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A comparative analysis of Shina and Kashmiri vocabularies.

1. Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the lexical and phonological data contained in ten lists of Shina and Kashmiri core vocabulary (attached as the second section of this paper beginning on p. 258). Most of these word lists were collected in the early 1980s in India and Pakistan for six dialects of Shina: Gilgiti, Kohistani, Astori, Guresi, (1) Drasi and Brokskat, and four dialects at the time thought to belong to Kashmiri: Kashmiri itself, Kashtawari, Poguli and Siraji of Doda. This data has never been published. Grammatical data was also collected for the Kohistani, Guresi and Drasi dialects, but this will be the subject of separate papers. (2)

The word lists initially consisted of 280 core vocabulary items in eleven semantic areas of (1) body parts, (2) terms for kin and human beings, (3) human artifacts, (4) natural and weather phenomena, (5) time and space, (6) earth, (7) animals, (8) the plant world, (9) common verbs, (10) common adjectives, and (11) pronouns and miscellaneous. A supplementary word list of 36 additional items from Fussman's (1972) linguistic atlas was later collected from five of the Shina dialects (all except Brokskat). From the resulting list, 19 items were eventually discarded as being of little etymological or cultural interest, i.e., all the dialects presented borrowings, or the phenomenon was unknown, or there was no name for it. The remaining 297 items from the combined word lists form the basis of this paper.

A count of the shared core vocabulary (based on items 1-249 (3)) found that Gilgiti Shina shares 77 per cent of its core vocabulary with Kohistani Shina, 76 per cent with Guresi, 71 per cent with Astori, 69 per cent with Drasi and 45 per cent with Brokskat. Kashmiri, on the other hand, shares only 27 per cent of its core vocabulary with Gilgiti Shina, including many cognates whose relationship is not entirely transparent, for example: Gilgiti curko and Kashmiri tsok, both meaning 'sour'; Gilgiti hat and Kashmiri ath?, both meaning 'hand'. (If cognates had lost all trace of phonological similarity, for example Gilgiti zaa and Kashmiri boiy 'brother', they were not counted.)

Radloff 1992, using a different vocabulary inventory, found only 65 per cent of lexical similarity between the Shina of Gilgit and that of Jalkot in Kohistan, and 63 per cent with that of Palas in Kohistan). She found 77 per cent lexical similarity between Gilgiti and Astori and 76 per cent similarity between Gilgiti and Drasi. Radloff's lists contain many of the same items as ours, but in addition contain the names of many foodstuffs, tools and implements which ours do not; instead of collecting the infinitives of verbs, she collected imperative forms and short sentences. Radloff's calculations are borne out by the results of recorded text testing, which showed that the Kohistan subjects scored only 66 per cent correct responses when asked to 3 Items 250-267 were omitted because many of the choices for pronouns were arbitrary; the supplementary list is omitted because it was not collected for all dialects. Because the responses to these items included many synonyms, the number of Gilgiti words = 288. These words had 221 easily recognizable cognates in Kohistani, 218 cognates in Guresi, 204 cognates in Astori, 200 cognates in Drasi and 131 cognates in Brokskat. answer questions about a recorded text in the Gilgiti dialect. The Astor subjects however scored 90 per cent. (The Guresi dialect lies outside Radloff's sampling area.) Radloff's results are relevant for our own data, and are taken into account in this paper.

The Shina vocabulary items in our lists are represented in phonemic or near-phonemic transcription.(4) The pitch accent is shown in the Gilgiti, Kohistani, Guresi, Astori and Drasi entries. (5) The phonemic inventory for Brokskat is not finalized, and the transcription of Brokskat is semi-phonemic. A falling pitch could be heard on some items, but we could not hear a rising pitch on any item, and could not exclude the possibility that the falling pitch resulted from list intonation. Therefore, stress, not pitch, is marked in the Brokskat list. In the Brokskat list, palatalization is marked with [j]; the alveolar affricate is accordingly transcribed [dz], whereas in other Shina dialects it is transcribed /j/ (dzan'gal instead of jangal 'forest'). The Kashmiri word list is near-phonemic; the Kashtawari, Poguli and Siraji lists less so. Of these latter four languages, only Kashtawari shows unambiguous evidence of pitch contours, with a schleifton occurring in words of which a historical voiced aspirated initial consonant has become devoiced and deaspirated (Kishtawari poiy 'brother'; cf. Kashmiri, boiy 'brother' < bhr[begin strikethrough]a[end strikethrough]tr-). A rising tone was occasionally heard in Siraji words, and is marked with an acute accent.

2. Overview of cognates

Table 1 (pp. 237-8) provides a snapshot of some lexical variations in these ten speeches. It shows that Shina and Kashmiri do not share a large number of cognates even in a selective list, and that where they do occur, their phonological developments have been strikingly different.

Siraji, classified by Turner as Western Pahari, is no close relative of Kashmiri, although items 1b, 2b, 5, 17, 20b, 24b and 25a group it with Kashmiri. Items 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14a, 21 and 22 on the other hand group it with Shina. Only Kishtawari and Poguli have a claim to be true dialects of Kashmiri, although a glance at the lists will find many differences between Poguli and Kashmiri. The overall unity of the Shina dialects does not exist in the "Kashmiri" sample.

Items no. 6a, 10 and 12 show Kashmiri and Poguli h corresponding to OIA s, s (and Shina s). The Kashtawari cognates show this feature only in item no. 12. Siraji does not share this innovation. The schleifton in Kashtawari is unique to that dialect, and there are many examples of it in the Kashtawari word list. A shorter and shallower version of this tone also occurs with short vowels, and is marked in the same way.

The processes which gave rise to the cerebral consonants c and z (j) in Shina have little counterpart in Kashmiri; compare nos. 13, 15, 19, 21 and 25a. However, nos. 17 and 20a show OIA ks > Kashmiri ch, when occurring in final position.

Table 1 also shows certain features of Kashmiri which are unique in NIA languages: a set of central vowels: /[begin strikethrough]ii[end strikethourgh]:[??][??]:/ and palatalized consonants. In Poguli items, the central vowels are transcribed phonetically. Brokskat has also developed central vowels, as discussed below.

Kashmiri is a syllable-timed language, and stress is not phonemic. It is however marked in the Kashmiri word lists when non-initial. Kashtawari and Poguli also appear to be syllable-timed; however we cannot make a definitive statement about this.

The folk tradition of the Brokskat speakers, recorded by Francke (1977: 67-73), says that their ancestors migrated to Ladakh from Gilgit. Items no. 2a, 4, 11, 14, and 18 show that Brokskat shares phonological developments with Gilgiti, rather than with the closer Drasi dialect, although it has converged so much with the Purik dialect of Tibetan that it is no longer intelligible to speakers of any other Shina dialect.

Items no. 2a, 4 and 11 group Kohistani, Guresi, Astori and Drasi. Kohistani falls on the Gilgiti side in items no. 5 and 7. The Guresi, Astori and Drasi dialects preserve the largest inventory of final consonant clusters, which is an archaic feature. They also possess initial consonant clusters; however, except in the case of nos. 22 and (possibly) 4, these are secondary developments, due to metathesis (Morgenstierne 1947: 152-154) or vowel contraction (no. 23).

The main focus in this paper lies on the dialects of Shina in an areal, rather than historical, context. (6) Shina, while itself fairly homogeneous, is spoken in a linguistic environment of striking diversity, ranging from dialects of Tibetan in the east, to Kashmiri in the south, Burushaski in the north, and Pashto and Indus Kohistani in the west. Moreover, Persian has been influential as an administrative language in the old Kashmir State. We wish to describe the resulting contact phenomena in Shina, and to identify the sources. We shall begin with phonological and lexical data, based on the lists themselves, and then bring in a few of the more salient grammatical features. To our colleagues working with Kashmiri, who wish for an equally detailed treatment of Kashmiri, we extend an invitation to them to use our Kashmiri data in a similar study.

3. Phonology

3.1 Initial clusters with consonant + r.

As is well known, the OIA C+r clusters disappear in Shina; tr > c; dr, bhr > z; kr > k; pr > p. This describes the western dialects; however some eastern dialects retain some word-initial C+r clusters (some possibly original but most the result of metathesis of r):

Ex. 1a: C+r clusters in word-initial position

OIA * prisu- 'flea': Gil. pii jo. Koh. piizo, but Gur. priijo, As. priizu, Dr. priizo

OIA disti-, *dristi- 'hand span': Gil. dit, Koh. dis, but Gur. Dristi

OIA karman- 'work': Gil. Koh. kom, but Gur. As./Dr. krom (< * kra(m)ma-) (1)

But: OIA dirgha 'long': Gil. Gur. jigo, Koh. As. zigo, Dr. jino

(The normal development of dr would be z: zigo 'long' < dirghawith metathesis. (2) Turner gives two different etyma for 'hand span', of which the first lacks the dr-cluster.) There are many more examples; these are merely those we have documented best. There are also some riddles which we cannot solve, such as the existence of some bilabial stops with r- in Gilgiti: prik 'jump', (3) proono 'old' (compare Kohistani poono); bri'w 'rice paddy' (compare Kohistani byu). But by and large the eastern dialects appear to be more influenced by Kashmiri, which does retain word initial C+r clusters (4) (compare Kashmiri tre with Shina cee 'three'). Such clusters appear to be limited in Shina to pr-, br-, dr- and kr-. Only Brokskat has a tr-cluster: traa 'three', trobes 'thirteen'. However these items are unique in the Brokskat sample, and most other items show the expected development (Brokskat 'cyya 'cold'; cf. Guresi, Astori cauu < ? trasa-).
Ex. 1b. Brokskat items

       traa 'three'
       trobes 'thirteen'
But:   'cyyaa 'cold' < ? traasa
And:   'cito ~ 'tito 'bitter' (< trsta-)


Besides the expected 'cito 'bitter' (< trsta-), Brokskat also has 'tito; compare Kashmiri teth 'bitter'. Guresi has a tr-cluster in traam 'copper' (< tamra-); cf. Kashmiri traim 'copper'. Guresi does show the expected development in cakyoonu 'to look at' (< tarkayati). The occurrence of word initial C+r clusters probably reflects contact with Kashmiri, even if these are sometimes borrowings, and not the retention of old OIA clusters.
Ex. 1c. Guresi items

       traam 'copper' (< tamra-)
But:   cakyoonu 'to look at' (< tarkayati)


3.2. Central vowels

As is well-known, Kashmiri has central vowels, both long and short high and mid: /[begin strikethrough]/i/[end strikethrough], [begin strikethrough]/i/[end strikethrough]; /[??]/, /[??]/. (5) Guresi has [[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough] ~ [??] as a short, unstressed allophone of /a/, and while it is not a phoneme, this vowel is among other things the masculine plural gender suffix, so that it occurs frequently. In Example 2, it is transcribed phonetically.

Ex. 2: Guresi schwa

phuuni 'moustache' (cf. Gilgiti phune)

un[end strikethrough]i[begin strikethrough] 'sickle' (cf. Drasi oono)

jaan[??]waar 'bird'

as[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]p 'horse' (cf. Gilgiti a' spo)

The outlying Ladakhi Shina dialect Brokskat of Garkon has developed the central vowels [begin strikethrough][u][end strikethrough] and [??] (see example 3a), but their origin is uncertain, because Garkon lies at a considerable distance from Kashmir, and the overwhelming influence on Brokskat is from Purik, which is a dialect of Tibetan. (6) To complicate the picture, the Brokskat back vowels [u] and [o] have unrounded variants [??] and [y], and we are unable to isolate the determining factor(s). For [a] and [??] the sample provides a minimal pair: by[??][??] 'man, byaa 'hen'.

Ex. 3a: Brokskat central and unrounded back vowels

By[??][??] ' man : byaa 'hen'

n[begin strikethrough]u[[end strikethrough]s 'daughter-in-law' (cf. Gil. Koh. Gur. As. Dr. nuus)

w[??][??] 'water' (cf. Gil. As. wei, Koh. Dr. woi)

h[??][??] 'heart' (cf. Gil. hiyo, As. hiio)

'[??]ts[??] 'spring' (cf. Gil. Gur. As. Dr. uts)

n yy 'new' (cf. Gil. naawo, As. naao)

n[??] 'nine' (cf. Gil. Gur. As. nau, Koh. nao , Dr. nau)

Schmidt and Koul (1984: 18), reporting on the original Shina-Kashmiri project, wrote that Kashmiri, Poguli and Kashtawari have developed both central vowels [[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough] [??] and (phonetic) unrounded back vowels [??]y]. The appearance of these vowels in Brokskat may be an areal feature, rather than a specific contact feature. According to Marius Zemp (2008: p.c.), there is a tendency in Purik to centralize the vowels /u/ and /a/ that is most clearly audible in an alveo-palatal environment. Bielmeier finds the sounds [??] and [begin strikethrough][u] [end strikethrough] in the closely-related Balti dialect, but as allophones of /a/ and /u/ in restricted environments. (7) Rangan (1979: 16) shows the vowel [??] as a short allophone of /a/, and this is also true of all the Shina dialects; however we recorded the quality of Brokskat /[??]/ as slightly lower and backer than [[Lambda]].

