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A comparison of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners of two adjoining villages in Lalmonirhat district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Bangladesh is a small country of about 55,000 square miles but with a population of more than 150 million. The majority of the population resides in the more than 86,000 villages spread throughout the country. Almost a third of the population lives below the poverty line and have income of less than US $1 per day. Modern medical facilities are virtually absent in the rural areas. This is coupled with inadequate transportation system, which makes it difficult for the rural population to visit modern hospitals and clinics, which are limited essentially to two cities, Dhaka and Chittagong within the country. A number of traditional medicinal systems exists side-by-side with the allopathic system of medicine in Bangladesh. These traditional medicinal systems include homeopathy, Ayurvedic, Unani, and the folk medicinal system. The latter is practiced by the Kavirajes, who rely almost exclusively on medicinal plants or plant parts in their treatment of various ailments (Rahmatullah, ,2010; Mollik, 2010; Rahmatullah, 2010; Rahmatullah, 2010).

Practically, every village of Bangladesh has one or more practicing Kavirajes. Since the Kavirajes reside in the village along with the other village people, acquaintances are created and so the rural population feels more comfortable in discussing their health problems with the Kavirajes. This is not the case when the rural people visit city doctors where they feel intimidated. Moreover, since the Kavirajes use simple preparations of medicinal plants or plant parts, it is easier for the rural people to follow directions of the Kavirajes. Also, since practice by the Kavirajes has been going on from time immemorial, and the people has found relief from the dispensations offered by the Kavirajes, this has created a sense of confidence for the Kavirajes among the rural population.

Each Kaviraj tends to keep his or her knowledge of medicinal plants within the family and which is passed from generation to generation. Over time, this knowledge becomes unique to the Kaviraj and his successor(s). We had been conducting surveys among the Kavirajes of various parts of the country and different tribes for quite some time (Rahmatullah, 2010; Rahmatullah, 2010; Hossan, 2010; Rahmatullah, 2010; Rahmatullah, 2010; Rahmatullah, 2010). During the course of the above surveys, it was realized that even though the availability of medicinal plants may be similar in two regions of the country, the selection of medicinal plants varied widely between the Kavirajes of the two regions or tribes. The objective of the present study was not only to obtain knowledge on medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of two adjoining villages in Lalmonirhat district, Bangladesh but also to find out whether differences exist even within village level among practicing Kavirajes as to ailment(s) treated and the medicinal plants selected for treatment of any particular ailment.

Materials and Methods

Area of survey

Lalmonirhat district is in the northern part of Bangladesh and falls roughly between 88[degrees]55-89[degrees]40 E and 25[degrees]40-26[degrees]30 N. The survey was conducted in the adjoining villages of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati. Both villages lie near the center of Lalmonirhat district and are adjacent to Nilphamari district on the west. The combined population of the two villages was about 2,000. The villages have a predominantly Muslim population but also contain a number of Hindu families. The main occupations of the people are agriculture and agricultural laborer (i.e. people who do not possess land of their own and work on other people's land). Paddy, tobacco, maize, jute, wheat, potato and sugar cane are the principal crops grown by the people of the two villages surveyed along with cultivation of seasonal vegetables. Overall, the populations of the two villages are poor to middle income level, signifying an earning level of less than Bangladeshi Taka 25,000 per year (70 Bangladesh Taka = US $1). The villages also suffer from food scarcity twice during the year, which are locally known as the Boro (Greater) and the Choto (Lesser) Monga. The greater Monga occurs during the lean season preceding the harvest of paddy in the Bangla months of Ashwin and Kartik (mid-September to mid-November), and the smaller Monga occurs during the lean season preceding the harvest of paddy in the Bangla months between Chaitra and Jaistha (mid-March to mid-June). Besides tradition, the poor income status of the people of these two villages together with the absence of modern medical facilities have made the people more dependent on folk medicinal practitioners (locally termed Kavirajes) for treatment of their various ailments.

Ethnobotanical methods

A total of five Kavirajes practicing in Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages were interviewed in the present survey. Cumulatively speaking, they formed the total number of Kavirajes practicing in these two villages. Of the five Kavirajes, Kaviraj 1-4 (Md. Abdul Aziz, Md. Mohubar, Md. Shafiuddin, and Ramzan Ali) practiced in Uttar Musrat Madati village, while Kaviraj 5 (Durgamohan Debnath) practiced in Kisasat Madati village. Kavirajes 1-4 were about 52-55 years old, whereas Kaviraj 5 was about 64 years old. Informed consent was obtained from each Kaviraj prior to the interviews. The Kavirajes were apprised as to the type of information wanted and further told that the collected information will be disseminated in national or international publications. The Kavirajes had no objections to the information being disseminated.

Ethnobotanical methods like semi-structured interviews were employed to obtain the necessary information. Information was collected as to local names of plants, ailments treated, plants or plant parts used, formulations and dosages, and any other information which the Kavirajes consented to provide voluntarily. The basic method followed was that of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). Briefly, in this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on day time guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Kavirajes 1 and 5 had more than one acre of land around their homesteads where they cultivated various medicinal plants and used such plants in their practices. All information was cross-checked with the Kavirajes in later evening sessions. Interviews were conducted in Bengali, the language spoken by both Kavirajes and interviewers.

Plant specimens were photographed, collected and dried on the spot and later brought to Dhaka for complete identification. Plant identifications were done by Mr. Manjur-ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka. Voucher specimens were deposited at the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative where specimens from previous ethnomedicinal surveys were already preserved.

Results

Plants and their distribution into families

It was observed that a total of 85 plant species distributed into 51 families were used by the five Kavirajes for treatment of various ailments. The results are shown in Table 1. The Euphorbiaceae family provided ten plants followed by the Lamiaceae family (5 plants), Solanaceae family (4 plants), Apocynaceae family (3 plants), Combretaceae family (3 plants), and Fabaceae family (3 plants). A number of the medicinal plants were not wild but cultivated systematically around homesteads for their fruits, which were sold for consumption locally and in other areas. These plants included Mangifera indica, Areca catechu, Ananas sativus, Carica papaya, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Musa paradisiaca, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumini, Averrhoa carambola, Citrus aurantiifolia, and Capsicum frutescens. Basella rubra was also cultivated and consumed as vegetable, while Mentha spicata was a semi-wild plant, being both found in the wild as well as cultivated on a small scale around homesteads and used as a spice. Plant parts used and mode of preparation

The various plant parts used included whole plants, leaves, stems, roots, barks, flowers, fruits, seeds, gum, tubers or rhizomes, and base of the plant. Leaves constituted the majority of uses (40.8% of total uses), followed by stems and barks (10.8% each), fruits (10.0%), roots (8.3%), flowers (6.7%), tubers or rhizomes (5.0%), gum (3.3%), seeds or base of plants (1.7% each), and whole plant (0.8%). The usual mode of preparation was maceration of plant parts to obtain juice, followed by oral or topical administration of the juice. Occasionally, a plant part may be boiled in water followed by drinking of the water. For instance, leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum, Azadirachta indica, Justicia adhatoda, and Murraya koenigii were boiled in water and the water administered orally as treatment for fever and all sorts of pain. A macerated plant part may also be directly applied as in the case of macerated barks of Dracaena spicata, which was applied to swollen areas in cases of filariasis. Juice obtained from a plant part may be orally administered with sugar, molasses, rock salt or mishri (crystalline sugar) to make it more palatable. As an example, the Kavirajes advised drinking juice obtained from leaves of Justicia adhatoda with sugar or molasses as treatment for coughs, fever, and mucus. In this case, sugar or molasses was added as a sweetener. However, mishri was added to some preparations not only as a sweetener, but also because the Kavirajes thought that it has special healing properties. In one instance, the Kaviraj advised taking the juice obtained from macerated leaves of Aloe barbadensis with puffed rice for treatment of mental weakness (nervousness) resulting from meho (by meho, Kavirajes in Bangladesh usually mean urinary problems arising from endocrinological disorders, particularly diabetes; however, such endocrinological disorders can lead to other complications like mental weakness or nervousness and physical weakness; meho, as such, may be a symptom of a disease rather than the disease itself; note that in the present survey, the diagnosis of the Kavirajes included both mental and physical weakness as arising from meho). When queried, the Kaviraj mentioned that puffed rice was added both to absorb the juice, which is gel-like in nature, as well as to provide carbohydrate nutrient to overcome mental weakness, which according to the Kaviraj may result from physical weakness. Dietary restriction was prescribed by the Kavirajes in one instance during treatment of jaundice with Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula; while taking the formulation prescribed, eating of hilsha fish, pumpkin, beef, duck and turmeric was not allowed.

Medical applications

A plant part obtained from a single plant or a combination of plant parts from multiple plants were both observed to be used by the Kavirajes for treatment of ailments. The leaves of Acorus calamus were used to treat coughs or asthma. On the other hand, juice obtained from a mix of macerated barks of Lannea coromandelica, Mangifera indica, Syzygium cumini, and Terminalia arjuna was orally administered as treatment for chronic dysentery. It was also observed that multiple plant parts from a single plant may be used to treat an ailment; an example is the use of juice from macerated leaves and barks of Terminalia arjuna for treatment of heart disorders. Different parts of the same plant may have multiple uses in treatment of different ailments.

The whole plant of Cyperus rotundus was used to treat puerperal fever, while flowers were used in the treatment of chronic dysentery. The same plant may be mixed with other types of plants or plant parts for treatment of different ailments. The whole plant of Cyperus rotundus was mixed with leaves of Psidium guajava and Punica granatum for treatment of girani disease (see below) in men and puerperal fever in women; the whole plant of Cyperus rotundus was mixed with leaves of Lawsonia inermis and Azadirachta indica for treatment of skin diseases, including eczema.

