roads and
Bureau of Public Roads
Public Roads Administration
Bureau of Public Roads
Federal Highway Administration
(April 1, 1967-)
CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS OFFICE OF ROAD INQUIRY TO FEDERAL HIGHWAY
General Roy Stone (1893-1899)
Martin Dodge (1899-1905)
Logan Waller Page (1905-1918)
Thomas H. MacDonald (1919-
Francis V. du Pont Du Pont (dpŏnt), family notable in U.S. industrial history. The Du Pont family's importance began when Eleuthère Irénée Du Pont established a gunpowder mill on the (1953-1955)
Charles D. (Cap) Curtiss (1956)
John A. Volpe John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - November 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation.
Volpe was born in 1908 in Wakefield, Massachusetts. (1956-1957)
Bertram D. Tallamy (1957-1961)
Rex Whitton (1961-1966)
Lowell K. Bridwell Lowell K. Bridwell (14 June 1924–21 November 1986) was an American journalist and official with the Federal Highway Administration.
Bridwell originally wrote about highways for the Washington Bureau of Scripps-Howard Newspapers beginning in 1958. (1967-1969)
Frank C. Turner (1969-1972)
Norbert Tiemann (1973-1977)
William M. Cox (1977-1978)
Karl S. Bowers (1978-1980)
John S. Hassell, Jr. (1980-1981)
Ray A. Barnhart (1981-1987)
Robert E. Farris (1988-1989)
Thomas D Thomas D. (born Thomas Dürr, December 30 1968 in Ditzingen close to Stuttgart, Germany) is a rapper in the German hip hop group Die Fantastischen Vier. He frequently works on solo projects. Life
After finishing Realschule he took on an apprenticeship as a barber. . Larson (1989-1993)
Rodney E. Slater
Rodney Earl Slater (born in Marianna, Arkansas on February 23, 1955) was the United States Secretary of Transportation under U. S. President Bill Clinton. (1993-)
1893 In Perspective
* The stock market crashed, plunging the United States into a depression.
* Massachusetts becomes the first state to establish a highway department.
* The Dalton Gang was captured.
* The former Cherokee territories of Oklahoma were opened to settlement.
* Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, tired of his most famous creation, allowed Sherlock Holmes to plunge to his "death" at Reichenbach Falls Reichenbach Falls, waterfalls, total drop 656 ft (200 m), S central Switzerland, where the Reichenbach River joins the Aare River. Upper Reichenbach Falls is one of the highest cataracts (c.300 ft/90 m high) in the Alps. It is familiar to readers of A. in The Final Problem.
* Katherine Lee Bates Bates , Katherine Lee 1859-1929.
American educator and writer best known for her poem "America the Beautiful," written in 1893 and revised in 1904 and 1911. wrote the words to "America the Beautiful America the Beautiful
patriotic song by Katherine Bates glorifying national ideals (1893). [Am. Music: Scholes, 30]
See : Song, Patriotic ."
* The Chicago World's Columbian Exposition honoring the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the new world opened. Nicknamed "The White City," the exposition introduced the Ferris Wheel Ferris wheel, amusement park ride. It consists of a power-operated wheel that is about 50 ft (15 m) in diameter. It has two rims that are parallel to and equidistant from the shaft about which the wheel rotates. , the zipper zipper
Device for binding the edges of an opening, as on a garment or a bag. A zipper consists of two strips of material with metal or plastic teeth along the edges, and a sliding piece that interlocks the teeth when moved in one direction and separates them again when moved , and long-distance telephone service and inspired the City Beautiful movement and the Emerald City of L. Frank Baum's The Wizard of Oz Wizard of Oz
reaches and departs from Oz in circus balloon. [Children’s Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz]
See : Ballooning
Wizard of Oz
false wizard takes up residence in Emerald City. [Am. Lit. .
* In a lecture during the Exposition, Professor Frederick Jackson Turner Noun 1. Frederick Jackson Turner - United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
Turner declared that the frontier, which had helped shape the U.S. character, was closed.
* Bicycle makers Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea James Frank Duryea (October 8, 1869, Washburn, Illinois - February 15, 1967, Saybrook, Connecticut), along with his brother Charles Duryea invented and built one of the first automobiles in the United States. inspired by reports of European automotive successes, built the first American First American may refer to:
* Congress defeated attempts to switch the country to the metric system metric system, system of weights and measures planned in France and adopted there in 1799; it has since been adopted by most of the technologically developed countries of the world. .
* Colorado adopted women's suffrage.
* Stephen Crane wrote Maggie: A Girl of the Streets.
* Hurricane devastated dev·as·tate
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.
2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark. Charleston, S. C., and Savannah Savannah, city, United States
Savannah, city (1990 pop. 137,560), seat of Chatham co., SE Ga., a port of entry on the Savannah River near its mouth; inc. 1789. , Ga., killing about 1,000 people.
* Edison Laboratories built film studio in West Orange, N. J.
* Antonin Dvorak composed his "Symphony No. 9 (From the New World)."
* Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer published The Psychic Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena.
* Ice hockey was introduced from Canada at Yale and Johns Hopkins Universities.
PRIMARY SOURCE: The Timetables of American History, Laurence Urdang, editor, a Touchstone Book.