Developments within Shina itself may account for the unrounded back vowels, as Schmidt and Kohistani (2008: 17-18) show unrounded allophones of /u/ and /o/ as a result of regressive vowel assimilation across syllable boundaries. The same phenomenon can be found in Guresi and Drasi. The conditioning factor appears to have been mostly lost in Brokskat, however:

Ex. 3b. Possible conditioning factor for Brokskat unrounded vowels

'p[??]ci 'granddaughter'. Cf. Gil. Koh. As. Dr. pooci

'pooco 'grandson'. Cf. Gil. Koh. As. Dr. pooco

3.3. Miscellaneous Guresi features

Guresi shows Kashmiri influence in a few other ways. It has a bilabial fricative in initial and intervocalic positions, while other dialects have a back vowel glide (v instead of w). Compare Gur. voi 'water' to wei, woi in the other dialects. Retraction of s, c is rather weak in Guresi. Kashmiri does not have these sounds.

3.4. Voiced aspirates in Kohistani

The OIA voiced aspirated consonants have been lost in the majority of Dardic languages, as is quite clear from the vocabulary in Table 1. However voiced aspirates do occur in the Kohistani dialect of Shina, and there are minimal pairs for some of them. (8) A comparison with various dialects of Indus Kohistani (9) has turned up cognates with voiced aspirates for most such items, suggesting that the feature has come back into Kohistani Shina through borrowing from the languages spoken across the Indus.

Ex. 4. Voiced aspirates in Kohistani

ghana 'item held in trust'. Patani gha'na (< grahana- with left-shift of aspiration)

dhaara 'robbery'. Patani dha:'ra; Bhatise dharah 'cattle raid' (< dhati-)

jhari 'heavy rain'. Patani jha'ri; Gabar zharey 'continuous rain' (< jhadi). Cf. Gil. jari, Gur. jari.

bhaaraa 'cash payment'. Patani bhar'rar ; Indus Koh. Bharah 'wage for laborers; bribe' (< *bharta-) bhaak 'bull' (no cognates) (< *bhakkha-)

Most words with voiced aspirates do not have cognates in other Shina dialects. jhari 'heavy rain' has cognates in Gilgiti and Guresi, however without the aspiration.

2. Implications of loanwords

Loanwords are relatively few in these lists of core vocabulary, but those which do occur point to different sources. In example 5, we show for the most part only those words the source of which we can confirm with reasonable certainty.10 In some cases, a question mark is shown before an item: this indicates that we think we have identified the source of a loanword, but could not confirm it positively. Radloff (1992: 136, 139) provides a list of vocabulary shared by Shina and Burushaski, but does not attempt to identify the source language.

Approximately 31 per cent of the Brokskat vocabulary in our sample is not of Indo-Aryan origin. Much of this appears to be borrowed from Purik--a Tibetan language--while 11 of the Indo-Aryan words are borrowings from Kashmiri or other unidentified Indo-Aryan language(s), and are not Shina. There are also a few Purik loanwords in Drasi. The resources to check Purik vocabulary are however very inadequate. (11)

Example 5: Loanwords in the word lists

Gilgiti

From Burushaski : chiis 'mountain', chumu 'fish', tharini 'churn', bari 'field', hesko 'loom', tasi 'roof', bisaac? 'sickle', pajuu 'salt', (12) bur(gaal) 'cloud', birdi 'earth', jakun 'ass', ?(hara) cin? 'sparrow', (13) duduyo 'bumblebee', buusi 'cat', (14) phurguu 'feather', (15) karkaamus 'hen', kareelo 'ram', jarooti 'apricot', tom 'tree', zamook 'to beat', thar (dook) 'to fly', ?ak 'full', tusaar 'many', bi?iriko 'round', hameci 'cheese'

From Persian: (16) saam 'evening', hazaar 'thousand', dusman 'enemy', pari 'fairy', eeno 'mirror', sarm 'shame' From Kashmiri: bat 'rice' (17)

Gilgiti bat 'rice' as a Kashmiri loan because the regular development of bhakta- would be bhatta > baat. In other words, vv' (accent on the second mora) in most cases results from secondary lengthening following the

(Gilgiti)

From Pashto: tumak 'gun'

Kohistani

From Burushaski: chubo 'fish', phuu 'fire', jakun 'ass', zarooto 'apricot', cheris 'root', tom 'tree', thor (doon) 'to fly', basko 'all', tusaar 'eating to satisfaction', burus 'cheese'

From Pashto: magaz 'brain' (Pers.?), koot 'village', asman 'sky', nur xaataa 'east', qabla 'west', zir 'thousand', ux 'camel', dusman 'enemy', (18) saram 'shame', zhanzhir, 'chain'(Pers.?), tubak 'gun', laram 'scorpion'

From Indus Kohistani: dooli 'field', (19) cagar 'spinning wheel', (20) taluun 'rice paddy', bhoraa 'bumblebee' From Persian: peesi 'afternoon'

Guresi

From Burushaski: chiis 'mountain', pfuu 'fire', burus 'curds', jakun 'ass', jarootu 'apricot', cheris 'root', tom 'tree', basko 'all', sak 'full', tisaar 'many'

From Kashmiri: kac[??] 'armpit', mamu 'breast', kha? 'bed', vaan 'loom', tra? 'lightning', bunilu 'earthquake', ?huul 'egg', delu 'bark of tree', da? 'grape(s)', (21) traam 'copper'

reduction of ancient consonant clusters. Ex.: lavitra- > letra > leec 'sickle', tapta- > tatta > taato 'hot'. OIA V- (a long vowel) results in vv (accent on the first mora): bhratr- > zaa.

(Guresi)

From Persian: magzii 'brain', tiir 'arrow', masrik 'east', peesin 'afternoon', saam 'evening', magrib 'west', zamiin 'earth', jaan[??]waar 'bird', dusman 'enemy'

From Pashto: tumak, tubak 'gun'

From Balti: zams 'copper'

Astori

The Astori speaker who supplied our list had married into a Burushaski-speaking family; therefore a list of Burushaski loan words in her list might not reflect the Astori dialect. For example, Radloff (1992: 135) reports that Astori does not use the word pajuu 'salt' but uses the same word as the Diamer and Kohistan clusters (luuni). Our Astori speaker uses pajuu. Loanwords from other dialects are noted here.

From Kashmiri: mam 'breast', (22) khat 'bed', khai 'field', thuul 'egg', tiiri 'feather'

From Persian: bel 'mattock', zilzila 'earthquake', jangal 'forest', dusman 'enemy', siisa 'mirror'

From Pashto: tumak 'gun'

Drasi

From Burushaski: phuu 'fire', chimo 'fish', zakun 'ass', kareelo 'ram'

From Kashmiri: mame~ ' 'breast(s)', pala?, caarpai 'bed'; ga'am 'village', ?huul 'egg', da? 'grape(s)',

From Persian: saam 'evening', jangal 'forest' (Urdu?), injiir 'fig' (Urdu?), dusman 'enemy', siisa 'mirror'

(Drasi)

From Purik: gurgur 'churn', ?thoktee 'mattock', tsangul 'earthquake', ?sa(boko) 'good', kirkiro 'round', (23) tsat 'fever' From Pashto: tumak 'gun'

Brokskat

As mentioned, much of the non-Indo-Aryan vocabulary in Brokskat appears to be borrowed from Purik. There are however few published sources for Purik vocabulary (mainly Bailey 1975 and Rangan 1979), necessitating recourse to the neighbouring dialect Balti (Sprigg 2002). With better data for Purik, we might have traced additional loanwords.

From Burushaski: tharini 'churn', pa'y[begin strikethrough][uu][end strikethrough] 'salt' From Kashmiri: ?kh[begin strikethrough][u][end strikethrough]n 'elbow', car'pii 'bed', dzan'gal 'forest', kxar 'ass', (24) thul 'egg', 'tiito 'bitter'

From Purik: can'khon 'armpit', sma'raa 'beard', ?xor'mo 'brain', ?kxal'ma 'kidney', sam'dal 'moustache', zin'gat 'neck', stod 'shoulder', daah 'arrow', thal'tsir 'ashes', gjaa'tsi 'honey', thak'saa 'loom', ?thok'tse 'mattock', [??]dzen 'milk', brok 'lightning', (25) char'chu 'rain', sar 'east', grib 'shady side of mountain', njub 'west', lo'kyr 'year', tsan'gul 'earthquake', den'mo 'bear', zo, lan'to 'bull', sok'paa 'feather', nyaa 'fish', byaa mo 'hen', byaa pho 'rooster', chur'di 'ram', chah 'maize', laq'tshuks 'tree', can'ma 'willow', ?skela'ris 'to swim', cuk 'all', zar'baa 'blind', hjin 'left (direction)', tran w[??]ji 'right (direction)', 'titaq 'small', 'ston 'thousand'

(Brokskat)

From unidentified Indo-Aryan language(s): 'guli 'finger', 'baayo 'brother', kheey 'field', bi'l[begin strikethrough][u][end strikethrough] 'cat', 'saeaeno 'small'

Grammatical features

5.1. The agent case marker in sV ~ -s ~ -es

The Guresi, Drasi and Kohistani dialects have two agent cases, one marking subjects of imperfective transitive verbs (sV ~ -s ~ -es), the other marking subjects of perfective transitive verbs (-e ~ -i, -o). Bailey (1924: 222 ff.) calls them Agent I and Agent II. Gilgiti has only one agent case (Agent I, or se ~ -s) which marks the subjects of all tenses of transitive verbs. In Guresi, the two agent cases have almost completely collapsed in nouns, but are distinguished in some pronouns. (26) We do not have grammatical data for Astori, but our rather sketchy data for Brokskat bear out what has been reported by Grierson (1919: 210-211) for the "Brokpa" of Dah-Hanu, that it also has two agent cases.
Ex. 6 Examples of agent cases

Agent I: sV ~ -s ~ -es

Kohistani:   cayaai -s cii cii thiini
             sparrow-AG1 chirp chirp does
             The sparrow is chirping. (27)

Guresi:      jaa s[??] mo-t kalam dau (also : jaa-s)
             brother AG1 me-DAT pen gave
             Brother gave me the pen.

Gilgiti:     caa'y se "ma-s maani nee damis" thigi
             bird AG1 I-AGI pearl not give she.did/said
             The bird said, "I won't give the pearl." (28)

Drasi:       aaje su karee-ga cheec-o nin thei n[??]s
             mother AG1 when-also field-OBLpl. weeding does not
             Mother never pulls weeds in the fields.

Agent II: -e ~ -i, -o

Kohistani:   mi buba-e mo-r tak-ak ataaus
             my father-AG2 I-DAT button-one had.brought
             My father had brought me a button.

Guresi:      m-ei hati dijaryaas
             I-AG2 hands I.washed
             I washed my hands.

Drasi:       myo bab-e gujar-ek mazuuri dee la? caryoono cherau
             My father-AG2 Gujar-one labor giving sheep to.graze kept
             My father hired a Gujar to graze the goats.


Agent II is attested historically, as Buddruss (1967: 33) reports an agent case suffix in -e with perfective transitive verbs in Sawi, which is an archaic dialect of Shina; (29) but neither Buddruss nor Liljegren (2008) reports an agent case with imperfective transitive verbs for dialects of Sawi or Palula; thus Shina probably did not possess the agent case in sV ~ -s ~ -es at the time Palula and its cousins separated from the other dialects before the middle of the seventeenth century. The earliest mention of this suffix which we have found is in Wilson (1899), describing the Guresi dialect. It reminded Bailey (1924: 211) of the "Tibetan agent which ends in -s". Unlike all the other noun cases, it is added to the nominative stem, rather than to the oblique. It is an innovation, probably a borrowing, but from where? Schmidt and Kohistani (2008: 51) quote Zeisler (2007: p.c.) as reporting that in the lower Ladakhi varieties (Sham, western Nubra, Purik) the agent marker is -is (after a consonant) and -s (after a vowel). However after subsequent research, Zeisler (2008: p.c.) finds that the -s or sV marker was alien to an early version of Tibetan. (30) Given however that the Shina agent case in sV ~ -s ~ -es does not appear before the seventeenth century, is apparently alien to the Indo-Aryan system, and moreover appears only with imperfective verb forms, Zeisler would preclude a borrowing from Shina into West Tibetan; while it is possible that Shina has borrowed the form from West Tibetan.

We can however be sure that it has not been borrowed by Shina from Burushaski, as in that language the agent marker is -e, which reminds of Shina Agent II.