Besides ailments, the Kavirajes were also observed to deal in preventive medicine and to treat malnutrition. Salsa, prepared from leaves of Justicia adhatoda or Mesua nagassarium was prescribed by the Kavirajes to be taken regularly for maintenance of good health. The leaves and stems of Amaranthus viridis in combination with leaves and stems of Aerva sanguinolenta and leaves of Mentha spicata were administered orally by the Kavirajes as treatment of malnutrition in newly delivered mothers. The Kavirajes also prescribed eating of base of Maranta arundinacea as famine food, i.e. to be eaten during times of food scarcity. There was one instance where a plant part was used to treat symptoms caused supposedly by black magic; the leaves of Opuntia dillenii were used for treatment of burning sensations in the body caused by black magic. In this case, if there were no apparent causes for the body to develop burning sensations, the Kaviraj attributed it to black magic. However, it was observed that if a patient complained of burning sensations in the body and further complained that because of any enmity or otherwise, somebody else had induced this burning sensation in him or her through black magic or sorcery, the Kaviraj also prescribed the leaves of Opuntia dillenii. So in this instance, at least, the primary diagnosis was made by the patient that he or she has been the victim of black magic, and not the Kaviraj himself. The Kaviraj merely prescribed as per the initial diagnosis of the patient. Among the 85 plant species observed to be used by the Kavirajes, only two, namely, Bixa orellana and Dracaena spicata, had ethnoveterinary applications, being used, respectively, for treatment of plague in cows or buffaloes or rheumatism in cattle.

Ailments treated by the Kavirajes

It was observed that the five Kavirajes differed considerably as to the number of ailments treated. Not only there was inter-village variation between the Kavirajes, but also intra-village variations. Kaviraj 2 treated only jaundice. He mentioned that he was specialized in the treatment for this ailment only. Kaviraj 3 also had a limited repertoire of ailments, which only included continuation of bleeding following childbirth, anemia, physical weakness, menstrual disorders, leucorrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, and jaundice. The highest number of ailments treated was by Kaviraj 5, who incidentally was the most aged among the five Kavirajes and so probably had more extensive experiences in practice. Table 2 gives a comparative analysis of the ailments treated by the five Kavirajes.

From Table 2, it is also evident that practically all Kavirajes treated one or more ailments, which were not treated by other Kavirajes. As examples, only Kaviraj 1 treated helminthiasis (hookworm infections) and gonorrhea. Although jaundice was treated by both Kavirajes 2 and 3, Kaviraj 2 claimed himself a specialist on this disease. Only Kaviraj 3 treated continuation of bleeding (i.e. non-stoppage of bleeding) following childbirth. Tuberculosis, blood purification, snake bites, pox (chicken pox) and tumors were ailments treated only by Kaviraj 4. Kaviraj 5 treated quite a large number of ailments by himself, which included paralysis, burns, diabetes, dizziness, malnutrition, allergy, bleeding from cuts and wounds, bleeding from mouth, head lice, sexual disorders (wet dreams), disorders of the uterus, insanity, gondomal disease (see Table 1 for its symptoms), and goiter. Kaviraj 5, alone among all the Kavirajes present in the two villages also had knowledge of medicinal plants, which can be used as abortifacient, as well as contraceptive.

There were also some common ailments treated by the Kavirajes. Various forms of respiratory tract disorders (which included asthma, coughs, mucus, bronchitis, and respiratory difficulties) were treated by Kavirajes 1, 4 and 5. The same applied to treatment for kidney or stomach stones, teeth problems, infections, skin disorders, and headache. Gastrointestinal disorders were treated by Kavirajes 1, 3, 4 and 5. Anemia and physical weakness was treated by both Kaviraj 1 and Kaviraj 3. Rheumatism, meho and menstrual disorders were treated by both Kavirajes 1 and 5. Urinary problems were treated by Kavirajes 1 and 4.

The Kavirajes did not use any clinical diagnostic procedures for identification of ailments. They primarily identified ailments on the basis of certain symptoms. Tumor (belboshon, as termed by Kaviraj 4), for instance, was diagnosed as a swelling for which no known cause like hurt or injury exists. Some ailments mentioned by the Kavirajes, like godh (filariasis), rokto prodor and rokto ujal (excessive or irregular bleeding during menstruation) could be recognized easily. Others were hard to define ailments, like meho or promeho. The Kaviraj term, meho (an ailment), in Bangladesh, is usually classified by Kavirajes as urinary problems arising out of endocrinological disorders, particularly diabetes. When occurring in men, it is often referred to as girani disease; however, meho is the common term for the disease in both men and women. Since there is no test for endocrinological disorders done by the Kavirajes, the above definition follows from diagnosis by allopathic doctors, who have had the chance to examine the same patient. In Bangladesh, we have observed in other areas surveyed, that to most Kavirajes, meho signified a symptom of diabetes, which is characterized by urinary problems like frequent urination. However, Kavirajes 1 and 5 also defined meho as physical weakness (which may be a condition arising out of diabetes). Promeho was defined by Kaviraj 1 as wasting away of body and inability to digest food; in other areas of Bangladesh, we have observed Kavirajes to define promeho as diabetes itself. On the other hand, Kaviraj 5 used the allopathic name diabetes instead of promeho, suggesting some influence of allopathic doctors in the use of medical terms. In absence of clinical tests, diabetes was diagnosed by Kaviraj 5 when the following symptoms were present: frequent thirsts and urination, sweet tasting urine, wasting away of body, and a general feeling of weakness. It is further to be noted that Kaviraj 5 also used the term meho in his interviews with us; he defined two particular symptoms of meho, where mental weakness (nervousness) or physical weakness was present because of meho. Taken together, it may be concluded that meho stands for a wide range of symptoms, the main cause for which is possibly diabetes but can also extend to other endocrinological disorders. Kaviraj 5 also used another term "lal kash" (a literal translation in English would be "red coughs"), the symptom of which was blood coming out with coughs. While this symptom could signify tuberculosis, it can also be due to some form of injury to the lungs. Kaviraj 5 considered the symptom itself to be the disease without going into underlying causes for the appearance of blood in coughs. It may be noted from Table 2, that tuberculosis was known to Kaviraj 4 and treated as such. Kaviraj 4 considered tuberculosis to occur when symptoms like dry cough, sweating, and blood in cough was noted in the patient. Kaviraj 4 also based his diagnosis on symptoms, rather than any clinical diagnostic procedures like X-rays or microbial analysis.

Selection of medicinal plants by the Kavirajes

Overall, considerable differences were observed between the selections of medicinal plants for treatment of a particular ailment between the Kavirajes. The differences existed not only between Kavirajes of one village (e.g. Kavirajes 1, 3 and 4 of Uttar Musrat Madati village), but also between Kavirajes 1, 3 and 4 of Uttar Musrat Madati village and Kaviraj 5 of Kisasat Madati village (note that Kaviraj 2 has not been brought into consideration at this point because he treated only jaundice). To cite several instances of the differences observed, pneumonia was treated with the plant Euphorbia neriifolia by Kaviraj 1, while the same disease was treated by Kaviraj 4 with Ocimum tenuiflorum. Kaviraj 1 treated fever with Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, or a combination of (Azadirachta indica + Clerodendrum viscosum + Justicia adhatoda + Murraya koenigii), or (Azadirachta indica + Clerodendrum viscosum + Morinda angustifolia + Murraya koenigii); Kaviraj 4 treated fever with Ocimum gratissimum, while Kaviraj 5 treated fever with Nyctanthes arbor tristis, Stephania japonica or Vitex trifolia. Kaviraj 1 treated rheumatic pain (a consequence of rheumatism) with Azadirachta indica, while Kaviraj 5 treated rheumatism with Dracaena spicata or Murraya koenigii. Puerperal fever was treated with a combination of (Cyperus rotundus + Psidium guajava + Punica granatum) by Kaviraj 1; the same ailment was treated with Physalis minima by Kaviraj 4. While Terminalia chebula was utilized in common, for treatment of anemia by Kavirajes 1, 3, 4 and 5, Kaviraj 4 also used Phyllanthus emblica, and Kaviraj 5 used Aerva sanguinolenta. A comparative account of the medicinal plants used for treatment of specific ailments is shown in Table 3.

When queried as to the differences in the selection of medicinal plants for treatment of the same ailment, the Kavirajes mentioned long-term family accumulation of medicinal plant knowledge as the primary cause for the observed differences in selection. The Kavirajes further mentioned that it is their custom also to experiment with medicinal plants initially upon cattle or poultry diseases following which they try to apply such plants to similar human diseases. If found to be successful, such attained knowledge is closely guarded by the Kavirajes and transmitted only to the successive generation Kaviraj of the same family or to a disciple who trains with the Kaviraj for years before finally starting to practice by himself or herself. The same plant may be selected for treatment of different ailments because the external symptoms of the ailments appeared to be the same. For instance Justicia gendarussa was used by Kaviraj 5 for bleeding from external cuts or wounds, bleeding from mouth, as well as rokto prodor and rokto ujal (excessive or irregular bleeding during menstruation). In this instance, the underlying symptom was external bleeding, the argument being that if the plant can cure external bleeding of one type (e.g. cuts and wounds), the plant can also cure external bleeding of other types (like bleeding from mouth).

Discussion

An important conclusion coming out of the present survey is that Kavirajes practicing even within the same village or adjoining villages differed considerably as to the type of medicinal plants used to treat any particular ailment. This is in spite of similar vegetative cover and the availability of medicinal plants being the same within the same village or adjoining villages (in the present survey, the two adjoining villages were within 1.5 kilometers of each other). This defies common logic, which suggests that any information as to the efficacy of a particular medicinal plant will be quickly disseminated. However, the Kavirajes' individual experimentation with medicinal plants in bygone generations or in the present generation and keeping the knowledge closely guarded can preclude dissemination of such observational results. The same conclusion was drawn by Vandebroek et al (2003) in their studies of traditional healers' medicinal plant knowledge in the Bolivian Andes and Amazon. The authors concluded that transmission and survival of knowledge of medicinal plants is dependent upon background of extensive family in traditional medicinal practices. The present survey also indicated a similar finding that over time individual experimentation with medicinal plants and keeping the knowledge secluded to the family for successive generations can lead to considerable divergences in the selection of medicinal plants for treatment of a given ailment.

Another important question as to the folk medicinal uses of medicinal plants relate to how efficacious these plants are when examined from the view point of modern scientific research. A perusal of the available scientific literature showed that modern research findings on the pharmacological activity and phytochemicals present in a number of the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes validate their traditional usage. To cite several such validations, the medicinal plant Justicia adhatoda was used by Kavirajes 1 and 5 for respiratory tract disorders relating to coughs, fever, mucus, bronchitis, and respiratory difficulties, as well as pain and swelling due to injury. Antiinflammatory activity has been reported for alkaloid fraction obtained from the plant (Chakraborty, 2001); extract of the plant demonstrated antitussive effect against mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals (Dhuley, J.N., 1999); a bronchodilator alkaloid, vasicinone, has been reported from the plant (Amin, 1959). All of the reported findings are significantly relevant to and validates the traditional use of the plant against respiratory tract disorders as well as pain and swelling due to injury.

The anti-diabetic properties of Aloe barbadensis (used by Kaviraj 5 for meho, an ailment related to diabetes) have been widely reported. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of processed gel from the plant have been demonstrated in mouse model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Kim, 2009). Polyphenol-rich extract of the plant reportedly decreased significantly both body weight and blood glucose levels in experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice (Perez, 2007). The leaf gel extract has been shown to modulate oxidative stress in streptozotocin-treated rats (Rajasekaran, 2005); alcoholic extract of gel reportedly showed hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Rajasekaran, 2004). Five phytosterols have been identified from gel of the plant, namely lophenol, 24-methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol, cycloartanol, and 24-methylene-cycloartanol, with anti-hyperglycemic effects demonstrated in type 2 diabetic mice (Tanaka, 2006).

Protective effects of Terminalia arjuna against heart disorders or cardiotoxicity has been amply demonstrated (Singh, 2008; Dwivedi, S., 2007; Gauthaman, 2005; Karthikeyan, 2003; Dwivedi, 2002; Bharani, 2002; Gauthaman, 2001; Dwivedi, 1997). Notably the plant was used for treatment of heart disorders by Kaviraj 1. The fruits of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica were used by Kavirajes 2, 3 and 5 for treatment of jaundice (a hepatic disorder). HP-1, a polyherbal phytomedicine containing extracts of these three plants among other constituents has been reported to have antioxidant and hepatocurative properties (Tasaduq, 2003). Gallic acid and chebulic acid, respectively, has been identified as the hepatoprotective principle in fruits of Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula (Anand, 1997; Lee, 2007).

The antinociceptive effects of alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (a plant used by Kaviraj 1) for treatment of pain during menstruation) has been reported (Khanna, 2003). The analgesic action reportedly involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Extracts of Asparagus racemosus (used by Kaviraj 5 for treatment of meho) reportedly demonstrated insulin secretory actions in perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic b-cells (Hannan, 2007), suggesting that the plant can play a useful role as an anti-diabetic agent. Azadirachta indica, used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of pain reportedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in mice models (Khanna, 1995), thus validating its traditional use.

The beneficial effects of Psidium guajava plant parts (used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of girani disease, which may be a symptom of diabetes) in diabetes has been shown in a number of reports. In streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats, aqueous extract of fruit peels reportedly demonstrated hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects (Rai, 2010). Quercetin, present in the aqueous extract of leaves of the plant has been shown to promote glucose uptake in liver and so contribute to alleviation of diabetes (Cheng, 2009). Consumption of guava has been suggested to protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes; guava bud extract reportedly displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity (Owen, 2008). Administration of guava leaf extract reportedly had antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic rats (Shen, 2008). Significant hypoglycemic activity has been seen in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats following administration of ethanol extract of stem bark of the plant (Mukhtar, 2006); hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects have been shown with aqueous extract of leaves (Ojewole, 2005).

A number of medicinal plants observed to be used by the Kavirajes in the present survey are yet to be studied. The available scientific literatures on the few medicinal plants that have been studied as for any relevant activity in line with their traditional uses strongly validate such uses. Traditional forms of medicine have been neglected to a considerable extent since the advent of modern allopathic medicine. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that for newer and more efficacious drugs (to replace modern drugs with serious side-effects or against which resistance has grown), one has to turn back to the plant kingdom and their indigenous medicinal uses. The plants observed to be in use by the Kavirajes in the present survey can form a basis for future studies leading to discovery of lead compounds and novel therapeutics.

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(1)Farhana Israt Jahan, (2) Md. Rajib Ul Hasan, (1) Rownak Jahan, (1) Syeda Seraj, (1) Anita Rani Chowdhury, (1) Md. Tabibul Islam, (1) Zubaida Khatun, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah

(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh.

(2) Beximco Pharmaceuticals, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

Telephone: 88-02-9136285 Fax: 88-02-8157339

Email: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the folk medicinal
practitioners of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati
village in Lalmonirhat district, Bangladesh.

Serial     Scientific Name             Family Name
Number

1          Justicia adhatoda L.        Acanthaceae

2          Acorus calamus L.           Acoraceae

3          Dracaena spicata            Agavaceae
           Roxb.

4          Sansevieria                 Agavaceae
           roxburghiana
           Schult. & Schult. f.

5          Aloe barbadensis            Aloaceae
           Mill

6          Aerva sanguinolenta         Amaranthaceae
           (L.) Blume

7          Amaranthus viridis L        Amaranthaceae

8          Justicia gendarussa L       Amaranthaceae

9          Lannea                      Anacardiaceae
           coromandelica
           (Houtt.) Merr.

10         Mangifera indica L.         Anacardiaceae

11         Annona reticulata L.        Annonaceae

12         Hemidesmus indicus          Apocynaceae
           R.Br.
13         Plumeria acutifolia         Apocynaceae
           Poir.

14         Tabernaemontana             Apocynaceae
           divaricata (L.) R. Br.
           Ex Roem. & Schult.

15         Amorphophallus              Araceae
           sylvaticus (Roxb.)
           Kunth
16         Areca catechu L.            Arecaceae

17         Calotropis gigantea         Asclepiadaceae
           (L.) Ait.f.

18         Eclipta prostrata L.        Asteraceae

19         Basella alba L.             Basellaceae
           'Rubra'

20         Bixa orellana L.            Bixaceae
21         Bombax ceiba L.             Bombacaceae

22         Ananas sativus Schul        t. Bromeliaceae
           & Schult. f.

23         Opuntia dillenii            Cactaceae
           (Ker-Gawl.) Haw.

24         Carica papaya L.            Caricaceae

25         Mesua nagassarium           Clusiaceae
           (Burm. F.) Kosterm.
26         Terminalia arjuna           Combretaceae
           (Roxb. ex DC.)
           Wight & Arn.

27         Terminalia belerica         Combretaceae
           (Gaertn.) Roxb.

28         Terminalia chebula          Combretaceae
           Retz.

29         Commelina sp.               Commelinaceae

30         Costus speciosus            Costaceae
           (J. Konig.) Sm.

31         Kalanchoe sp.               Crassulaceae

32         Kalanchoe pinnata           Crassulaceae
           (Lam.) Pers.

33         Cyperus rotundus L.         Cyperaceae

34         Euphorbia                   Euphorbiaceae
           antiquorum L.

35         Euphorbia                   Euphorbiaceae
           neriifolia L.

36         Euphorbia                   Euphorbiaceae
           pulcherrima
           Willd. ex Klotzsch

37         Euphorbia tirucalli         Euphorbiaceae
           L.

38         Jatropha curcas L.          Euphorbiaceae

39         Jatropha                    Euphorbiaceae
           gossypifolia L.

40         Manihot esculenta           Euphorbiaceae
           Crantz.

41         Pedilanthus                 Euphorbiaceae
           tithymaloides
           (L.) Poit.

42         Phyllanthus                 Euphorbiaceae
           emblica L.

43         Ricinus communis L.         Euphorbiaceae

44         Adenanthera                 Fabaceae
           pavonina L.

45         Clitoria ternatea L.        Fabaceae

46         Saraca asoca (Roxb.)        Fabaceae
           De Wilde.

47         Clerodendrum                Lamiaceae
           viscosum Vent.

48         Mentha spicata L.           Lamiaceae

49         Ocimum                      Lamiaceae
           gratissimum L.

50         Ocimum sanctum L.           Lamiaceae

51         Ocimum                      Lamiaceae
           tenuiflorum L.

52         Litsea glutinosa            Lauraceae
           (Lour.) C.D.Robins.

53         Asparagus                   Liliaceae
           racemosus Willd.

54         Crinum asiaticum L.         Liliaceae

55         Lawsonia inermis L.         Lythraceae

56         Punica granatum L.          Lythraceae

57         Hibiscus rosa               Malvaceae
           sinensis L.

58         Maranta                     Marantaceae
           arundinacea L.

59         Azadirachta indica          Meliaceae
           A. Juss.

60         Stephania japonica          Menispermaceae
           (Thunb.) Miers

61         Artocarpus                  Moraceae
           lakoocha Roxb.
62         Morus alba L.               Moraceae

63         Musa paradisiaca L.         Musaceae

64         Psidium guajava L.          Myrtaceae

65         Syzygium cumini (L.)        Myrtaceae
           Skeels

66         Averrhoa carambola          Oxalidaceae
           L.

67         Coix lacryma-jobi L.        Poaceae

68         Melocanna baccifera         Poaceae
           (Roxb.) Kurtz.

69         Polygonum                   Polygonaceae
           persicaria L.

70         Morinda angustifolia        Rubiaceae
           Roxb.

71         Paederia foetida L.         Rubiaceae

72         Citrus aurantiifolia        Rutaceae
           (Christm.) Swingle

73         Murraya koenigii            Rutaceae
           (L.) Spreng

74         Capsicum frutescens         Solanaceae
           L.

75         Datura metel L.             Solanaceae

76         Physalis minima L.          Solanaceae

77         Solanum barbisetum          Solanaceae
           Nees

78         Abroma augusta L.f.         Sterculiaceae

79         Grewia sp.                  Tiliaceae

80         Nyctanthes arbor            Verbenaceae
           tristis L.

81         Vitex trifolia L.           Verbenaceae

82         Vitis sp.                   Vitaceae

83         Diplazium sylvaticum        Woodsiaceae
           (Bory) Sw.

84         Curcuma caesia              Zingiberaceae
           Roxb.

85         Zingiber purpureum          Zingiberaceae
           Roscoe

Serial     Local Name                  Part utilized
Number

1          Har-baksha,                 Leaf
           Bashok pata

2          Boss, Ghora boss            Leaf

3          Forshon, Hem lota           Leaf, bark

4          Shorpo raj                  Leaf

5          Ghriot kumari,              Leaf
           Ghrito kanchon

6          Laalti shak                 Leaf, stem

7          Gai khuria                  Leaf, stem, root

8          Dhoron tori,                Leaf
           Bishollo koroni

9          Jiga gach                   Bark

10         Aam                         Bark, seed

11         Naeowa                      Leaf

12         Anontomool                  Gum

13         Champa                      Flower

14         Koria phool                 Flower

15         Jongli honchu               Tuber

16         Shupari                     Root

17         Akondo                      Gum (that comes
                                       out after cutting
                                       leaf or stem)