5.2 Subject-verb concord

The verb in all these dialects agrees with the subject/agent, whether the dialect has both agent cases, or only one. This is another innovation; in Palula and Sawi a transitive verb agrees with the object (or patient) in perfective tenses. (31) Here the stimulus for the innovation may indeed be Burushaski, in which the verb agrees with the subject (or agent, for which reason Lorimer [1935: 65] calls the actor-subject case the agential case). It cannot be Kashmiri, which is typically split-ergative with verb-object agreement, (32) nor can it be Indus Kohistani, which is weakly split-ergative, and does not have gender or number concord between verb and either object or patient (the verb takes an absolute form). (33)

5.3 Suffix-noun concord in the possessive case

In the Kohistani and Gilgiti dialects, the possessive singular case suffix is invariant, regardless of whether the possessed noun is masculine or feminine. The dialects on the fringes of the Kashmiri speech area: Guresi and Drasi, have developed possessive suffixes which inflect for gender, agreeing with the gender of the possessed noun. This probably reflects contact with Kashmiri, in which the possessive suffix also inflects to agree with the possessed noun. (34)
Ex. 7 Examples of possessive singular cases

Gilgiti: (35)   ic-ey singaay
                bear-POS blackberry-bush (f.)
                the bear's blackberry bush

                mulaay-ey noom
                girl-POS name (m.)
                the girl's name

Kohistani:      gooz-ee saroon
                house-POS roof (m.)
                the roof of the house

                gooz-ee tiki
                house-POS bread (f.)
                home-made bread/food

Guresi:         gooj-o sarun
                house-POS roof (m.)
                the roof of the house'

                gooj-i bai
                house-POS bread (f.)
                home-made bread/food

Drasi:          m-yo babo
                I-POS father
                my father

                bazik-i bai
                evening-POS bread (f.)
                evening meal


Schmidt 2004: 48 stated that the possessive suffix does not inflect in the Shina of the Tilel Valley (a more archaic dialect of Guresi). We have since found this statement to be incorrect.
Tileli:   m-yo goos
          I-POS house (m.)
          my house

          bazuk-ei bai
          evening-POS bread (f.)
          evening meal


There is no agreement in the possessive plural suffix, which is always -o or -o.

The oldest form of the possessive case appears to be -ey; Bailey (1924) reports it as -ai (Gilgiti) and -ei (Kohistani). (36) In some Kohistani speech the suffix was a diphthong 25 years ago: goozey. It looks as though this form has been reinterpreted in the Tileli dialect as the feminine form of the possessive, while the masculine form takes -o (apart from the nasalization, like a masculine singular adjective). In the Guresi and Drasi dialects, the resemblance to adjectives is even closer.

6. Radloff's geographical clusters of Shina

Radloff (1992: 122-150), working with word lists from 27 Shina speaking locations (with the single exception of Drasi, all in Pakistan) found that these locations can be grouped in four slightly overlapping geographical dialect clusters. The members of each geographical cluster demonstrate 85 per cent or above lexical similarity with each other. In contrast, similarity with non-cluster locations is generally less than 80 per cent. These clusters were named the Northern, Eastern, Diamer (37) and Kohistan clusters. The Northern cluster is centered on Gilgit; Astori and Drasi belong to the Eastern cluster, and Kohistani belongs to the Kohistan cluster. Our corpus contains no data from members of the Diamer cluster, which is centered on Chilas. (38)

To what extent do the dialects we studied fit into Radloff's geographical clusters? To begin with, we found more similarity between Gilgiti and Kohistani than Radloff does (77 per cent versus her 63 per cent). This is probably explained by differences in the type of vocabulary we collected. Even so, Gilgiti and Kohistani clearly belong to different clusters.

If we compare our Astori and Drasi samples to each other, they have only 75 per cent39 similarity, and therefore do not fall into one cluster as Radloff places them. They are situated geographically distant from each other, separated by the 12,000-13,000 foot Deosai Plateau, and are not connected by historical trade routes.

Guresi has 81 per cent similarity with Astori (despite the fact that they now lie on opposite sides of the cease fire line between Pakistan and India). Moreover, Guresi has 83 per cent similarity with Kohistani, close to Radloff's threshold of 85 per cent lexical similarity. (40) Kohistani and Astori on the other hand, are not so close, with only 74 per cent lexical similarity. These figures suggest that Guresi forms a link between Astori and Kohistani. Its geographical situation (north of the Kashmir valley in the Kishenganga/Neelum valley along the old route from Abbottabad to Astor via Srinagar and the Burzil pass (41) suggest that if Guresi were included in Radloff's calculations, both Kohistani and Guresi might fall into a Southern cluster, lacking any geographic center, but with Kashmir as a central location on its line of communication.

This does not explain how communication might have taken place between Gures and Kohistan, which even in modern times is isolated from the rest of Pakistan in side valleys of the Indus. We may prefer to explain the connection by the Kohistani oral tradition which says that the Darma lineages of Chilas and Kohistan have migrated from Gures; (42) however supporting evidence could come only from a historical-linguistic analysis which would lie outside the scope of this paper.

Radloff's geographical clusters are useful as descriptive categories for summarizing language contact. While all the Shina dialects have some residue of Burushaski vocabulary, attesting to ancient contact between these two languages, Burushaski loanwords predominate in the Northern cluster, whereas in the Eastern cluster and in Guresi, Kashmiri loanwords become more common. Only in the Kohistan cluster do we see any great number of loans from Pashto and Indus Kohistani, bringing with them traces in the phonology.

Burushaski has influenced not only the Shina lexicon, but also its grammar; however this influence is difficult to demonstrate. The influence of Kashmiri on both the lexicon and the grammar is on the other hand quite transparent.

To conclude, what surprises us is that the various Shina dialects still have so much in common. With dialects spoken at distances of hundreds of kilometers apart, separated by great mountain ranges, a high plateau and mighty rivers, we might have expected even more diversity than we see here.

Abbreviations

AG1 Agent I AG2 Agent II As Astori DAT Dative Dr. Drasi Gil. Gilgiti Gur. Guresi Koh. Kohistani NIA New Indo-Aryan OIA Old Indo-Aryan Pers. Persian POS Possessive

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(1) According to Grierson 1919: 174, the valley is known as Gurais in English and Gurez in Persian. The speakers reported its indigenous name as Guraai.

(2) The Gilgiti word list was originally provided by Prof. Georg Buddruss with Amin Zia, native of Gilgit. It was subsequently revised by Shakeel Ahmad Shakeel, native of Bhasin village, living in Gilgit all his life. The Kohistani word list was provided by Muhammad Manzar Zarin of Palas, living in Rawalpindi, and augmented by Razwal Kohistani, native of Palas now living in Rawalpindi. The Astori word list was provided by Begum Latif Anwar, native of Astor, now married into Chalt village in Nager. Word lists for the Tilel and Gures valleys were provided by Abdur Rahim Sheikh and Ashraf Sahil; the Drasi word list was provided by Shafi Drasi of Kargil, and the Brokskat word list by Stanzin Khurpa of Garkhon and Miskin Tshiring of Batalik.

The Kashmiri word list was provided by Vijay Kumar Kaul of Adoora village, Kashmir, and amplified from published sources. The Kishtawari word list was provided by S.L. Sharma of Kishtwar. The Poguli word list was provided by Manzoor Pogli of Banihal. The Siraji word list was provided by Nazir Ahmad of Kashtigarh, Doda. Vijay Kumar Kaul was research associate in Indian Kashmir, collecting the Drasi, Brokskat, Kishtawari, Poguli and Siraji lists, and helping to transcribe them. The word lists were elicited in Urdu.

(3) Items 250-267 were omitted because many of the choices for pronouns were arbitary; the supplementary list is omitted because it was not collected for all dialects. Because the responses to these items included may synonyms, the number of Gilgiti words = 288. These words had 221 easily recognizable cognates in Kohistani, 218 cognates in Guresi, 204 cognates in Astori, 200 cognates in Drasi and 131 cognates in Brokskat.

(4) The phonological system of Gilgiti Shina is documented in Radloff 1999 and Degener 2008 (pp. 13-15); the phonological system of Kohistani Shina is documented in Schmidt and Kohistani 1998 and Schmidt and Kohistani 2008 (pp. 15-39). We found that these analyses worked quite well for all the dialects transcribed except for Brokskat. Phonological differences between the dialects are discussed in [section]3 of this article.

(5) Every Shina word contains one accented syllable. In short syllables, the accent is realized as a high pitch and is shown as an acute accent over the vowel (azo 'rain'). The accent need not be written on short monosyllables. Long syllables, written with double vowels, normally carry the word accent. Except in Brokskat, long vowels may have a high falling pitch, shown as an acute accent on the first vowel, or mora (taaro 'star'); or a low rising pitch, shown as an acute accent on the second vowel or mora (baal 'child'). Unaccented long vowels have been documented for Kohistani, but not for the remaining dialects.

(6) See Schmidt 2004 for a more historically oriented approach.

(1) Morgenstierne 1947: 10. Metathesis of both anteconsonantal and post-consonantal r is common in Dardic, and the tendency is attested as early as Asoka's Kharoshthi inscriptions, and must have preceded the loss of r, in fact the regular development of tr > c?, dr > z et cetera testifies to the development of initial C+r clusters through metathesis. However there is no scope for a discussion of this in this paper.

(2) In Palula, an archaic dialect of Shina which must have separated from the other dialects before the mid-seventeenth century (Cacopardo and Cacopardo 2001: 88), not all of these changes have yet taken place: dhrigu 'long', bhroo 'brother' (Liljegren 2008: 131, 69). Nevertheless, Palula already has the retracted fricatives: dhraac 'grape', zami 'sister's husband' (Liljegren 2008:60).

(3) prik is shared with Burushaski and is probably borrowed from that language. It is not listed in Turner.

(4) Koul 2007: 902-3.

(5) Koul 2007: 899-900.

(6) Ramaswami 1975: 64, 1982: 7 does not mention these vowels.

(7) "/a/ wird nach postkonsonantischem /j/ gehoben und zentralisiert zu [??]. Diese Palatalisierung tritt aber nicht ein, wenn dem Vokal /?/ folgt.../u/ vor /l/ wird palatalisiert zu [[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]] (nicht aber vor /r/, /m/, /n/ oder /n/ ..." Bielmeier (1985: 65).

(8) Schmidt and Kohistani 2008: 30-31.

(9) Sources: Zoller 2005, Razwal Kohistani 2007, p.c.

(10) The references consulted were: Burushaski: Berger 1974, Lorimer 1935, Willson 1999; Kashmiri: Tickoo 2006; Purik/Balti: Bailey 1975, Sprigg 2002, Rangan 1979, Bielmeier 1985; Pashto: Raverty 1980; Indus Kohistani: Zoller 2005; general: Fussman 1972, Degener 2008.

(11) For Purik itself there is Bailey 1975 (a word list) and, Rangan 1979. Sprigg 2002 and Bielmeier 1985 (for Balti) were also consulted.

(12) Radloff (1992: 135) considers this a loan word from Balti, however (Zeisler (p.c., 4 June 2008) wonders whether this is a true Balti (Tibetan) word and not a loan. "In Balti, the Tibetan word is tsha." See also Bailey (1975: 41), who reports the Purik word for salt as tsha. Degener (2008: 291) points to Burushaski bayu 'salt'.

(13) Turner 1966 provides no Indo-Aryan etymology for this word. The segment cin? however may be borrowed from Burushaski cen 'bird' (Berger 1974: 140) with assimilation of the final vowel to a retroflex point of articulation.

(14) Degener 2008: 253 points to Burushaski bus 'cat'. See also Fussman 2: 105-08. This word must have been originally borrowed by Burushaski from Shina, but it has apparently been borrowed back into Gilgiti, as the other dialects show forms in p-: pusi, pisi, pisu.

(15) Lorimer 1935: 293 gives Burushaski pfulgo, fulyu; Berger 1974 gives pholyo; the match is not exact, but we can find no Indo-Aryan etymology for this word.

(16) It is impossible in most cases to ascertain whether borrowings from Persian have come directly from Persian, which for some centuries was the administrative language of Kashmir State, or more recently via Hindi-Urdu. If the loanword is originally Persian, it is identified as a borrowing from Persian.

(17) Buddruss (1983: p.c.), without then knowing about Astori baat 'rice', identified

(18) dusman and saram could hypothetically have been borrowed from either Persian or Pashto; but since Indus Kohistan was never a part of the Kashmir State and was not exposed to Persian as an administrative language, we assume that these items have been borrowed from Pashto, which is a second language for many speakers of Kohistani Shina.

(19) Indus Kohistani has dol 'field'; Zoller 2005: 225 points to Kashmiri dor 'land covered with very shallow water' and West Pahari ?ortu 'small field'. This study also collected Kashmiri ?al 'field. There are thus many sources for the Kohistani Shina word; of these, Indus Kohistani lies in closest proximity.