18         Kalo krishinda,             Leaf, stem
           Kalo keshori

19         Laal pui shak               Leaf

20         Kumkum                      Leaf
21         Shimul                      Root

22         Anarosh                     Bottom part
                                       of young leaf

23         Foni monsha                 Leaf

24         Papay                       Unripe fruit

25         Nakeshwar                   Leaf, stem

26         Arjun gach                  Leaf, bark

27         Bohera                      Fruit

28         Horitoki, Jongi             Fruit

29         Baghdora                    Leaf, stem

30         Valvet                      Leaf

31         Dontoraj                    Leaf

32         Pathorkuchi,                Leaf
           Pathorchura,
           Hemkancha,
           Shoda mastu,
           Pashan vedi

33         Kellar boi                  Whole plant,
                                       flower, tuber

34         Naara seju                  Stem

35         Patua sheju                 Leaf

36         Paan chatia                 Flower (actually
                                       red leaves
                                       which look
                                       like flowers)

37         Trishul, Dudh               Stem
           kushi

38         Shada shile, Kendal         Bark, gum

39         Ondhomoni,                  Leaf
           Laal shile

40         Holiot, Shimla alu          Potato-like tuber

41         Kalo chita mool             Leaf, root

42         Amloki                      Fruit

43         Laal henta, Aronto          Seed
           mool

44         Rokto chondon               Leaf, fruit

45         Neel konthi                 Flower

46         Ashok                       Root, bark,
                                       flower, fruit

47         Vite                        Leaf

48         Pudina                      Leaf

49         Aam tulshi                  Leaf, stem

50         Tulshi                      Root

51         Tulshi                      Leaf

52         Bijol ghonta                Leaf, bark, stem

53         Shotomul                    Root

54         Go-roshun                   Tuber

55         Mehedi                      Leaf

56         Dalim                       Leaf, flower

57         Joba                        Flower

58         Ararut, Barley              Base of plant

59         Jat neem                    Leaf, bark

60         Tela kucha, Tel tola        Leaf, root

61         Daua                        Gum

62         Tunth, Baro baidali         Leaf

63         Aatia kola                  Ripe fruit

64         Deshi peyara                Leaf

65         Jaam                        Leaf, bark

66         Kamranga                    Leaf, bark,
                                       fruit (sour
                                       fruits are
                                       preferred)

67         Shada kaich                 Fruit

68         Muli bash                   Swollen portion
                                       at the base
                                       of the plant
                                       resembling a
                                       potato

69         Red carpet,                 Leaf
           Acid pata

70         Daru horidra                Leaf, bark

71         Bon vadai                   Leaf

72         Pati lebu                   Leaf, fruit

73         Norshing                    Leaf, root,
                                       bark, flower,
                                       fruit

74         Dhan morich                 Fruit

75         Kalo dhutura                Leaf

76         Teprai                      Leaf, root

77         Kontikari                   Leaf, stem

78         Ulot kombol                 Stem

79         Shokti shalok               Bark

80         Sheuli, Shefali             Leaf

81         Nim singh                   Leaf, stem

82         Mot                         Stem

83         Bish dhekia                 Leaf

84         Kalo shoti                  Rhizome

85         Kalo ada                    Tuber

Serial     Ailment/Symptoms treated with
Number     formulations and dosages

1          Coughs, fever, mucus. 1/2 cup of juice
           obtained from macerated leaves is slightly
           warmed and taken with sugar or molasses
           twice daily in the morning and evening for
           5-7 days. (a)

           Fever, all sorts of pain, pain and swelling
           due to injury. Leaves of Clerodendrum
           viscosum, Azadirachta indica, Justicia
           adhatoda, and Murraya koenigii are boiled
           in water. One cup of the water is taken
           twice daily for 5-7 days in the morning and
           evening for fever and all sorts of pain. For
           pain and swelling due to injury, the affected
           area is washed with the boiled water
           (preparation described above). (a)

           Bronchitis, lal kash (f) (blood coming out with
           cough), asthma. Juice obtained from
           macerated leaves is taken. (e)
           If mucus is present but do not come out
           with cough. Juice obtained from macerated
           leaves is taken with tal mishri (crystalline
           sugar obtained from sap of Borassus
           flabellifer). (e)

           Respiratory difficulties (difficulty in
           breathing). Juice obtained from macerated
           leaves is taken with molasses. (e)

           Salsa is prepared from leaves and eaten. (e)

2          Coughs, asthma. Juice obtained from
           bottom portion of macerated leaves is taken
           for coughs. Juice obtained from macerated
           bottom portions of leaves is taken for 14
           days for asthma. (The bottom portions of
           leaves are macerated to extract juice which
           is mixed with a little water and 1 cup of the
           mixture is taken for 14 days. (e)

3          Filariasis (g) (godh). Macerated bark is
           applied to swollen areas for 7 days. (e)
           Rheumatism in humans and cattle, paralysis
           in humans. Leaves are boiled in water. A
           piece of cloth is soaked in the boiled water
           and applied to affected areas. (e)

4          Waist pain. Thread-like fibers are
           obtained when leaves are torn into strips
           longitudinally. The fibers are tied around the
           waist. (e)

5          Burns. Juice obtained from macerated
           leaves is applied to burns. (e)

           Mental weakness (nervousness) as a result of
           mehoh. Juice obtained from macerated leaves
           is taken with puffed rice (locally known as
           muri). (e)

           Dizziness in elderly people. Macerated
           leaves are applied to forehead. (e)

6          Malnutrition in newly delivered mother.
           Leaves and stems of Amaranthus viridis are
           mixed with leaves and stems of Aerva
           sanguinolenta and leaves of Mentha spicata
           and taken. (e)

           Anemia. Leaves and stems are taken orally. (e)

7          Severe infection on body. Macerated roots
           are applied to the infected area. (e)
           Malnutrition in newly delivered mother.
           Leaves and stems of Amaranthus viridis are
           mixed with leaves and stems of Aerva
           sanguinolenta and leaves of Mentha spicata
           and taken. (e)

8          Bleeding from external cuts and wounds.
           Macerated leaf is applied. (e)

           Bleeding through the mouth. Juice obtained
           from macerated leaves is taken with honey. (e)

           Rokto prodor, rokto ujal (excessive or
           irregular bleeding during menstruation).
           Juice obtained from macerated leaves is
           taken. (e)

9          Chronic dysentery. Bark of Lannea
           coromandelica, Mangifera indica, Syzygium
           cumini, and Terminalia arjuna are mixed
           and macerated to obtain juice. 1/2 cup of the
           juice is taken 2-3 times daily for 1 week. (c)

10         Excessive bleeding during menstruation,
           indigestion, blood dysentery.
           One cup juice from macerated barks of
           Mangifera indica and Syzygium cumini is
           taken thrice daily for excessive bleeding
           during menstruation. (a,c)

           Soft pulp present in old seeds is mixed with
           rock salt and warm water and taken to
           relieve indigestion. Seeds of Mangifera
           indica and fruits of Terminalia chebula are
           macerated together and taken with honey for
           excessive bleeding during menstruation or
           blood dysentery. (a)

           Excessive bleeding during menstruation. One
           cup of juice obtained from a macerated
           mixture of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis,
           flowers of Punica granatum, and bark of
           Mangifera indica is taken thrice daily. (a)

           Chronic dysentery. Bark of Lannea
           coromandelica, Mangifera indica, Syzygium
           cumini, and Terminalia arjuna are mixed
           and macerated to obtain juice. 1/2 cup of the
           juice is taken 2-3 times daily for 1 week. (c)

11         Head lice. Macerated leaves are boiled in
           water and the water applied to head. (e)

12         Gum is used for preparation of salsa. (e)

13         Filaria. Macerated flowers are massaged for
           7 days to affected parts of the body. (e)

14         Conjunctivitis, redness in eyes, pain in eyes.
           2-3 drops of juice obtained from macerated
           flowers are applied to eyes 2-3 times daily. (a)

15         Filariasis (godh). Tubers are sliced, burnt
           and applied to swollen areas for 7 days. (e)

16         Pyorrhea (bleeding from gums), tingling
           sensations in the teeth, tooth decay (cause
           mentioned by kaviraj as to insect infestation
           of tooth), foul odor emanating from mouth.
           Roots of Areca catechu are boiled in water
           with bark of Azadirachta indica. The water
           is used for gargling 2-3 times daily for at
           least 3 weeks. (a)

17         Snake bite. The bitten part is cut slightly
           with a blade and the gum applied. If
           blood contains poison, black-colored blood
           will ooze out, if the blood does not contain
           poison, red-colored blood will ooze out. (d)

18         Gastric troubles, stomach pain. 1/2 cup of
           juice obtained from macerated leaves and stems
           is taken twice daily in the morning and
           evening. (e)

19         Continuation of bleeding after childbirth.
           Ripe fruits of Musa paradisiaca are
           macerated and strained through a piece of
           cloth. This is mixed with juice obtained
           from macerated leaves of Basella alba L.
           Rubra', camphor, and sugar. 1/2 cup of the
           mixture is administered twice daily. (c)

20         Plague in cows and buffaloes. Leaves are fed. (e)
21         Wet dreams, physical weakness as a result
           of meho, to increase libido. Juice from
           macerated roots of non-flowering plants is
           taken for wet dreams or meho. Juice from
           macerated roots of flowering or non-
           flowering plants is taken to increase
           libido. (e)

22         Hookworm infections (symptoms:
           enlarged abdomen, wasting of body, anemia).
           Juice obtained from macerated bottom part
           of young leaves is orally administered with
           sugar. 1/2 cup of juice is to be taken by
           adults and 1 teaspoonful by children for 3-4
           days. (a)

23         Burning sensations induced in the body due
           to black magic (when there are no obvious
           causes for burning sensations, the Kavirajes
           regard it as due to black magic). Leaves are
           boiled in water. One cup of the water is
           taken for 3 days. (e)

24         Belboshon (tumor--a swelling without any
           obvious cause like injury or hurt is regarded
           by the Kavirajes as a tumor). The swollen
           portion at the base of Melocanna baccifera
           is boiled in water with unripe fruits of
           Carica papaya. The water is taken orally
           daily, as well as used for washing the
           tumor. (d)

25         Used to prepare salsa. (e)

26         Heart disorders (symptoms: chest pain, bleeding
           through mouth, headache, chest pain while
           talking, and feeling of tension in nerves of
           the neck). One cup juice obtained from
           macerated leaves and barks is taken with
           sugar twice daily for 3-4 weeks.

           Chronic dysentery. Bark of Lannea
           coromandelica, Mangifera indica, Syzygium
           cumini, and Terminalia arjuna are mixed
           and macerated to obtain juice. 1/2 cup of the
           juice is taken 2-3 times daily for 1 week. (c)

           Stomach pain, gastric disorder. Powdered
           bark is mixed with water and taken with
           sugar and water. (d)

27         Jaundice (symptoms: yellow coloration in eye,
           headache, weakness). Fruits of Terminalia
           chebula, Terminalia belerica, and
           Phyllanthus emblica are soaked in water and
           macerated. To the macerated mix is added
           ash of gold, silver and copper. Pills made
           from the final mix are taken thrice daily for
           3-5 days. Note that while this medication is
           taken, the patient should not eat hilsa fish
           (Tenualosa ilisha), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo
           L., Cucurbitaceae), beef, duck meat and
           cannot add turmeric to any food that is
           eaten. (b,c,e)

           To ensure proper bowel movement. Fruits
           are eaten. (d)

           Proper bowel movement, any type of
           gastrointestinal disorders. For proper bowel
           movement, fruits are eaten. For any type of
           gastrointestinal disorders, fruits of
           Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and
           Phyllanthus emblica are crushed to form a
           powder and the powder taken for 7 days. (d)

28         Dysentery (slippery and frequent stool), anemia
           (pale color of body with whiteness of eyes,
           i.e. blood vessels in eyes appears whitish).
           Fruits are chewed followed by drinking of
           water. Alternately, fruits are soaked in 1/2
           cup of water and taken for 3 weeks. (a,c,d,e)
           Seeds of Mangifera indica and fruits of
           Terminalia chebula are macerated together
           and taken with honey for excessive bleeding
           during menstruation or blood dysentery.a
           Jaundice (symptoms: yellow coloration in
           eye, headache, weakness). Fruits of
           Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and
           Phyllanthus emblica are soaked in water and
           macerated. To the macerated mix is added
           ash of gold, silver and copper. Pills made
           from the final mix are taken thrice daily for
           3-5 days. Note that while this medication is
           taken, the patient should not eat hilsa fish
           (Tenualosa ilisha), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo
           L., Cucurbitaceae), beef, duck meat and
           cannot add turmeric to any food that is
           eaten. (b,c,e)

           Proper bowel movement, any type of
           gastrointestinal disorders. For proper bowel
           movement, fruits are eaten. For any type of
           gastrointestinal disorders, fruits of
           Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and
           Phyllanthus emblica are crushed to form a
           powder and the powder taken for 7 days. (d)

29         Injuries to the heart, bleeding from the mouth.
           1/2 cup juice obtained from macerated leaves
           and stems is taken for 7 days. (e)

30         Extrusion of uterus. Juice obtained from
           macerated leaves is pressed around the
           extruded uterus. The uterus will recover its
           former position within 7 days. (e)

31         Toothache, bleeding from gum. Leaves are
           chewed and the juice held in the mouth for
           5 minutes. This is continued for a week. (e)

32         Stone formation in stomach or kidneys
           (symptoms: less urination or urine coming
           out only as drops, lower abdominal pain),
           headache, stoppage of urination. One cup
           juice from macerated leaves is taken with
           mishrii (crystalline sugar) twice daily for 21
           days as remedy for stone formation in
           stomach or kidneys. Following this
           procedure, the stone(s) will come out in
           powdered form with urine. For headache,
           macerated leaves are applied to forehead.
           For stoppage of urination, macerated leaves
           are applied just below the navel. (a, d)

           Kaviraj 5 distinguished five stages in the
           plant. Pathorkuchi refers to when the plant
           has just come out; Pathorchura is when the
           plant is a little longer; Hemkancha is when
           longer and begins flowering; Shoda mastu is
           the latter stage of flowering; Pashan vedi is
           aged plant when leaves turn yellow.

           Stone in stomach. Young leaves from
           Pathorkuchi are macerated to obtain juice.
           The juice is taken with sugar 3 times during
           the day and once during night for 7 days. (e)

           Headache. Juice from macerated leaf of
           Pathorchura is applied to head. (e)

           Infections, burning sensations in the skin.
           Paste of leaves of Hemkancha is applied to
           affected areas. (e)

           Diabetes. Juice obtained from macerated
           leaves of Shoda mastu is taken twice daily. (e)

           Insanity. Juice and paste of Pashan vedi is
           applied to head. (e)

33         Girani disease in men (local term used by the
           Kavirajes denoting loss of libido in men),
           sutika disease in women (local term used
           by the Kavirajes for puerperal fever,
           symptoms being indigestion and leucorrhea
           in women following childbirth). Leaves of
           Psidium guajava, leaves of Punica granatum
           and whole plants of Cyperus rotundus are
           mixed, warmed and macerated to obtain
           juice. 1/2 cup of the juice is taken with 10-15
           drops of honey twice daily for 3 days. (a)

           Blood dysentery. One cup of juice obtained
           from macerated flowers is taken with 10-15
           drops of honey. (a)

           Eczema, bikhaus disease (skin disease with
           the following symptoms: scabies-like, with
           infections beneath thick skin and itching),
           other skin diseases. Leaves of Lawsonia
           inermis and Azadirachta indica are
           macerated with whole plants of Cyperus
           rotundus and topically applied to affected
           areas. (a,d)

           Any type of infections. Macerated tubers are
           applied to infected area. (a,d)

           Constipation. 1/2 cup of juice obtained from
           macerated tubers is taken thrice daily. (c)

34         Filariasis (godh). Paste of stem is applied to
           the swollen portions for 7 days. (e)

35         Cough and pneumonia in children. Leaves are
           warmed over a fire and then squeezed to
           obtain juice. One teaspoonful of the juice is
           administered daily following mixing with
           mustard oil and molasses for 5-7 days. (a)

36         Gondomal (symptoms: pustules underneath
           the tongue, speaking in nasal tones,
           difficulties in speaking, inability to take
           food). The red flowers are boiled in water.
           A piece of cloth is soaked in the water,
           warmed and applied to the pustules twice
           daily in the morning and evening.

           Alternately, the water is used for gargling
           twice daily in the morning and evening for
           3 days. (e)

37         Waist pain, joint pain. Stems are boiled in
           water. A piece of cloth soaked in the boiling
           water is applied to affected areas. (e)

38         Dysentery, chronic dysentery. Three drops of
           gum (for children) and 10 drops of gum (for
           adults) are taken with sugar for 7 days.  (9)

           Tooth diseases. Bark is boiled in water with
           salt and the water used for gargling in the
           morning and evening. (e)

39         Eye disorders. Juice obtained from
           macerated young leaves is applied. (e)
           To improve eyesight. Leaves are soaked in
           water for a day and then eyes washed with
           the water. (e)

           Blood dysentery. 1/2 cup of leaves is
           macerated in water followed by drinking of
           the water thrice daily. (e)

40         Diabetes. The tuber is macerated in a little
           water and then allowed to settle. The upper
           portion of the water is discarded.
           1 teaspoonful of the remaining gummy portion
           is taken thrice daily. (e)

41         Abortifacient. Gum coming out from the end
           of leaf stalk following plucking the leaf is
           applied to the mouth of the uterus for three
           consecutive days. Alternately, root is
           inserted at the mouth of the uterus. (e)

42         Jaundice (symptoms: yellow coloration in eye,
           headache, weakness). Fruits of Terminalia
           chebula, Terminalia belerica, and
           Phyllanthus emblica are soaked in water and
           macerated. To the macerated mix is added
           ash of gold, silver and copper. Pills made
           from the final mix are taken thrice daily for
           3-5 days. Note that while this medication is
           taken, the patient should not eat hilsa fish
           (Tenualosa ilisha), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo
           L., Cucurbitaceae), beef, duck meat and
           cannot add turmeric to any food that is
           eaten. (b,c,e)

           Blood purifier, anemia. Fruits are regularly
           eaten. (d)

           Proper bowel movement, any type of
           gastrointestinal disorders. For proper bowel
           movement, fruits are eaten. For any type of
           gastrointestinal disorders, fruits of
           Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and
           Phyllanthus emblica are crushed to form a
           powder and the powder taken for 7 days. (d)

43         Constipation. Seed oil is orally taken. For
           children (below 12 years), the dose is 1/2
           teaspoonful, for adults (above 12 years), the
           dose is 1 teaspoonful. (e)

           Sudden stomach pain, insufficient bowel
           movement. Seed oil is massaged below the
           navel. (e)

44         Headache, conjunctivitis, redness in eye.
           Macerated fruit is applied to the forehead as
           treatment for headache. A paste of
           macerated leaves is applied to the two
           corners of eyes (till cure) for conjunctivitis
           or redness of eyes. (e)

45         Goiter in children or adults, ear ache. 1/2 cup
           of juice obtained from macerated flowers is
           taken for 7 days for goiter. Juice obtained
           from macerated flowers is applied to the
           ears for 2 consecutive days for earache. (e)

46         Any disease of the uterus, prevention in
           women from sexual diseases. Juice obtained
           from macerated root, bark, flower and fruit
           is taken as treatment for any disease of the
           uterus. If girls are administered orally the
           above juice from 7 years of age, it serves as
           protection from any type of sexual disease. (e)

47         Fever (indicated by rise in temperature), pain
           in the body and feet. Leaves and barks of
           Morinda angustifolia are mixed with leaves
           and barks of Azadirachta indica, leaves of
           Clerodendrum viscosum and leaves of
           Murraya koenigii and boiled. 1/2 cup of the
           boiled water is taken twice daily for 3 days. (a)

           Fever, all sorts of pain, pain and swelling
           due to injury. Leaves of Clerodendrum
           viscosum, Azadirachta indica, Justicia
           adhatoda, and Murraya koenigii are boiled
           in water. One cup of the water is taken
           twice daily for 5-7 days in the morning and
           evening for fever and all sorts of pain. For
           pain and swelling due to injury, the affected
           area is washed with the boiled water
           (preparation described above). (a)