(20) Zoller 2005: 159 gives Indus Kohistani c[??]`g[LAMBDA]r 'spinning wheel; loom'; one would expect KohistaniShina to have preserved the initial consonant in the loan, however it may have been contaminated by c- in Shina carko, caako, caku (all 'spinning wheel').

(21) The Kashmiri word is dach; the Shina word is jac~zac; Guresi das has borrowed the first consonant and vowel of the Kashmiri word, but retained the retraction in the final consonant.

(22) mam and its variants (mamu, mame') are shown as loanwords from Kashmiri, because the Gilgiti and Kohistani dialects show a different word: cucu, cici (T. 4855). However it could be just as well borrowed from Burushaski, and could be considered one of the isoglosses separating the western dialects of Shina from the eastern ones.

(23) According to Claus Peter Zoller (p.c.), this word is also found in Western Pahari; but Purik kirkir 'round' (Rangan 1979: 37) seems a more immediate source (although the word may be a loan in Purik as well). Most Shina dialects (including Brokskat) have diduuro~duduuru.

(24) car'pii 'bed' dzan'gal 'forest' and kxar 'ass' might have been listed as loans from an unidentified Indo-Aryan language, or in the case of dzan'gal and kxar, from Persian; however as these words occur in Kashmiri, this would seem to be the more immediate source.

(25) The semantics of this loan are not quite straightforward, as Purik bruk means 'thunder' (Bailey 1975: 43); Claus Peter Zoller (p.c.) points to possible influence through the widespread baraq 'lightning' (see Fussman 1972, 45 eclair).

(26) Schmidt 2004: 49-50.

(27) Schmidt and Kohistani 2008: 52.

(28) Radloff and Shakil 1998: 23.

(29) In Palula, the noun takes the oblique case when serving as the agent of perfective transitive verbs; this has the form (in the singular) of a suffix in -a, -i (Liljegren 2008: 94).

(30) Zeisler considers the possibility that the Tibetan ergative marker is derived from the genitive marker. In more recent research she has discovered that there is no formal distinction in Burushaski and some of the Upper Ladakhi dialects between the genitive and agent markers (Berger 1974: 20-21: the same formal marker -e designates both the agent and the genitive). She adds: "Now it is also long known that the Tibetan ergative marker is derived from the genitive marker by an additional, originally syllabic morpheme * so or * su, which finds its reflection in some of the Ladakhi dialects as /si/, or /se/ ~ /ze/ (Classical Tibetan {kyi} > {kyis}."

(31) Liljegren 2008: 255-6, Buddruss 1967: 51-2.

(32) Koul 2007: 919.

(33) Zoller 2008: p.c.: "Indus Kohistani has split ergativity with ergative constructions basically in all the past tenses except the imperfective pluperfect. No ergative constructions are used in the present and future tense. In reality, however, the situation in the past tenses is frequently quite variable ... and it appears to me that the just-given characterization is in fact an ideal image provided by Urdu. In the ergative constructions the subject has to take on its ergative form or add an ergative suffix. As already pointed out, in many cases ergative constructions with transitive and causative verbs are, however, not obligatory but optional. This fact may either reflect a partial continuation of a pre-ergative state of grammatical development or it may have something to do with another important fact characterizing the Indus Kohistani past tenses: in most cases the verb takes on an absolute form, i.e., there is no accord in number or gender between verb and object (or verb and subject)."

(34) Wali and Koul 1997: 330.

(35) Source: Radloff and Shakil 1998: pp. 97, 147. Radloff analyzes the suffix as consisting of the oblique suffix (-e-) and the genitive suffix (-y). In Kohistani, where the oblique suffix is -a, such an analysis does not work.

(36) Bailey 1924: 13, 211. In Palula, the genitive suffix has the forms -e, -ii (Liljegren 2008: 94-5).

(37) Diamer is the district of which Chilas is the district capital.

(38) It comprises Chilasi and the dialects of Tangir-Darel, Sazin and Harban.

(39) Versus Radloff's 89 percent similarity.

(40) Informal mutual intelligibility tests of Guresi and Kohistani in 1989 also show that speakers of these dialects have little difficulty understanding each other.

(41) Drew 1980: 395, 528.

(42) Schmidt and Kohistani 2008: 3.
Table 1: Comparative lexical items in six dialects of Shina and four
related to Kashmiri
In Shina, v shows the accent. In Kashmiri, v = a rising tone; v = a
low rising tone.

OIA                   Gilgiti

1a. asva-             aspo
1b. Ghota             --
2a. gostha-           goot
2b. ghara-            --
3. hasta-             hat
4. * dristi-          dit
5. asta               as
6a. krsna-            kino
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            kom
8. rksa-              ic
9. musa-              muuzi
10. suna-             su
11. tapta-            taato
12. srnga-            sino
13. Bhurja-     joozi (1)
14a. haridra-         halijo
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        cheec
16a. cakra-           carko
16b. yantra-          yor (3)
17. aksi-             achii
18. phala-?           phalaa
19. Bhr[??]tr-        zaa
20a. kaksa-           kac
20b. Ghasa-     --
21. * jamatra-        jamacoo
22. * prisu-          piijo
23. Purana-     proojo
24a. anda-      hanee
24b. Sthula-    --
25a. trayah           cee
25b. Trayah     --

OIA                   Koh.

1a. asva-             aspoo
1b. Ghota             --
2a. gostha-           goos
2b. ghara-            --
3. hasta-             hat
4. * dristi-          dis
5. asta               as
6a. krsna-            kino
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            kom
8. rksa-              ich
9. musa-              muuzo
10. suna-             suu
11. tapta-            tato
12. srnga-            sigo
13. Bhurja-     joozi
14a. haridra-         --
14b. Pitala-    piilo
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        --
16a. cakra-           --
16b. yantra-          yoos
17. aksi-             achii
18. phala-?           paloo
19. Bhr[??]tr-        jaa
20a. kaksa-           kac
20b. Ghasa-     --
21. * jamatra-        jamco
22. * prisu-          piizo
23. Purana-     poono
24a. anda-      hano
24b. Sthula-    --
25a. trayah           cee
25b. Trayah     --

OIA                   Guresi

1a. asva-             as[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]p
1b. Ghota             --
2a. gostha-           goos
2b. ghara-            --
3. hasta-             hat
4. * dristi-          drist[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
5. asta               ast
6a. krsna-            kinu
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            krom
8. rksa-              ic
9. musa-              muuju
10. suna-             suu
11. tapta-            tatu
12. srnga-            sinu
13. Bhurja-     joozi
14a. haridra-         --
14b. Pitala-    piilu
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        cheec
16a. cakra-           caku (2)
16b. yantra-          yus
17. aksi-             achii
18. phala-?           paloo
19. Bhr[??]tr-        jaa
20a. kaksa-           kac
20b. Ghasa-     --
21. * jamatra-        jam[??]coo
22. * prisu-          priijo
23. Purana-     proonu
24a. anda-      hanoo
24b. Sthula-    thuul
25a. trayah           ce
25b. Trayah     --

OIA                   Astori

1a. asva-             asip
1b. Ghota             --
2a. gostha-           goos
2b. ghara-            --
3. hasta-             hat
4. * dristi-          dist
5. asta               as
6a. krsna-            kino
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            krom
8. rksa-              ic
9. musa-              muuji
10. suna-             suu
11. tapta-            tatto
12. srnga-            sin
13. Bhurja-     joozi
14a. haridra-         --
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        cheec khai
16a. cakra-           caako
16b. yantra-          no data
17. aksi-             achii
18. phala-?           paloo
19. Bhr[??]tr-        zaa
20a. kaksa-           kas
20b. Ghasa-     --
21. * jamatra-        jamacoo
22. * prisu-          priizo
23. Purana-     no data
24a. anda-      --
24b. Sthula-    thuul
25a. trayah           cee
25b. Trayah     --

OIA                   Drasi

1a. asva-             asup
1b. Ghota             --
2a. gostha-           goos
2b. ghara-            --
3. hasta-             hat
4. * dristi-          dist
5. asta               ast
6a. krsna-            kino
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            krom
8. rksa-              is
9. musa-              muuzi
10. suna-             suu
11. tapta-            tatto
12. srnga-            sino
13. Bhurja-     joozi
14a. haridra-         --
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           guuro
15. Ks[??]tra-        chees
16a. cakra-           cako
16b. yantra-          no data
17. aksi-             achii
18. phala-?           paloo
19. Bhr[??]tr-        zaa
20a. kaksa-           kas
20b. Ghasa-     --
21. * jamatra-        jamacoo
22. * prisu-          priizo
23. Purana-     no data
24a. anda-      --
24b. Sthula-    thuul
25a. trayah           cee
25b. Trayah     --

OIA                   Brok.

1a. asva-             aavs
1b. Ghota             --
2a. gostha-           goot
2b. ghara-            --
3. hasta-             hat
4. * dristi-          dit
5. asta               as
6a. krsna-            |kyono
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            krom
8. rksa-              --
9. musa-              |m[begin strikethrough]uu[end strikethrough]zi
10. suna-             swaa
11. tapta-            |taato
12. srnga-            sin
13. Bhurja-     |zozi
14a. haridra-         hal|dzuro
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        kheey
16a. cakra-           caq
16b. yantra-          no data
17. aksi-             a|chii
18. phala-?           pa|laa
19. Bhr[??]tr-        |baayo
20a. kaksa-           --
20b. Ghasa-     gaas
21. * jamatra-        za|moo
22. * prisu-          |puzo
23. Purana-     no data
24a. anda-      --
24b. Sthula-    thul
25a. trayah           --
25b. Trayah     traa

OIA                   Kash.

1a. asva-             --
1b. Ghota             gur
2a. gostha-           --
2b. ghara-            gar[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
3. hasta-             ath[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
4. * dristi-          --
5. asta               [??]:t
6a. krsna-            |kruhun
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            k[??]:m
8. rksa-              --
9. musa-              --
10. suna-             hu:n
11. tapta-            tot
12. srnga-            hen
13. Bhurja-     burzu kul
14a. haridra-         ljodur
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        khah
16a. cakra-           --
16b. yantra-          yandyan[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]r
17. aksi-             [??]ch
18. phala-?           --
19. Bhr[??]tr-        bo:y
20a. kaksa-           kach
20b. Ghasa-     ga:si
21. * jamatra-        za:mtur
22. * prisu-          pjus
23. Purana-     pro:n
24a. anda-      --
24b. Sthula-    thu:l
25a. trayah           tre
25b. Trayah     --

OIA                   Kisht.

1a. asva-             --
1b. Ghota             kor
2a. gostha-           --
2b. ghara-            kar[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
3. hasta-             ath[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
4. * dristi-          --
5. asta               e:[??]th
6a. krsna-            |krisun
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            --
8. rksa-              --
9. musa-              --
10. suna-             u:n
11. tapta-            tot
12. srnga-            hin
13. Bhurja-     --
14a. haridra-         ljodur
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        --
16a. cakra-           --
16b. yantra-          yand[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]r
17. aksi-             [??]chj
18. phala-?           --
19. Bhr[??]tr-        po:y
20a. kaksa-           --
20b. Ghasa-     ka:si
21. * jamatra-        za|motur
22. * prisu-          pjus
23. Purana-     no data
24a. anda-      --
24b. Sthula-    thu:l
25a. trayah           tre
25b. Trayah     --

OIA                   Poguli

1a. asva-             --
1b. Ghota             gh[??]r
2a. gostha-           --
2b. ghara-            gor
3. hasta-             a:ht
4. * dristi-          --
5. asta               a:ht
6a. krsna-            |krinhu
6b. Kala-       --
7. karman-            --
8. rksa-              --
9. musa-              --
10. suna-             hun
11. tapta-            --
12. srnga-            hing
13. Bhurja-     --
14a. haridra-         lidru
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        --
16a. cakra-           --
16b. yantra-          yand[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]r
                        [begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
17. aksi-             as
18. phala-?           --
19. Bhr[??]tr-        ba:run
20a. kaksa-           --
20b. Ghasa-     g[??]:[??]s
21. * jamatra-        zamotru
22. * prisu-          pjuh
23. Purana-     no data
24a. anda-      --
24b. Sthula-    tho:l
25a. trayah           --
25b. Trayah     ca:i

OIA                   Siraji

1a. asva-             --
1b. Ghota             gho:|ro
2a. gostha-           --
2b. ghara-            gar
3. hasta-             hat
4. * dristi-          --
5. asta               ath
6a. krsna-            --
6b. Kala-       ka:|lo:
7. karman-            |kamm[??]
8. rksa-              ich
9. musa-              mus|ni:
10. suna-             su|na:
11. tapta-            ta|to:
12. srnga-            sing[??]
13. Bhurja-     --
14a. haridra-         hal|dro
14b. Pitala-    --
14c. gaura-           --
15. Ks[??]tra-        --
16a. cakra-           --
16b. yantra-          dzan|tar
17. aksi-             achj
18. phala-?           --
19. Bhr[??]tr-        bra:u
20a. kaksa-           --
20b. Ghasa-     gha:s
21. * jamatra-        dzama|tro
22. * prisu-          pri:|su:
23. Purana-     no data
24a. anda-      --
24b. Sthula-    thu:l
25a. trayah           trei
25b. Trayah     --

OIA

1a. asva-             'horse'
1b. Ghota             'horse'
2a. gostha-           'house'
2b. ghara-            'house'
3. hasta-             'hand'
4. * dristi-          'handspan'
5. asta               'eight'
6a. krsna-            'black'
6b. Kala-       'black'
7. karman-            'work'
8. rksa-              'bear'
9. musa-              'mouse'
10. suna-             'dog'
11. tapta-            'hot'
12. srnga-            'horn'
13. Bhurja-     'birch'
14a. haridra-         'yellow'
14b. Pitala-    'yellow'
14c. gaura-           'yellow'
15. Ks[??]tra-        'field'
16a. cakra-           {'spinning}
16b. yantra-          {wheel'}
17. aksi-             'eye'
18. phala-?           'apple'
19. Bhr[??]tr-        'brother'
20a. kaksa-           'grass'
20b. Ghasa-     'grass'
21. * jamatra-        'son-in-law
22. * prisu-          'flea'
23. Purana-     'old'
24a. anda-      'egg'
24b. Sthula-    'egg'
25a. trayah           'three'
25b. Trayah     'three'

(1) Means 'pine tree'.