48         Malnutrition in newly delivered mother. Leaves
           and stems of Amaranthus viridis are mixed
           with leaves and stems of Aerva
           sanguinolenta and leaves of Mentha spicata
           and taken. (e)

49         Fever, coughs, carminative. 1/2 cup of juice
           obtained from macerated leaves and stems is
           taken with sugar for 7 days. Oil prepared
           from leaves is carminative. (d)

50         Pain during menstruation. Tubers of Crinum
           asiaticum are macerated with roots of Ocimum
           sanctum and 21 black peppers, and taken
           daily in the morning on an empty stomach
           for 3 days. (a)

51         Pneumonia, asthma (symptoms: coughs, sound
           in chest while coughing, weak body),
           tuberculosis (symptoms: dry cough,
           sweating, blood in cough). Leaves are
           warmed and macerated to extract juice. 1/2
           cup of the juice is taken with sugar or 5-7
           drops of honey for 3-4 weeks. For
           tuberculosis, the juice is to be taken for 3
           months. (d)

52         Physical weakness, boils. Leaves or barks are
           soaked in water. One poa (local measure
           approximating 250 g) of the water is then
           taken with sugar every morning for 3 weeks
           as treatment for physical weakness.
           Macerated bark is applied to boils to induce
           it to burst and let out the pus. (a)

           Shada shrub (whitish discharge in urine,
           possibly leucorrhea), physical weakness. The
           stems of Abroma augusta and stems of
           Litsea glutinosa are macerated to extract
           juice. 1/2 cup of the juice is mixed with
           sugar and taken twice daily in the morning
           and evening for 1 week. (c)

53         Meho (denoting physical weakness arising from
           meho). Juice extracted from macerated roots
           is taken twice daily for 7 days. (e)

54         Pain during menstruation. Tubers of Crinum
           asiaticum are macerated with roots of
           Ocimum sanctum and 21 black peppers and
           taken daily in the morning on an empty
           stomach for 3 days. (a)

55         Eczema, bikhaus disease (skin disease with
           the following symptoms: like scabies with
           infections beneath thick skin and itching),
           other skin diseases. Leaves of Lawsonia
           inermis and Azadirachta indica are
           macerated with whole plants of Cyperus
           rotundus and topically applied to affected
           areas. (a,d)

           Skin infections. Leaves of Citrus
           aurantiifolia are mixed with leaves of
           Lawsonia inermis and barks of Morinda
           angustifolia, macerated and applied to
           affected areas. (a)

           Skin diseases. Macerated leaves are applied
           to affected areas. (e)

           Bleeding through the mouth. Juice obtained
           from macerated leaves is taken with honey. (e)

56         Girani disease in men (local term used by the
           Kavirajes denoting loss of libido in men),
           sutika disease in women (local term used by
           the Kavirajes for puerperal fever, symptoms
           being indigestion and leucorrhea in women
           following childbirth). Leaves of Psidium
           guajava, leaves of Punica granatum and
           whole plants of Cyperus rotundus are mixed,
           warmed and macerated to obtain juice. 1/2
           cup of the juice is taken with 10-15 drops
           of honey twice daily for 3 days. (a)

           Excessive bleeding during menstruation. One
           cup of juice obtained from a macerated
           mixture of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis,
           flowers of Punica granatum, and bark of
           Mangifera indica is taken thrice daily. (a)

57         Excessive bleeding during menstruation. One
           cup of juice obtained from a macerated
           mixture of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis,
           flowers of Punica granatum, and bark of
           Mangifera indica is taken thrice daily. (a)

58         Famine food. Flour prepared from base of plant
           is used to prepare ruti or pithaj and eaten
           during famine times.  (e)

59         Fever (indicated by rise in temperature), pain
           in the body and feet. Leaves and barks of
           Morinda angustifolia are mixed with leaves
           and barks of Azadirachta indica, leaves of
           Clerodendrum viscosum and leaves of
           Murraya koenigii and boiled. 1/2 cup of the
           boiled water is taken twice daily for 3 days. (a)
           Fever, all sorts of pain, pain and swelling
           due to injury. Leaves of Clerodendrum
           viscosum, Azadirachta indica, Justicia
           adhatoda, and Murraya koenigii are boiled
           in water. One cup of the water is taken
           twice daily for 5-7 days in the morning and
           evening for fever and all sorts of pain. For
           pain and swelling due to injury, the affected
           area is washed with the boiled water
           (preparation described above). (a)

           Fever, body pain, swelling of knees, injury,
           rheumatic pain, itches, scabies, infections,
           beneficial effect in nearly all types of
           diseases. Leaves or barks are boiled in
           water. 1/2 cup of the water is taken twice
           daily in the morning and evening for 7 days
           for fever. For swelling of knees or injury,
           water in which leaves or barks have been
           boiled is applied. For rheumatic pain, itches,
           scabies, and infections, macerated leaves or
           barks are applied. (a)

           Eczema, bikhaus disease (skin disease with
           the following symptoms: like scabies with
           infections beneath thick skin and itching),
           other skin diseases. Leaves of Lawsonia
           inermis and Azadirachta indica are
           macerated with whole plants of Cyperus
           rotundus and topically applied to affected
           areas. (a,d)

           Pyorrhea (bleeding from gums), tingling
           sensations in the teeth, tooth decay (referred
           by Kaviraj as insect infestation of tooth),
           foul odor emanating from mouth. Roots of
           Areca catechu are boiled in water with bark
           of Azadirachta indica. The water is used for
           gargling 2-3 times daily for at least 3
           weeks. (a)

60         Fever in children. A leaf soaked in mustard
           oil is applied to the middle of the head (this
           causes a drop in temperature). Following
           the temperature drop, 3 leaves are applied to
           the same place consecutively. (e)

           Diabetes. One cup of juice obtained from
           macerated leaves is taken daily. (e)

61         Scabies, eczema. Gum is applied to affected
           areas for 7 days. e
62         Pain due to infection. Macerated leaves are
           applied to the infected area. e
63         Continuation of bleeding after childbirth. Ripe
           fruits of Musa paradisiaca are macerated and
           strained through a piece of cloth. This is
           mixed with juice obtained from macerated
           leaves of Basella alba L. 'Rubra', camphor,
           and sugar. 1/2 cup of the mixture is
           administered twice daily. (c)

64         Girani disease in men (local term used by the
           Kavirajes denoting loss of libido in men),
           sutika disease in women (local term used
           by the Kavirajes for puerperal fever,
           symptoms being indigestion and leucorrhea
           in women following childbirth). Leaves of
           Psidium guajava, leaves of Punica granatum
           and whole plants of Cyperus rotundus are
           mixed, warmed and macerated to obtain
           juice. 1/2 cup of the juice is taken with 10-15
           drops of honey twice daily for 3 days. (a)

65         Excessive bleeding during menstruation. One
           cup juice from macerated barks of
           Mangifera indica and Syzygium cumini is
           taken thrice daily for excessive bleeding
           during menstruation. (a,c)

           Chronic dysentery, excessive bleeding during
           menstruation. One cup of juice obtained
           from a mixture of macerated leaves and
           barks is taken for 3-4 days. (a)

           Chronic dysentery. Bark of Lannea
           coromandelica, Mangifera indica, Syzygium
           cumini, and Terminalia arjuna are mixed
           and macerated to obtain juice. 1/2 cup of the
           juice is taken 2-3 times daily for 1 week. (c)

66         Irregular or abnormal stoppage of
           menstruation. One cup of juice obtained
           from macerated leaves, barks and fruits is
           taken twice daily. (a)

67         Contraceptive. The powder that is present within
           a fruit is taken. When taken regularly, it
           functions as a contraceptive while in use. (e)

68         Belboshon (tumor--a swelling without
           any obvious cause like injury or hurt
           is regarded by the Kavirajes as a tumor).

           The swollen portion at the base of
           Melocanna baccifera is boiled in water with
           unripe fruits of Carica papaya. The water
           is taken orally daily, as well as used for
           washing the tumor. (d)

69         Aam bath (allergic reaction resulting in
           itches and appearance of small swellings on
           the body), skin disorders. Leaves are boiled
           in water, followed by taking a bath with the
           water. (e)

70         Fever (indicated by rise in temperature), pain
           in the body and feet. Leaves and barks of
           Morinda angustifolia are mixed with leaves
           and barks of Azadirachta indica, leaves of
           Clerodendrum viscosum and leaves of
           Murraya koenigii and boiled. 1/2 cup of the
           boiled water is taken twice daily for 3 days. (a)
           Skin infections. Leaves of Citrus
           aurantiifolia are mixed with leaves of
           Lawsonia inermis and barks of Morinda
           angustifolia, macerated and applied to
           affected areas. (a)

71         Chronic dysentery, dysentery. Juice obtained
           from macerated leaves is warmed and taken
           for a week (during chronic dysentery) and
           for 3 days (during dysentery). Alternately,
           leaves are fried and taken or leaves are
           mixed with any sort of pulses, cooked and
           taken. (a)

72         Bloating, indigestion. Two teaspoonful of fruit
           juice is taken with a little baking soda. (a)
           Skin infections. Leaves of Citrus
           aurantiifolia are mixed with leaves of
           Lawsonia inermis and barks of Morinda
           angustifolia, macerated and applied to
           affected areas. (a)

73         Fever (indicated by rise in temperature),
           pain in the body and feet. Leaves and
           barks of Morinda angustifolia are mixed with
           leaves and barks of Azadirachta indica, leaves
           of Clerodendrum viscosum and leaves of
           Murraya koenigii and boiled. 1/2 cup of the
           boiled water is taken twice daily for 3 days. (a)
           Fever, all sorts of pain, pain and swelling
           due to injury. Leaves of Clerodendrum
           viscosum, Azadirachta indica, Justicia
           adhatoda, and Murraya koenigii are boiled
           in water. One cup of the water is taken
           twice daily for 5-7 days in the morning and
           evening for fever and all sorts of pain. For
           pain and swelling due to injury, the affected
           area is washed with the boiled water
           (preparation described above). (a)

           Tongue lesions, oral infections. Flowers are
           chewed twice daily for 7 days. (e)

           Pain in spinal cord. Two fruits are taken
           twice daily for 7 days. (e)

           Skin diseases. Powdered bark is taken twice
           daily for 7 days. (e)

           Rheumatism, waist and back pain. Juice
           extracted from macerated roots is taken
           twice daily during daytime and once at
           night. (e)

74         Filariasis (godh). Leaves of Datura metel are
           mixed with leaves of Diplazium sylvaticum,
           fruits of Capsicum frutescens, and salt and
           macerated together to form a paste. The
           paste is applied to the affected parts
           followed by bandaging. The bandage is kept
           for 3 days and then taken off. The procedure
           is repeated two more times. (d)

75         Filariasis (godh). Leaves of Datura metel are
           mixed with leaves of Diplazium sylvaticum,
           fruits of Capsicum frutescens, and salt and
           macerated together to form a paste. The
           paste is applied to the affected parts
           followed by bandaging. The bandage is kept
           for 3 days and then taken off. The procedure
           is repeated two more times. (d)

76         Puerperal fever (sutika or badok rogh), tooth
           disease. The leaves are boiled in water. 1/2
           cup of the water is taken for 7 days as
           treatment for puerperal fever. Teeth are
           brushed with roots during tooth diseases. (d)

77         Asthma in all ages (children to elderly). Leaves
           and stems are boiled in water. The water is
           taken twice during daytime and once at
           night for 1 week (dose--1/2 cup for adults
           and 1 teaspoonful for children. (d)

78         Shada shrub (whitish discharge in urine),
           physical weakness. The stems of Abroma
           augusta and stems of Litsea glutinosa are
           macerated to extract juice. 1/2 cup of the
           juice is mixed with sugar and taken twice
           daily in the morning and evening for 1
           week. (c)
79         Meho (symptom mentioned by the Kaviraj as
           physical weakness), promeho (symptom
           mentioned by the Kaviraj of the present
           survey area as wasting of body and inability
           to digest food; in other areas of Bangladesh
           Kavirajes use promeho for diabetes as well
           as spermatorrhea), gonorrhea (symptoms
           indicated as passing of pus or blood through
           the penis or vagina), likuria (symptoms
           indicated as thick urine and passing of sugar
           with urine), shet prodor (symptoms indicated
           as whitish discharge in urine and so may be
           actually leucorrhea). Bark is soaked for 12
           hours in 1 poa (local measure approximating
           250 g) milk followed by the drinking of
           milk. This is to be continued for 3 weeks. (a)

80         Chronic fever. One teaspoonful of juice
           obtained from macerated leaves is taken in
           the morning and evening for 7 days. (e)

81         Chronic fever. 1/2 cup of leaves and stems are
           boiled and eaten thrice daily for 7 days. (e)

82         Paralysis, loss of sensation in any part of the
           body. Stems are boiled in water. A piece of
           cloth soaked in that water is applied to the
           paralyzed area for 7 days. (e)

83         Filariasis. Leaves of Datura metel are mixed
           with leaves of Diplazium sylvaticum, fruits
           of Capsicum frutescens, and rock salt and
           macerated together to form a paste. The
           paste is applied to the affected parts
           followed by bandaging. The bandage is kept
           for 3 days and then taken off. The procedure
           is repeated two more times. (d)

           Severe pain, pox. Leaves are boiled in water
           and the water used to take a bath;
           alternately, the water is applied to painful
           areas. During pox, the water in which leaves
           have been boiled is used for bathing. (d)

84         Stomach pain. 1/2 cup of juice obtained from
           macerated rhizome is taken thrice daily. (e)

85         Stomach pain, omlo (acidity, symptom: pain
           in upper abdomen), pitto (symptom: pain in
           middle abdomen), gastric (the term gastric
           was used by the Kaviraj) problems
           (symptom: burning sensations in the chest). (a)

(a) Mentioned by Kaviraj 1 (Md. Abdul Aziz of Uttar Musrat
Madati village).

(b) Mentioned by Kaviraj 2 (Md. Mohubar of Uttar Musrat
Madati village).

(c) Mentioned by Kaviraj 3 (Md. Shafiuddin of Uttar Musrat
Madati village).

(d) Mentioned by Kaviraj 4 (Ramzan Ali of Uttar Musrat
Madati village).

(e) Mentioned by Kaviraj 5 (Durgamohan Debnath of Kisasat
Madati village).

(f) Local names of several diseases and ingredients as
mentioned by the Kavirajes are indicated in bold lettering.
Explanations of local names are given in parenthesis. Note
that the Kavirajes diagnose a disease through symptoms and
do not follow appropriate clinical diagnostic procedures
like blood test or X-rays, etc. Symptoms of several such
diseases are also given in parenthesis.

(g) Lymphatic filariasis (caused by the nematode Wuchereria
bancrofti) is the common form of filariasis treated by the
Kavirajes. The major symptom of filariasis is elephantiasis
(edema with thickening of the skin and underlying tissues).
Usually the legs are swollen. The disease is caused through
being bitten by an infected mosquito belonging to the Culex
genus (Culex quiquefasciatus in Bangladesh). hMeho is a
complex term used by the Kavirajes. In most parts of
Bangladesh, the term as used by the Kavirajes, signify
urinary problems arising out from endocrinological
disorders, particularly diabetes. The Kavirajes of the
present survey area did not give a precise definition of
meho; they mentioned certain symptoms like physical weakness
or mental weakness (nervousness). It was observed that the
Kavirajes treated the various symptoms of meho and not the
ailment itself, as demonstrated by the use of different
medicinal plants for treatment of different symptoms arising
out of meho. When queried as to how they could recognize the
symptoms as arising from meho and the symptoms not being
independent ailments, they mentioned that this recognition
of meho comes out from long practicing experiences. That
meho signifies endocrinological disorders, and particularly
diabetes, is a view point of the allopathic doctors who have
had the opportunity to examine the same patient. Note that
the Kavirajes do not perform any clinical diagnostic tests
to determine endocrinological disorders or diabetes.

(i) Mishri is prepared by adding sugar to boiling water till
sugar no longer dissolves. The water is then put in a jar
with a thread suspended in the middle of the jar. As the
water cools, sugar crystals accumulate on the thread. The
crystals are collected, dried and powdered, in which form it
is known as mishri.

(j) Ruti is unleavened bread made in the shape of circles.
Pitha can be of many types. One of the most common and
popular pitha in Bangladesh is bhapa pitha made from
powdered rice (which is steamed) and eaten usually with
molasses. However, there are dozens of types of pithas,
which are made and eaten usually on ceremonial occasions or
as snacks.

Table 2: Comparative analysis of ailments treated by the Kavirajes
of Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages.

Ailment(s)            Kaviraj   Kaviraj   Kaviraj   Kaviraj   Kaviraj
                         1         2         3         4         5

Respiratory tract        +         -         -         +         +
  disorders (a)
Fever                    +         -         -         +         +
Pain                     +         -         -         +         +
Rheumatism               +         -         -         +         +
Meho (b)                 +         -         -         -         +
Promeho (b)              +         -         -         -         -
Puerperal fever          +         -         -         +         -
Anemia                   +         -         +         +         +
Physical weakness        +         -         +         -         -
Infections               +         -         -         +         +
Skin diseases            +         -         -         +         +
Menstrual disorders      +         -         +         -         +
Leucorrhea               +         -         +         -         -
Gastrointestinal         +         -         +         +         +
  disorders (c)
Helminthiasis            +         -         -         -         -
Eye disorders            +         -         -         -         +
Teeth problems           +         -         -         +         +
Gonorrhea                +         -         -         -         -
Heart disorders          +         -         -         -         +
Kidney or                +         -         -         +         +
  stomach stones
Headache                 +         -         -         +         +
Urinary problems         +         -         -         +         -
Jaundice                 -         +         +         -         -
Excessive bleeding       -         -         +         -         -
  following
  childbirth
Filariasis               -         -         -         +         +
Blood purifier,          -         -         -         +         -
  chicken pox,
  snake bite,
  tumor
Paralysis,               -         -         -         -         +
  burns,
  diabetes,
  dizziness,
  malnutrition,
  allergy,
  bleeding from
  cuts and
  wounds,
  bleeding from
  mouth, head
  lice, oral
  lesions, sexual
  disorders,
  disorders of
  the uterus,
  insanity,
  gondomal (b),
  goiter,
  abortifacient,
  contraceptive

A positive (+) sign indicates that the particular ailment
was treated by the Kaviraj. For identification of Kavirajes
1-5, see legend to Table

(1) as well as Materials and Methods. A (-) sign indicates
that the particular ailment was not treated by the Kaviraj.

(a) Includes coughs, blood with coughs, mucus, asthma,
respiratory difficulties, bronchitis.

(b) For an understanding of the diseases (local terms--
meho, promeho, and gondomal), see Table 1.

(c) Includes gastric troubles, stomach pain, chronic
dysentery, blood dysentery.

Table 3: Comparative analysis of use of medicinal plants
for treatment of any given ailment by the Kavirajes of
Uttar Musrat Madati and Kisasat Madati villages.

Ailment            Medicinal plants used

                   Kaviraj 1                   Kaviraj 2

Coughs, blood      Euphorbia neriifolia,
with coughs        Justicia adhatoda

Mucus              Justicia adhatoda

Asthma

Bronchitis

Pneumonia          Euphorbia neriifolia

Difficulty in
breathing

Tuberculosis

Fever              Justicia adhatoda,
                   (Azadirachta indica +
                   Clerodendrum viscosum
                   + Justicia adhatoda
                   + Murraya koenigii),
                   (Azadirachta indica
                   + Clerodendrum viscosum
                   + Morinda angustifolia
                   + Murraya koenigii),
                   Azadirachta indica

Pain               (Azadirachta indica
                   + Clerodendrum viscosum
                   + Justicia adhatoda
                   + Murraya koenigii),
                   Azadirachta indica

Filariasis

Rheumatism,        Azadirachta indica
rheumatic pain

Paralysis

Burns
Meho, girani       (Cyperus rotundus
disease in men     + Psidium guajava
(loss of libido    + Punica granatum),
in men)            Grewia sp.