(2) Means 'spindle'.

(3) Means 'water mill' in Gilgiti and Kohistani.

TABLE 2: COMPARATIVE SHINA VOCABULARIES

Gloss                     Gilgiti

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 gitiiti
2. beard                  daay
3. belly                  deer
4. blood                  leel
5. bone                   ati
6. brain                  mato
7. breast                 cucu
8. ear                    kon
9. elbow                  bakhuni
10. eye                   achii
11. face                  mukh
12. finger                hagui
13. fingernail            nooro
14. flesh                 moos
15. foot                  paa
16. hair                  jakur
17. hand                  hat
18. head                  sis
19. heart                 hiyo
20. kidney                juk, zuk
21. knee                  kuto
22. lip                   ooto
23. liver                 yuum
24. moustache             phune pl.
25. mouth                 aay
26. neck                  sak
27. nose                  nato
28. skin                  com
29. shoulder              phico
30. thumb                 aguto
31. tongue                jib
32. tooth                 don
33. urine                 miike

II. Terms of kin and human beings

34. brother               zaa
35. Brother's wife        jajee
36. child                 baal
37. daughter              dii
38. daughter-in-law       nuus
39. father                maalo, baabo
40. father's brother      picaa (1)
41. father-in-law         sayur
42. granddaughter         pooci
43. grandson              pooco
44. man                   musaa
45. mother                aaji, maa
46. Mother's brother      maamo,
                            mool
47. mother-in-law         sas
48. name                  noom
49. person                manujo
50. sister                sa
51. son                   puc
52. son-in-law            jamacoo
53. Wife's brother        serii
54. woman                 cey

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 koon
56. ashes                 daal
57. bed                   seen
58. bread                 tiki
59. churn                 tharinji
60. curds                 muuto dut
61. dream                 saace pl.
62. fertilizer            paas, swaac
63. field                 cheec, bari
64. fire                  agaar,
                            hagaar
65. ghee                  gii
66. grease                mii
67. handspan              dit
68. honey                 machi
69. house                 goot
70. irrigation
  channel                 yap, iil
71. loom                  hesko
72. mattock (hoe)         phyooli,
                            genti
73. milk                  dut, anaawo
74. path                  pon
75. plow                  hal
76. roof                  tasi
77. salt                  pajuu
78. sickle                bisaac, leec
79. smoke                 duum
80. spinning wheel        carko
81. village               kui
82. wood                  kaato, juk
83. work                  kom

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              beeji
85. cloud                 burgaal, ajo
86. lightning             bicus
87. moon                  yuun
88. rain                  ajo
89. sky                   agaay, hagaay
90. snow                  hin
91. star                  taaro
92. sun                   suuri
93. water                 wey
94. wind                  oosi, oosi

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             balakaal
96. autumn                saroo
97. day                   deez, chak
97a. Saturday             simser
97b. Sunday               adit
97c. Monday               tsanduro
97d. Tuesday              angaaro
97e. Wednesday            boodo
97f. Thursday             brespat
97g. Friday               sukur
98. day after
  tomorrow                ciirin
99. down(hill)            khiri
100. east                 jil bey
101. evening              saam
102. month                maaz
102a. Vaisakha            --
102b. Jestha              --
102c. Asadh               --
102d. Sravan              --
102e. Bhadra              --
102f. Ashvina             --
102g. Kartika             --
102h. Marga               --
102i. Pausha              --
102j. Magha               --
102k. Phalguna            --
102l. Chaitra             --
103. morning              calbuc,
                            lustikaal
104. night                raati
105. sunny side of        suuri deec,
  mountain                  sureen
106. shady side of        cijoot, 'shadow'
  mountain
107. seasonal
  migration               ucaai
108. spring (season)      bazoono
109. summer               uwaalo
110. today                as
111. up(hill)             aji(t)
112. west                 buur bey
113. winter               yoono
114. year                 kaal, baris,
                            saal, aweelo

VI. Earth

115. earth                sum, birdi
116. earthquake           buyal
117. forest               jeel
118. highest summer
  pasture                 niriil
119. hill                 thoko, huc
120. mountain             chiis, khan
121. river                sin, ga
122. sand                 sigal
123. spring (of
  water)                  uts
124. stone                bat

VII. Animals

125. ant                  philiili
126. ass                  jakun
127. bear                 ic
128. bird                 brin
128a. sparrow             haracin
129. bull                 doono
130. bumblebee            duduyo
131. cat m.               buuso
132. cat m.               buusi
133. crow                 kaa
134. cow                  goo, gaaw
135. dog                  su
136. egg                  hanee
137. feather              phurguu,
                            pachaali
138. Fish                 chumu
139. flea                 piijo
140. goat m.              mugar
141. goat m.              ai, ai
142. hen                  karkaamus
143. horn                 sino
144. horse                aspo
145. louse                juu
146. louse (nit)          liic
147. mouse, rat           muuji
148. rooster              kankarooco
149. sheep                eji
149a. ewe                 eji, ijiili
149b. ram                 kareelo, un
150. snake                jon
151. tail                 phacoo
152. wasp                 iskaar

VIII. Plants and trees

153. apple                phalaa
154. apricot              jarooti
155. bark (of tree)       dilo
156. barley               yoo
157. birch                buc
158. cedar                phuluus
159. fig (fruit)          phaag
160. grape(s)             jac
161. grass/fodder         kac, car
162. leaf                 pato
163. maize                makay
164. mulberry tree        marooc
165. pomegranate          dannu
166. poplar               phaltsi
167. root                 mulii
168. seed                 bii
169. tree                 muto, tom
170. walnut               achoo
171. willow               bew

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              zamook
173. to bite              capook
174. to burn i.           dajook
175. to burn tr.          dayook
176. to come              wayook
177. to cry               rook
178. to die               mirook
179. to drink             piyook
180. to eat               khook
181. to fly               thar dook
182. to give              dook
183. to go                bujook
184. to harvest           leec   thook,
                            look
185. to hear              parujook
186. to kill              marook
187. to know              dastook,
                            suyook
188. to laugh             hayijook,
                            hayook
189. to lie (down)        jeek book,
                            taam book
190. to say               rayook
191. to see               pasook,
                            cakook
192. to sit               bayook
193. to sleep             sook
194. to stand             coko book,
                            uthyook
195. to swim              tam dook
                            tarook
196. to walk              yayook
197. to wash tr.          dujook

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           buto sg.
199. all (sab)            buta pl.
200. big                  baro
201. bitter               to
202. black                kino
203. blind                sewo
204. cold                 sidalo
205. dry                  sukho
206. eight                as
207. eighteen             astaay
208. eleven               akaay
209. few                  aape
210. fifteen              panzey
211. five                 pos
212. forty-one            dibu-ga ek
213. four                 caar
214. fourteen             coondei
215. full                 sek, sak
216. good                 misto, sam
217. green                niilo
218. hot                  taato
219. hundred              sal
220. hungry               uyano, nirano
221. left (direction)     khabo
222. long                 jigo
223. many                 laawo, tusaar
224. new                  naawo
225. nine                 naw
226. nineteen             kunii
227. old (person)         jaro
228. one                  ek
229. red                  loolyo
230. right (direction)    dachino,
                            dachiboom
231. round                bidiriko
232. seven                sat
233. seventeen            sattaay
234. sharp                tiino
235. six                  sa
236. sixteen              sooy
237. small                cuno
238. sour                 curko
239. ten                  day
240. thirteen             cooy
241. thirty-nine          bii-ga kunii
242. three                cee
243. thousand             hazaar, saas
244. twelve               baay
245. twenty               bii
246. twenty-nine          bii-ga naw
247. two                  duu
248. white                sayo
249. yellow               halijo

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   ro, ros
                          ri, ris pl.
251. I                    ma, mas
252. not                  ne, nee
253. she                  re, res
254. they m. far          oo
255. they f. far          oo
256. they m. near         no data
257. they f. near         no data
258. that m.              oo
259. that f.              ee
260. this m.              anu, anus
261. this f.              ane, anes
262. these                ni, nis
263. we                   be, bes
264. what?                jeek, je
265. who?                 koo, koos m.
                          kee, kees f.
                          keei, keeis pl.
266. you sg.              tu, tus
267. you pl.              tsho, tshos

XII. Supplementary list

268. camel                uut
269. chain                sinaali
270. cheese               hamici,
                            hameci
271. copper               loolyo riil
272. enemy                dusman,
                            beero
273. fairy                pari
274. far                  duur
275. fever                saal
276. flour                aate
277. foam                 phiin
278. fox                  loi
279. frog                 manuuko
280. gold                 son
281. gun                  tumak
282. hedgehog             --
283. heel                 khuuri
284. lamb                 uran
285. leopard              dii
286. Milky Way            balaje (8)
287. mirror               eeno, gayuuri
288. nut                  khakaai
289. palm of hand         hata taawo
290. rainbow              bijoon, bizoon
291. rice (paddy)         briw

292. rice (cooked)        bat
293. scorpion             karaato (9)
294. shame                las, sarm
295. sleep                nir
296. spleen               soom
297. to write             likhook

Gloss                     Kohistani

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 gitiit
2. beard                  daae
3. belly                  deer
4. blood                  leel
5. bone                   athi
6. brain                  motho, magaz
7. breast                 cici
8. ear                    kon
9. elbow                  thuguri,
                            photuuti
10. eye                   achii
11. face                  muk
12. finger                hagwi
13. fingernail            nuuro
14. flesh                 moos
15. foot                  paa
16. hair                  baal, jaako
17. hand                  hat
18. head                  sis
19. heart                 hyuu
20. kidney                zuuk
21. knee                  kutho
22. lip                   thuruuti
23. liver                 yuu
24. moustache             phugo
25. mouth                 aazi
26. neck                  sak
27. nose                  nothi
28. skin                  com
29. shoulder              phijo, muth,
                            kanii
30. thumb                 haguu
31. tongue                jip
32. tooth                 don
33. urine                 mhiiki

II. Terms of kin and human beings

34. brother               zaa
35. Brother's wife        jaza
36. child                 baal
37. daughter              dii
38. daughter-in-law       nuus
39. father                bubaa, maalo
40. father's brother      picaar
41. father-in-law         seer
42. granddaughter         pooci
43. grandson              pooco
44. man                   musaa
45. mother                maa, aji
46. Mother's brother      mamaa,
                            mahuul
47. mother-in-law         sas
48. name                  nuum
49. person                manuuzo
50. sister                sas
51. son                   puc
52. son-in-law            jamco
53. Wife's brother        serii
54. woman                 cei

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 koon
56. ashes                 soo
57. bed                   sen
58. bread                 tiki, tikki
59. churn                 chapooro
60. curds                 muutoho dut
61. dream                 saacho
62. fertilizer            paas
63. field                 dooli
64. fire                  phuu
65. ghee                  gii
66. grease                my, carbii
67. handspan              dis
68. honey                 macii
69. house                 goos
70. irrigation
  channel                 yab, iil
71. loom                  eeni
72. mattock (hoe)         pheelo,
                            genti
73. milk                  dut
74. path                  pon
75. plow                  hal
76. roof                  saroon
77. salt                  luuni
78. sickle                leeci
79. smoke                 duum
80. spinning wheel        cagar
81. village               koot
82. wood                  kaatho
83. work                  kom

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              bizi
85. cloud                 azo
86. lightning             bicas
87. moon                  yuun
88. rain                  azo
89. sky                   asman
90. snow                  hin
91. star                  taaro
92. sun                   suuri
93. water                 woi, wii
94. wind                  oosi

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             peesi
96. autumn                saryoo
97. day                   dees, chak
97a. Saturday             --
97b. Sunday               itvaar
97c. Monday               suwaar
97d. Tuesday              --
97e. Wednesday            --
97f. Thursday             --
97g. Friday               juma
98. day after
  tomorrow                mut-chak
99. down(hill)            khari
100. east                 nur xaataa
101. evening              belaa(r)
102. month                moos
102a. Vaisakha            besaak
102b. Jestha              jeeth
102c. Asadh               har, haarh
102d. Sravan              paskal
102e. Bhadra              bhaadro
102f. Ashvina             assu
102g. Kartika             katak
102h. Marga               magar
102i. Pausha              poo
102j. Magha               --
102k. Phalguna            phagan
102l. Chaitra             ceetar
103. morning              loski
104. night                raati
105. sunny side of
  mountain                sureen
106. shady side of        chori
  mountain
107. seasonal
  migration               ujaai
108. spring (season)      bazoodo
109. summer               waalo
110. today                as
111. up(hill)             aji, huun
112. west                 qabla
113. winter               yoodo
114. year                 kaal

VI. Earth

115. earth                sum, uzmuke
116. earthquake           myaal
117. forest               jeel
118. highest summer
  pasture                 maali
119. hill                 thoko, huc
120. mountain             khon-khan
121. river                sin, ga
122. sand                 sigal
123. spring (of
  water)                  utsh
124. stone                bat

VII. Animals

125. ant                  phibiili
126. ass                  zakun
127. bear                 ich
128. bird                 min'pheasant'
128a. sparrow             cayaa
129. bull                 bhaak
130. bumblebee            gunguuto,
                            bhoraa
131. cat m.               puso
132. cat m.               pusi
133. crow                 qaa
134. cow                  gaao
135. dog                  suu
136. egg                  hano
137. feather              pachaali
138. Fish                 chubo
139. flea                 piizo
140. goat m.              thoot, mugar
141. goat m.              ai
142. hen                  kukwii
143. horn                 sigo
144. horse                aspoo
145. louse                juu
146. louse (nit)          liic
147. mouse, rat           muuzo
148. rooster              kukuu
149. sheep                lac
149a. ewe                 es
149b. ram                 karaa
150. snake                judraa
151. tail                 lamtoo
152. wasp                 cubuu

VIII. Plants and trees

153. apple                paloo
154. apricot              zarooto
155. bark (of tree)       dilo
156. barley               yoo
157. birch                joozi
158. cedar                phuluuzo
159. fig (fruit)          phagwii kula
160. grape(s)             zac
161. grass/fodder         kac
162. leaf                 patho
163. maize                makai
164. mulberry tree        marooco
165. pomegranate          danuu
166. poplar               no data
167. root                 cheris
168. seed                 bii
169. tree                 mutho, tom
170. walnut               achoo, khakay
171. willow               byo

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              dagoon
173. to bite              capoon
174. to burn i.           dajoon
175. to burn tr.          dahoon
176. to come              ayoon
177. to cry               roon
178. to die               miryoon
179. to drink             pyoon
180. to eat               khoon
181. to fly               thor doon
182. to give              doon
183. to go                bojoon
184. to harvest           loon
185. to hear              sunoon
186. to kill              maroon
187. to know              lachoon,
                            siyoon
188. to laugh             hazoon
189. to lie (down)        zeek boon
190. to say               razoon
191. to see               pasoon,
                            cakoon
192. to sit               byoon
193. to sleep             niis thoon
194. to stand             coko boon,
                            uthyoon
195. to swim              taroon
196. to walk              yaazoon
197. to wash tr.          dijaaroon

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           basko
199. all (sab)            buta
200. big                  baro
201. bitter               cito
202. black                kino
203. blind                seeo
204. cold                 chahuu
205. dry                  sukho
206. eight                as
207. eighteen             astaai
208. eleven               akaai
209. few                  apa
210. fifteen              panzilee
211. five                 pos
212. forty-one            dibu-ga ek
213. four                 caar
214. fourteen             cahudee
215. full                 phuuno
216. good                 mistho, sam
217. green                niilo
218. hot                  tato
219. hundred              sal
220. hungry               niroono
221. left (direction)     khabooto
222. long                 zigo
223. many                 laa
224. new                  noo
225. nine                 nao
226. nineteen             ukanii
227. old (person)         jaro
228. one                  ek
229. red                  lhiilo
230. right (direction)    dachino
231. round                diduuro
232. seven                sat
233. seventeen            sattaai
234. sharp                tiino
235. six                  sa
236. sixteen              sooi
237. small                cuno
238. sour                 cuko
239. ten                  daai
240. thirteen             cooi
241. thirty-nine          bhyo ukanii
242. three                cee
243. thousand             zir
244. twelve               baai
245. twenty               bii
246. twenty-nine          bhyo nao
247. two                  duu
248. white                soo
249. yellow               piilo

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   sa, sesi
251. I                    mo, mo
252. not                  na, nee, nis
253. she                  sa, sesoo
254. they m. far          sa, senaa
255. they f. far          sa, senaa
256. they m. near         ye, ye  aa
257. they f. near         ye, ye  aa
258. that m.              asa, asesi
259. that f.              asa, asesoo
260. this m.              aae, aaysi
261. this f.              aae, aaysoo
262. these                aae
263. we                   be, asaa
264. what?                joo, kaa
265. who?                 koe
266. you sg.              tu, thoo
267. you pl.              tsho, tshaa

XII. Supplementary list

268. camel                ux
269. chain                zhanzhir
270. cheese               burus
271. copper               pheti
272. enemy                dusman
273. fairy                xaapree
274. far                  duur
275. fever                saal
276. flour                phuk
277. foam                 pheen
278. fox                  loi
279. frog                 manooq
280. gold                 soon
281. gun                  tubak
282. hedgehog             --
283. heel                 thuri
284. lamb                 mamtoo
285. leopard              dii
286. Milky Way            bolaj
287. mirror               mukcaaki
288. nut                  khakai,
                            gayaa
289. palm of hand         hattoo
290. rainbow              bizoon
291. rice (paddy)         byu , taluun
292. rice (cooked)        baat
293. scorpion             laram
294. shame                saram
295. sleep                niis
296. spleen               soom
297. to write             likoon

Gloss                     Guresi

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 kac[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough], gikiiti
2. beard                  dai
3. belly                  deer
4. blood                  leel
5. bone                   ati
6. brain                  magzii, motu
7. breast                 mamu
8. ear                    kon
9. elbow                  bakhun[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] pl., photuuti
10. eye                   achii
11. face                  muk, rooi
12. finger                awii
13. fingernail            noor
14. flesh                 moos
15. foot                  paa
16. hair                  jakuu, baal
17. hand                  hat
18. head                  siis
19. heart                 hii, hiiu
20. kidney                juuk
21. knee                  kutu
22. lip                   ooti
23. liver                 yuu
24. moustache             phuuni pl.
25. mouth                 aazu
26. neck                  soonu, sak
27. nose                  notu
28. skin                  com
29. shoulder              phijo, mithji
30. thumb                 onuutu
31. tongue                jip
32. tooth                 don
33. urine                 muucu,
                            myaakul
II. Terms of kin and human beings

34. brother               jaa
35. Brother's wife        kaaki
36. child                 cunu 'small'
37. daughter              mulai, dii
38. daughter-in-law       nuus
39. father                maalu
40. father's brother      picii
41. father-in-law         seer
42. granddaughter         pooci
43. grandson              pooco
44. man                   musaa, misaa
45. mother                maa, aaji
46. Mother's brother      muumu
47. mother-in-law         sas, sas
48. name                  noom
49. person                manuuju
50. sister                sas
51. son                   baal, puc
52. son-in-law            jam[??]coo
53. Wife's brother        saeri
54. woman                 cei

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 tiir, koon
56. ashes                 daal
57. bed                   khat, caarpai
58. bread                 tiki
59. churn                 chaparu
60. curds                 curku dut,
                            meel, burus
61. dream                 saacu
62. fertilizer            paas
63. field                 cheec
64. fire                  pfuu, angaaru
65. ghee                  gii
66. grease                mii
67. handspan              drist[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
68. honey                 machii
69. house                 goos,
                            sikaar
70. irrigation
  channel                 yab, iil
71. loom                  luthuru, vaan
72. mattock (hoe)         phyooli,
                            genti
73. milk                  dut
74. path                  pon
75. plow                  hal
76. roof                  sarun, tal
77. salt                  luuni
78. sickle                ono, on[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
79. smoke                 duum
80. spinning wheel        yos
81. village               kwii
82. wood                  kaato
83. work                  krom

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              beju
85. cloud                 aju, kavuu
86. lightning             bicus, trat
87. moon                  yuun
88. rain                  aju
89. sky                   angaai
90. snow                  hin
91. star                  taaru
92. sun                   suuri
93. water                 voi
94. wind                  isi, oosi

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             peesin
96. autumn                saroo
97. day                   dees, chak,
                            suuri
97a. Saturday             bataar
97b. Sunday               aitvaar,
                            aath[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] vaar
97c. Monday               tsadraar
97d. Tuesday              bonju vaar
97e. Wednesday            bodvaar
97f. Thursday             brestvaar
97g. Friday               jumah
98. day after
  tomorrow                ciiri
99. down(hill)            khari
100. east                 masrik
101. evening              saam
102. month                moos
102a. Vaisakha            vaaek, waihek
102b. Jestha              jeeth, zeest
102c. Asadh               haa
102d. Sravan              saawon
102e. Bhadra              badiret, baadret
102f. Ashvina             --
102g. Kartika             kartik, kartiik
102h. Marga               magar
102i. Pausha              poo, poohoo
102j. Magha               maag
102k. Phalguna            phagun
102l. Chaitra             tsiith[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
103. morning              loost, loostei
104. night                raati
105. sunny side of
  mountain                sureen
106. shady side of        chori
  mountain
107. seasonal
  migration               daroo bojoonu
108. spring (season)      bazoonu
109. summer               waalu
110. today                as
111. up(hill)             aja
112. west                 magrib
113. winter               yoonu
114. year                 aveelu

VI. Earth

115. earth                zamiin
116. earthquake           muyal, bunilu
117. forest               jeel
118. highest summer
  pasture                 niril
119. hill                 thoko, huc
120. mountain             khon, chiis
121. river                sin, gaa
122. sand                 sinil
123. spring (of
  water)                  uts
124. stone                bat

VII. Animals

125. ant                  pfiliili
126. ass                  jakun
127. bear                 ic
128. bird                 jaan[??]waar
128a. sparrow             cai
129. bull                 doonu
130. bumblebee            zombuu
131. cat m.               pusu, ganju
132. cat m.               pusi
133. crow                 kaa
134. cow                  gaau
135. dog                  suu
136. egg                  hanno, thuul
137. feather              patu
138. Fish                 chim[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough], chumo
139. flea                 priijo
140. goat m.              chatiilu
141. goat m.              ai
142. hen                  kokoi
143. horn                 sinu
144. horse                asp, as[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]p
145. louse                juu
146. louse (nit)          liic
147. mouse, rat           muuju
148. rooster              kokoo
149. sheep                lac
149a. ewe                 es
149b. ram                 karaa, sarootu
150. snake                jon
151. tail                 lamootu, lamtoo
152. wasp                 buyaari

VIII. Plants and trees

153. apple                paloo
154. apricot              phatoor
                          jarooti  pl.
155. bark (of tree)       delu
156. barley               yoo
157. birch                jooji
158. cedar                deva daar, cii
159. fig (fruit)          kaa as[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]p, phatooru
160. grape(s)             das, dastom
161. grass/fodder         kac
162. leaf                 patu
163. maize                makai
164. mulberry tree        maruc
165. pomegranate          danu
166. poplar               phrats
167. root                 chiri
168. seed                 bii
169. tree                 tom
170. walnut               achoo
171. willow               bei

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              kutyoonu
173. to bite              capyoonu
174. to burn i.           dajoonu
175. to burn tr.          dayoonu
176. to come              oonu, ayoonu
177. to cry               hiv  dyoonu,
                            roonu
178. to die               miryoonu
179. to drink             piyoonu
180. to eat               khoonu
181. to fly               talee dyoonu
182. to give              dyoonu
183. to go                bojoonu
184. to harvest           lyoonu
185. to hear              parjoonu
186. to kill              maryoonu
187. to know              dastyoonu
188. to laugh             hajoonu
189. to lie (down)        tam boonu
190. to say               rajoonu
191. to see               pasoonu,
                            cakyoonu
192. to sit               byoonu
193. to sleep             soonu
194. to stand             cok boonu
195. to swim              nuus dyoonu,
                            tam dyoonu
196. to walk              yajoonu
197. to wash tr.          dijaaryoonu