Promeho            Grewia sp.
(wasting of
body and
inability to
digest food)
Diabetes

Dizziness
Malnutrition in
new mother

Continuation of    (Cyperus rotundus
bleeding after     + Psidium guajava
childbirth         + Punica granatum)
Sutika or badok
rogh (puerperal
fever)

Anemia             Terminalia chebula

Physical           Litsea glutinosa
weakness

Blood purifier
Infections         (Azadirachta indica
                   + Cyperus rotundus
                   + Lawsonia inermis),
                   Azadirachta indica

Skin disorders     Azadirachta indica,
(scabies,          Litsea glutinosa,
eczema, bikhaus    (Azadirachta indica
disease, boils)    + Cyperus rotundus
                   + Lawsonia inermis),
                   (Citrus aurantiifolia
                   + Lawsonia inermis
                   + Morinda angustifolia)

Allergy (aam
bath)

Pox (chicken
pox)

Bleeding from
cuts and wounds

Bleeding from
mouth

Excessive          Averrhoa carambola,
bleeding or        Syzygium cumini,
irregular          (Mangifera indica
bleeding during    + Syzygium cumini),
menstruation,      (Mangifera indica
pain during        + Terminalia chebula),
menstruation,      (Hibiscus rosa sinensis
irregular          + Mangifera indica
menstruation       + Punica granatum),
                   (Crinum asiaticum
                   + Ocimum sanctum)

Leucorrhea         Grewia sp.
(shada shrub,
shet prodor)

Constipation,
ensure proper
bowel movement

Dysentery,         Cyperus rotundus,
chronic            Paederia foetida,
dysentery,         Syzygium cumini,
blood dysentery    Terminalia chebula,
                   (Mangifera indica

Indigestion        Citrus aurantiifolia,
                   Mangifera indica

Gastric            Citrus aurantiifolia,
troubles,          Zingiber purpureum
acidity,
stomach pain,
bloating

Pitto (pain in     Zingiber purpureum
the middle
abdomen)

Hookworm           Ananas sativus
infections Head
lice

Eye disorders      Tabernaemontana
(conjunctivitis,   divaricata
redness in
eyes, pain in
eyes)

Teeth problems     (Areca catechu
(pyorrhea,         + Azadirachta indica)
tooth decay,
tooth ache,
bleeding from
gums)

Lesions, oral
infections
Snake bite

Sexual
disorders (loss
of libido, wet
dream)

Gonorrhea          Grewia sp.
Tumor
(belboshon)

Heart disorders    Terminalia arjuna
Jaundice                                       (Phyllanthus emblica
                                               + Terminalia belerica
                                               + Terminalia chebula)

Uterus disorders

Kidney or          Kalanchoe pinnata
stomach stones     Kalanchoe pinnata
Headache

Ear ache

Urinary            Kalanchoe pinnata
problems

Insanity
Gondomal
(pustules
underneath the
tongue leading
to inability to
speak or eat)

Goiter
Abortifacient
Contraceptive

Ailment            Medicinal plants used

                   Kaviraj 3                   Kaviraj 4

Coughs, blood                                  Ocimum gratissimum
with coughs

Mucus

Asthma                                         Ocimum tenuiflorum,
                                               Solanum barbisetum

Bronchitis

Pneumonia                                      Ocimum tenuiflorum

Difficulty in
breathing

Tuberculosis                                   Ocimum tenuiflorum

Fever                                          Ocimum gratissimum

                                               japonica, Vitex trifolia

Pain                                           Diplazium sylvaticum
                                               Morus alba, Murraya

Filariasis                                     (Capsicum frutescens
                                               + Datura metel
                                               + Diplazium
                                               sylvaticum)

Rheumatism,
rheumatic pain

Paralysis

Burns
Meho, girani
disease in men
(loss of libido
in men)

Promeho
(wasting of
body and
inability to
digest food)
Diabetes

Dizziness
Malnutrition in
new mother

Continuation of    (Basella alba +             Physalis minima
bleeding after     Musa paradisiaca)
childbirth
Sutika or badok
rogh (puerperal
fever)

Anemia             Terminalia                  Terminalia chebula,
                   chebula                     Phyllanthus emblica

Physical           (Abroma augusta
weakness           + Litsea glutinosa)

Blood purifier                                 Phyllanthus emblica
Infections                                     (Azadirachta indica
                                               + Cyperus rotundus
                                               + Lawsonia inermis)

Skin disorders                                 (Azadirachta indica
(scabies,                                      + Cyperus rotundus
eczema, bikhaus                                + Lawsonia inermis)
disease, boils)

Allergy (aam
bath)

Pox (chicken                                   Diplazium sylvaticum
pox)

Bleeding from
cuts and wounds

Bleeding from
mouth

Excessive          (Mangifera indica
bleeding or        + Syzygium cumini)
irregular
bleeding during
menstruation,
pain during
menstruation,
irregular
menstruation

Leucorrhea         (Abroma augusta
(shada shrub,      + Litsea glutinosa)
shet prodor)

Constipation,      Cyperus rotundus
ensure proper      Terminalia belerica
bowel movement

Dysentery,         Terminalia chebula,         + Terminalia chebula)
chronic            (Lannea coromandelica
dysentery,         + Mangifera indica
blood dysentery    + Syzygium cumini
                   + Terminalia arjuna)

Indigestion

Gastric
troubles,                                      Ocimum gratissimum,
acidity,                                       Terminalia arjuna
stomach pain,
bloating

Pitto (pain in
the middle
abdomen)

Hookworm
infections Head
lice

Eye disorders
(conjunctivitis,
redness in
eyes, pain in
eyes)

Teeth problems                                 Physalis minima
(pyorrhea,
tooth decay,
tooth ache,
bleeding from
gums)

Lesions, oral
infections                                     Calotropis gigantea
Snake bite

Sexual
disorders (loss
of libido, wet
dream)

Gonorrhea
Tumor                                          (Carica papaya
(belboshon)                                    + Melocanna baccifera)

Heart disorders
Jaundice           (Phyllanthus emblica
                   + Terminalia belerica
                   + Terminalia chebula)

Uterus disorders

Kidney or                                      Kalanchoe pinnata
stomach stones                                 Kalanchoe pinnata
Headache

Ear ache

Urinary                                        Kalanchoe pinnata
problems

Insanity
Gondomal
(pustules
underneath the
tongue leading
to inability to
speak or eat)

Goiter
Abortifacient
Contraceptive

Ailment            Medicinal plants used

                   Kaviraj 5

Coughs, blood      Acorus calamus,
with coughs        Justicia adhatoda

Mucus              Justicia adhatoda

Asthma             Acorus calamus

Bronchitis         Justicia adhatoda

Pneumonia

Difficulty in      Justicia adhatoda
breathing

Tuberculosis

Fever              Nyctanthes arbor
                   tristis, Stephania

Pain               Euphorbia tirucalli,

                   koenigii, Sansevieria
                   roxburghiana

Filariasis         Amorphophallus
                   sylvaticus, Dracaena
                   spicata, Euphorbia
                   antiquorum, Plumeria
                   acutifolia

Rheumatism,        Dracaena spicata,
rheumatic pain     Murraya koenigii

Paralysis          Dracaena spicata,
                   Vitis sp.
Burns              Aloe barbadensis
Meho, girani       Aloe barbadensis,
disease in men     Asparagus racemosus,
(loss of libido    Bombax ceiba
in men)

Promeho
(wasting of        Kalanchoepinnata,Manihot
body and           esculenta, Stephania
inability to       japonica
digest food)
Diabetes

Dizziness          Aloe barbadensis
Malnutrition in    (Aerva sanguinolenta +
new mother         Amaranthus viridis +
                   Mentha spicata)

Continuation of
bleeding after
childbirth
Sutika or badok
rogh (puerperal
fever)

Anemia             Aerva sanguinolenta,
                   Terminalia chebula

Physical
weakness

Blood purifier     Amaranthus viridis,
Infections         Kalanchoe pinnata

Skin disorders     Artocarpus lakoocha,
(scabies,          Lawsonia inermis,
eczema, bikhaus    Murraya koenigii
disease, boils)

Allergy (aam       Polygonum persicaria
bath)

Pox (chicken
pox)

Bleeding from      Justicia gendarussa
cuts and wounds

Bleeding from      Commelina sp., Justicia
mouth              gendarussa, Lawsonia
                   inermis

Excessive          Justicia gendarussa
bleeding or
irregular
bleeding during
menstruation,
pain during
menstruation,
irregular
menstruation

Leucorrhea
(shada shrub,
shet prodor)

Constipation,      Ricinus communis
ensure proper
bowel movement

Dysentery,         Terminalia chebula
chronic            Jatropha curcas,
dysentery,         Jatropha gossypifolia,
blood dysentery    Terminalia chebula

Indigestion

Gastric
troubles,          Curcuma caesia,
acidity,           Eclipta prostrata,
stomach pain,      Ricinus communis
bloating

Pitto (pain in
the middle
abdomen)

Hookworm
infections Head    Annona reticulata
lice

Eye disorders      Adenanthera pavonina,
(conjunctivitis,   Jatropha gossypifolia
redness in
eyes, pain in
eyes)

Teeth problems     Jatropha curcas,
(pyorrhea,         Kalanchoe sp.
tooth decay,
tooth ache,
bleeding from
gums)

Lesions, oral      Murraya koenigii
infections
Snake bite

Sexual             Bombax ceiba
disorders (loss
of libido, wet
dream)

Gonorrhea
Tumor
(belboshon)

Heart disorders    Commelina sp.
Jaundice           (Phyllanthus emblica
                   +Terminalia belerica
                   + Terminalia chebula)

Uterus disorders   Costus speciosus,
                   saraca asoca

Kidney or          Kalanchoe pinnata
stomach stones     Adenanthera pavonina,
Headache           Kalanchoe pinnata

Ear ache           Clitoria ternatea

Urinary
problems

Insanity           Kalanchoe pinnata
Gondomal           Euphorbia pulcherrima
(pustules
underneath the
tongue leading
to inability to
speak or eat)

Goiter             Clitoria ternatea
Abortifacient      Pedilanthus tithymaloides
Contraceptive      Coix lacryma-jobi

Local names of diseases as mentioned by the Kavirajes are
given in bold letterings; for more information about the
symptoms of these diseases, see Table 1.
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Jahan, Farhana Israt; Hasan, Rajib Ul; Jahan, Rownak; Seraj, Syeda; Chowdhury, Anita Rani; Islam, Ta
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Mar 1, 2011
Words:13701
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