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           basko
199. all (sab)            but[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough], laa
200. big                  baru
201. bitter               citu
202. black                kinu
203. blind                seeu
204. cold                 cauu, cawuu
205. dry                  suku
206. eight                ast
207. eighteen             astaai
208. eleven               akaai
209. few                  jeek, apo
210. fifteen              pazulei
211. five                 pos
212. forty-one            dubi-g[??] ek
213. four                 caar
214. fourteen             codei
215. full                 sek
216. good                 misthu, siyoo
217. green                niilu
218. hot                  tatu
219. hundred              sal
220. hungry               unyaalu, nironu
221. left (direction)     kha, khai
222. long                 jigu
223. many                 tisaar, laa
224. new                  naa
225. nine                 nau
226. nineteen             kunii
227. old (person)         jaru
228. one                  ek
229. red                  loolu
230. right (direction)    dacinu
231. round                duduuru
232. seven                sat
233. seventeen            sattaai
234. sharp                tiinu
235. six                  sa
236. sixteen              sooi
237. small                cunu
238. sour                 curku
239. ten                  dai
240. thirteen             coi, cooi
241. thirty-nine          bi-g[??] kunii
242. three                ce
243. thousand             saas
244. twelve               baai
245. twenty               bii
246. twenty-nine          bi-g[??] nau
247. two                  duu
248. white                soo
249. yellow               piilu,
                            kumuumu

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   so, jo, aa
                          seno, jesei,
                            aasei
251. I                    mu?, mei
252. not                  ne?, nis
253. she                  se, je, aa
                          seso, jeso,
                            aaso
254. they m. far          se, je, aa
                          ses, jes, aas
255. they f. far          saeae, jaeae,
                            ayaa
                          saeaes, jaeaes,
                            ayaas
256. they m. near         anyaa
257. they f. near         anyaa
258. that m.              peraa, paraa
259. that f.              no data
260. this m.              anu, nu
261. this f.              ani
262. these                no data
263. we                   be?
264. what?                jook
265. who?                 kooe
266. you sg.              tu?
267. you pl.              tsho, tshos

XII. Supplementary list

268. camel                uut
269. chain                sanaali
270. cheese               aici, burus
271. copper               traam, zams
272. enemy                dusman
273. fairy                pari
274. far                  duur
275. fever                tap, tat
276. flour                aate
277. foam                 phiin[begin strikethrough]ii[end
                            strikethrough]
278. fox                  loi
279. frog                 manook
280. gold                 soon
281. gun                  tumak, tubak
282. hedgehog             --
283. heel                 thuri
284. lamb                 uran
285. leopard              dii, dhii
286. Milky Way            balajee
287. mirror               siisa
288. nut                  gayaa
289. palm of hand         hatataa
290. rainbow              bijooni
291. rice (paddy)         dayo
292. rice (cooked)        briim, bai
293. scorpion             bic
294. shame                las
295. sleep                niis
296. spleen               soom
297. to write             likhyoonu

Gloss                     Astori

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 gikiiti
2. beard                  dai
3. belly                  deer
4. blood                  leel
5. bone                   ati
6. brain                  mato
7. breast                 mam
8. ear                    kon
9. elbow                  bakhuni
10. eye                   achii
11. face                  mukh
12. finger                anwii
13. fingernail            noor
14. flesh                 moos
15. foot                  paa
16. hair                  jaako
17. hand                  hat
18. head                  siis
19. heart                 hyuu
20. kidney                juk
21. knee                  kuto
22. lip                   oot
23. liver                 yuu
24. moustache             phuni pl.
25. mouth                 aazo
26. neck                  sak
27. nose                  nato
28. skin                  com
29. shoulder              pheelo,
                            mithijo
30. thumb                 anuuto
31. tongue                jip
32. tooth                 don
33. urine                 miiko

II. Terms of kin and human beings

34. brother               zaa
35. Brother's wife        jajee
36. child                 baal
37. daughter              diih
38. daughter-in-law       nuus
39. father                baabo
40. father's brother      cuno maalo
41. father-in-law         sawur
42. granddaughter         pooci
43. grandson              pooco
44. man                   musaa
45. mother                aaji
46. Mother's brother      moomo
47. mother-in-law         sas
48. name                  noom
49. person                manuuzo
50. sister                sas
51. son                   puc
52. son-in-law            jamacoo
53. Wife's brother        sairi
54. woman                 cei

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 koon
56. ashes                 daal
57. bed                   khat
58. bread                 tiki
59. churn                 jagu
60. curds                 curko dut
61. dream                 saaco
62. fertilizer            paas
63. field                 cheec, khai
64. fire                  phuu
65. ghee                  gii
66. grease                mii
67. handspan              dist
68. honey                 machii
69. house                 goos
70. irrigation
  channel                 yap, iil
71. loom                  no data
72. mattock (hoe)         bel, ginti
73. milk                  dut
74. path                  pon
75. plow                  hal
76. roof                  sarin
77. salt                  pajuu
78. sickle                dali
79. smoke                 duum
80. spinning wheel        caako
81. village               giroom, het
82. wood                  kaatho
83. work                  krom

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              --
85. cloud                 azo
86. lightning             bicus
87. moon                  yuun
88. rain                  azo
89. sky                   asman
90. snow                  hin
91. star                  taaro
92. sun                   suuri
93. water                 woi
94. wind                  oosi

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             dazoo
96. autumn                saroo
97. day                   deez
97a. Saturday             simser
97b. Sunday               adit
97c. Monday               tsandraalo
97d. Tuesday              angaaro
97e. Wednesday            boodo
97f. Thursday             brespat
97g. Friday               sukur
98. day after
  tomorrow                ciizi
99. down(hill)            laathi
100. east                 masrik
101. evening              bazuko
102. month                moos
102a. Vaisakha            --
102b. Jestha              --
102c. Asadh               --
102d. Sravan              --
102e. Bhadra              --
102f. Ashvina             --
102g. Kartika             --
102h. Marga               --
102i. Pausha              --
102j. Magha               --
102k. Phalguna            --
102l. Chaitra             --
103. morning              loostei
104. night                raati
105. sunny side of
  mountain                sureen
106. shady side of        cijoo
  mountain
107. seasonal
  migration               --
108. spring (season)      bazanoo
109. summer               waalo
110. today                as
111. up(hill)             uthali
112. west                 magrib
113. winter               yoono
114. year                 saal

VI. Earth

115. earth                sum
116. earthquake           zilzila
117. forest               jangal
118. highest summer
  pasture                 niril
119. hill                 thuko
120. mountain             chiis
121. river                sin, gah
122. sand                 sinel
123. spring (of
  water)                  uts
124. stone                bat, giiri

VII. Animals

125. ant                  philiili
126. ass                  zakun
127. bear                 ic
128. bird                 caai
128a. sparrow             --
129. bull                 doono
130. bumblebee            --
131. cat m.               piso
132. cat m.               pisi
133. crow                 kaa
134. cow                  gaao
135. dog                  suu
136. egg                  thuul
137. feather              tiiri
138. Fish                 chumo
139. flea                 prii  u
140. goat m.              thoo
141. goat m.              ai
142. hen                  karkaamuc (4)
143. horn                 sin
144. horse                asip
145. louse                juu
146. louse (nit)          liic
147. mouse, rat           muuji
148. rooster              kankarooco (5)
149. sheep                ijiilo
149a. ewe                 es
149b. ram                 kareelo
150. snake                jon
151. tail                 lamoti
152. wasp                 zombuu

VIII. Plants and trees

153. apple                paloo
154. apricot              jarooti
155. bark (of tree)       dilo
156. barley               yoo
157. birch                joozi
158. cedar                cilii
159. fig (fruit)          pfaak
160. grape(s)             jac
161. grass/fodder         no data
162. leaf                 pato
163. maize                makii
164. mulberry tree        marooc
165. pomegranate          danuu
166. poplar               phrats
167. root                 chiri
168. seed                 bii
169. tree                 tom
170. walnut               kakai
171. willow               no data

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              kutoonu
173. to bite              jan thoonu
174. to burn i.           dajoonu (6)
175. to burn tr.          dayoonu
176. to come              wazoonu
177. to cry               roonu
178. to die               miroonu
179. to drink             piyoonu (7)
180. to eat               khoonu
181. to fly               hun boonu
182. to give              doonu
183. to go                bujoonu
184. to harvest           curuk thoonu
185. to hear              parjoonu
186. to kill              maroonu
187. to know              dasthoonu
188. to laugh             hazoonu
189. to lie (down)        jek book
190. to say               razoonu
191. to see
                          cakoonu
192. to sit               biyoonu
193. to sleep             soonu
194. to stand             hun boonu
195. to swim              tam doonu
196. to walk              yazoonu
197. to wash tr.          dijaroonu

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           puuro
199. all (sab)            puuro
200. big                  ba o
201. bitter               cito
202. black                kino
203. blind                seeo
204. cold                 cauu
205. dry                  suku
206. eight                as
207. eighteen             astaai
208. eleven               akaai
209. few                  apo
210. fifteen              pazili
211. five                 pos
212. forty-one            dibu-ga ek
213. four                 caar
214. fourteen             coodei
215. full                 sek
216. good                 misthu
217. green                niilu
218. hot                  tatto
219. hundred              sal
220. hungry               nironu
221. left (direction)     khaau
222. long                 zigu
223. many                 laa
224. new                  nau
225. nine                 nau
226. nineteen             kuniih
227. old (person)         jaro
228. one                  ek
229. red                  loolo
230. right (direction)    dasinu
231. round                diduuro
232. seven                sat
233. seventeen            sattaai
234. sharp                tiino
235. six                  sa
236. sixteen              sooi
237. small                khutu
238. sour                 curko
239. ten                  dai
240. thirteen             coi
241. thirty-nine          bii-ga kuniih
242. three                cee
243. thousand             dai sal
244. twelve               baai
245. twenty               bii
246. twenty-nine          bii-ga nau
247. two                  du
248. white                seeo
249. yellow               komumo

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he
251. I                    muh
252. not                  no data
253. she                  no data
254. they m. far          no data
255. they f. far          no data
256. they m. near         no data
257. they f. near         no data
258. that m.              no data
259. that f.              aa
260. this m.              anuh
261. this f.              anih
262. these                no data
263. we                   be, bes
264. what?                yook
265. who?                 koi
266. you sg.              tuh
267. you pl.              tsho, tshos

XII. Supplementary list

268. camel                uut
269. chain                sanali
270. cheese               kooni
271. copper               no data
272. enemy                dusman
273. fairy                pari, rui
274. far                  duur
275. fever                tatto
276. flour                aate
277. foam                 phiini~
                          phiini
278. fox                  loi
279. frog                 manooko
280. gold                 sona
281. gun                  tumak
282. hedgehog             saati
283. heel                 khirkali
284. lamb                 uran
285. leopard              dii
286. Milky Way            no data
287. mirror               siisa
288. nut                  no data
289. palm of hand         hattaao
290. rainbow              bijoon
291. rice (paddy)         briu
292. rice (cooked)        baat
293. scorpion             junumaaro
294. shame                be sarm
295. sleep                niis
296. spleen               no data
297. to write             likhoonu

Gloss                     Drasi

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 khin, gikhiti
2. beard                  daae
3. belly                  deer
4. blood                  leel
5. bone                   ati
6. brain                  moto
7. breast                 mame
8. ear                    kon
9. elbow                  bakhuni

10. eye                   achii
11. face                  mukh
12. finger                anwii
13. fingernail            noor
14. flesh                 moost
15. foot                  paa
16. hair                  jaku
17. hand                  hat
18. head                  siis
19. heart                 hiiu
20. kidney                zuuk
21. knee                  kuto
22. lip                   ooto
23. liver                 yuu
24. moustache             phuno
25. mouth                 aazo
26. neck                  chagan
27. nose                  noto
28. skin                  com
29. shoulder              kanii
30. thumb                 anjuu
31. tongue                jip
32. tooth                 don
33. urine                 miiko

II. Terms of kin and human beings

34. brother               zaa
35. Brother's wife        jajee
36. child                 baal
37. daughter              mulai
38. daughter-in-law       nuus
39. father                babo
40. father's brother      cuno babo
41. father-in-law         seer
42. granddaughter         pooci
43. grandson              pooco
44. man                   musaa
45. mother                aaje
46. Mother's brother      moomoo
47. mother-in-law         sas
48. name                  noom
49. person                manuuzo
50. sister                kaaki, sas
51. son                   baal (3)
52. son-in-law            jamacoo
53. Wife's brother        sayri
54. woman                 ceei

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 koon
56. ashes                 daal
57. bed                   palan, caarpai
58. bread                 tikki
59. churn                 gurgur,
                            chaparo
60. curds                 moto dut
61. dream                 saaco
62. fertilizer            paas
63. field                 chees
64. fire                  phuu
65. ghee                  dai lojuuli
66. grease                mii
67. handspan              dist
68. honey                 machii
69. house                 goos
70. irrigation
  channel                 yap, iil
71. loom                  cos
72. mattock (hoe)         thoktee,
                            phyoori, ginti
73. milk                  annau, dut
74. path                  pon
75. plow                  hal
76. roof                  seroon
77. salt                  luuni
78. sickle                oono,
                            yoo leeci
79. smoke                 duum
80. spinning wheel        caku
81. village               kwii, gaam
82. wood                  kaato
83. work                  krom

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              --
85. cloud                 azo
86. lightning             bicus
87. moon                  yuun
88. rain                  azo, mei
89. sky                   anai
90. snow                  hin
91. star                  taaro
92. sun                   suuri
93. water                 woi
94. wind                  oos

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             belukhen,
                            bazukhen
96. autumn                saroo
97. day                   dees
97a. Saturday             batavaar
97b. Sunday               adit
97c. Monday               tsadraal
97d. Tuesday              angaaro
97e. Wednesday            boodo
97f. Thursday             bresput
97g. Friday               jumaa
98. day after
  tomorrow                ciirye
99. down(hill)            khari
100. east                 suuri deen wari
101. evening              saam
102. month                moos
102a. Vaisakha            --
102b. Jestha              --
102c. Asadh               --
102d. Sravan              --
102e. Bhadra              --
102f. Ashvina             --
102g. Kartika             --
102h. Marga               --
102i. Pausha              --
102j. Magha               --
102k. Phalguna            --
102l. Chaitra             --
103. morning              cal
104. night                raati
105. sunny side of
  mountain                suryoon
106. shady side of        churyoon
  mountain
107. seasonal
  migration               niril
108. spring (season)      uzaalo
109. summer               bazoono
110. today                as
111. up(hill)             aja
112. west                 suuri been wari
113. winter               yoono
114. year                 aweelo

VI. Earth

115. earth                kwii
116. earthquake           bucaal,  tsangul
117. forest               jangal, jeel
118. highest summer
  pasture                 saay
119. hill                 thuko
120. mountain             saay
121. river                sin
122. sand                 sinel
123. spring (of
  water)                  uts
124. stone                bat

VII. Animals

125. ant                  philiili
126. ass                  zakun
127. bear                 is
128. bird                 caeaei
128a. sparrow             --
129. bull                 doono
130. bumblebee            zombuu
131. cat m.               gajo, pisu
132. cat m.               pisu
133. crow                 korkuts
134. cow                  gaao
135. dog                  suu
136. egg                  thuul
137. feather              pato
138. Fish                 chimo
139. flea                 priizo
140. goat m.              chatiilo
141. goat m.              ai
142. hen                  kokoo
143. horn                 sino
144. horse                asup
145. louse                juu
146. louse (nit)          lici pl.
147. mouse, rat           muuzi
148. rooster              biiro kokoo
149. sheep                las
149a. ewe                 es
149b. ram                 kareelo
150. snake                jon
151. tail                 lamuti
152. wasp                 cazaa

VIII. Plants and trees

153. apple                paloo
154. apricot              pharoor
155. bark (of tree)       dilo
156. barley               yoo
157. birch                joozi
158. cedar                diiv daar
159. fig (fruit)          injiir
160. grape(s)             das
161. grass/fodder         kas
162. leaf                 pato
163. maize                makai
164. mulberry tree        maroos
165. pomegranate          anaar
166. poplar               fras
167. root                 chili
168. seed                 bii
169. tree                 byei
170. walnut               achoo
171. willow               byei

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              kutyoono
173. to bite              jan thyoono
174. to burn i.           dajoono
175. to burn tr.          dayoono
176. to come              oono
177. to cry               roono
178. to die               miryoono
179. to drink             piyoono
180. to eat               khoono
181. to fly               talwi dyoono
182. to give              dyoono
183. to go                bojoono
184. to harvest           lyoono
185. to hear              parjoono
186. to kill              maryoono
187. to know              dastyoono
188. to laugh             haaji thyoono
189. to lie (down)        dil boono
190. to say               rajoono
191. to see
                          cakyoono
192. to sit               biyoono
193. to sleep             soonu
194. to stand             uthyoono
195. to swim              noosyoono
196. to walk              yazoono
197. to wash tr.          dowaeaeno

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           buro
199. all (sab)            laa, buce
200. big                  baro
201. bitter               cito
202. black                kino
203. blind                seeo
204. cold                 caamuu
205. dry                  suko
206. eight                ast
207. eighteen             astaai
208. eleven               akaai
209. few                  ceek
210. fifteen              pazilei
211. five                 pos
212. forty-one            dibyu-ga ek
213. four                 caar
214. fourteen             codei
215. full                 phuuno, puji
216. good                 sii, saboko
217. green                niilo
218. hot                  tatto
219. hundred              sal
220. hungry               nirono
221. left (direction)     khaibon
222. long                 jino
223. many                 maga lau
224. new                  naao
225. nine                 nau
226. nineteen             kuniih
227. old (person)         jaro
228. one                  ek
229. red                  loolo
230. right (direction)    dastibon
231. round                kirkiro
232. seven                sat
233. seventeen            sattaai
234. sharp                tiino
235. six                  sa
236. sixteen              sooi
237. small                cuno
238. sour                 cito
239. ten                  dai
240. thirteen             cooi
241. thirty-nine          bii-ga kuniih
242. three                cee
243. thousand             saas
244. twelve               bwaai
245. twenty               bii
246. twenty-nine          no data
247. two                  du
248. white                syoo
249. yellow               guuro

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   zo
251. I                    moh
252. not                  n[??]s
253. she                  ze
254. they m. far          ze, paraa,
255. they f. far          zo, paraao
256. they m. near         ze, anu
257. they f. near         zae, ani
258. that m.              paraao
259. that f.              no data
260. this m.              anuh, aa
261. this f.              no data
262. these                no data
263. we                   be
264. what?                jok
265. who?                 kooi
266. you sg.              tuh
267. you pl.              tsho

XII. Supplementary list

268. camel                uut
269. chain                sanali
270. cheese               aic[begin strikethrough]i[end
271. copper                 strikethrough]
272. enemy                dwsman
273. fairy                pari
274. far                  ascaat
275. fever                buxaar, tsat
276. flour                aate
277. foam                 pfiin
278. fox                  loi
279. frog                 manook
280. gold                 soon
281. gun                  tumak
282. hedgehog             zukul
283. heel                 thuri
284. lamb                 uran
285. leopard              dhii
286. Milky Way            taaro anai
287. mirror               siisa
288. nut                  achoo, kali
289. palm of hand         hattaa
290. rainbow              bizooni
291. rice (paddy)         dayoo
292. rice (cooked)        brim
293. scorpion             bic
294. shame                sarm, las
295. sleep                niis
296. spleen               soom
297. to write             likhyoonu

Gloss                     Brokskat

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 can|khon
2. beard                  sma|raa
3. belly                  wor
4. blood                  lyl
5. bone                   |aati
6. brain                  xor|mo
7. breast                 kry,dut
8. ear                    ka|ni
9. elbow                  kh[begin strikethrough]u[end
                            strikethrough]n
10. eye                   a|chii
11. face                  |[begin strikethrough]u[end
                            strikethrough]ndz[begin
                            strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]k
12. finger                guli
13. fingernail            |n[??]ri
14. flesh                 moos
15. foot                  |kuti
16. hair                  |z[??]kur
17. hand                  hat
18. head                  sis
19. heart                 h[??][??]
20. kidney                kxal|ma
21. knee                  |kuto
22. lip                   |yti
23. liver                 gjim
24. moustache             sam|dal
25. mouth                 |uzi
26. neck                  grii, zin|gat
27. nose                  |nuto
28. skin                  |thuro
29. shoulder              stod
30. thumb                 gud|guli
31. tongue                gjip
32. tooth                 da|nii pl.?
33. urine                 tsh[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]s

II. Terms of kin and human beings

34. brother               |baayo
35. Brother's wife        |kaaje
                          chi|gaa
36. child                 si|naa
37. daughter              mu|ley
38. daughter-in-law       n[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]s
39. father                boo
40. father's brother      |saeno boo
41. father-in-law         s[??]r
42. granddaughter         pyyci
43. grandson              |pooco
44. man                   by[??][??] (2)
45. mother                |aae
46. Mother's brother      |muumo
47. mother-in-law         sas
48. name                  nuu
49. person                m[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]s
50. sister                |kaakje
51. son                   by[??][??]
52. son-in-law            za|moo
53. Wife's brother        sadze|rii
54. woman                 chigaa,
                            mu|ley
III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 daah
56. ashes                 thal|tsir
57. bed                   car|pii
58. bread                 man|nili
59. churn                 tah|rinji
60. curds                 gaan
61. dream                 |saacii pl.?
62. fertilizer            pus
63. field                 b[begin strikethrough]u[end
                            strikethrough]n, kheey
64. fire                  goor
65. ghee                  gjii
66. grease                min
67. handspan              dit
68. honey                 gjaa |tsi
69. house                 goot
70. irrigation
  channel                 gjab, ska
71. loom                  thak|saa
72. mattock (hoe)         thok|tse
73. milk                  [??]|dzen
74. path                  pon
75. plow                  hal
76. roof                  |saltaa
77. salt                  pa'yuu
78. sickle                bo|suns
79. smoke                 d[begin strikethrough]uu[end strikethrough]
80. spinning wheel        caq
81. village               b[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]n
82. wood                  |koot
83. work                  krom

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              --
85. cloud                 a|zes
86. lightning             brok
87. moon                  gjun
88. rain                  char'ch[begin strikethrough]u[end
                            strikethrough]
89. sky                   do'lo
90. snow                  |azo
91. star                  |turi
92. sun                   |suri
93. water                 w[??][??]
94. wind                  yys

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             ba|zun,
                            taas ha|ran
96. autumn                |yuuno
97. day                   dis, |s[begin strikethrough]u[end
                            strikethrough]ri
97a. Saturday             no data
97b. Sunday               no data
97c. Monday               no data
97d. Tuesday              no data
97e. Wednesday            no data
97f. Thursday             no data
97g. Friday               no data
98. day after
  tomorrow                ce dis
99. down(hill)            khah
100. east                 sar
101. evening              bal|bul,
                            |beldan
102. month                no data
102a. Vaisakha            (Tibetan)
102b. Jestha
102c. Asadh
102d. Sravan
102e. Bhadra
102f. Ashvina
102g. Kartika
102h. Marga
102i. Pausha
102j. Magha
102k. Phalguna
102l. Chaitra
103. morning              |cwalto
104. night                raat
105. sunny side of
  mountain                njin mys
106. shady side of        grib
  mountain
107. seasonal
  migration               |paae |nakhlis
108. spring (season)      ba|zun, |[begin strikethrough]uu[end
                            strikethrough]lo
109. summer               |[begin strikethrough]uu[end
                            strikethrough]lo, ba|zun
110. today                as
111. up(hill)             h[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]n
112. west                 njub
113. winter               |yuuno
114. year                 lo|kyr, saar

VI. Earth

115. earth                p[??][??]
116. earthquake           tsan|gul
117. forest               tshoq,
                          dzan|gal
118. highest summer
  pasture                 |[begin strikethrough]uu[end
                            strikethrough]lo tsib
                          caris, nag|lis
119. hill                 zun
120. mountain             zun
121. river                sin
122. sand                 |siri
123. spring (of
  water)                  [??]ts[??]
124. stone                |naaro

VII. Animals

125. ant                  pi|nili
126. ass                  kxar
127. bear                 den|mo
128. bird                 |ces[??]k thoq
128a. sparrow             --
129. bull                 zo, lan|to
130. bumblebee            us|kuto
131. cat m.               bi|l[begin strikethrough]uu[end
                            strikethrough]
132. cat m.               bi|l[begin strikethrough]uu[end
                            strikethrough]
133. crow                 qoo
134. cow                  goo
135. dog                  swaa
136. egg                  thul
137. feather              s[??]k|paa
138. Fish                 nyaa
139. flea                 |puzo
140. goat m.              |miar, za|too
141. goat m.              |aau, |chaati,
                            chal
142. hen                  byaa mo
143. horn                 sin
144. horse                aavs
145. louse                zwaa
146. louse (nit)          lic|aa
147. mouse, rat           |m[begin strikethrough]uu[end
                            strikethrough]zi
148. rooster              byaa pho
149. sheep                ni|lo
149a. ewe                 eey
149b. ram                 ch[??]r|di
150. snake                zun
151. tail                 pi|coo
152. wasp                 ton|ze

VIII. Plants and trees

153. apple                pa|laa
154. apricot              phaa|t[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
155. bark (of tree)       phar|put
156. barley               go|no
157. birch                zozi, zuru|zii
158. cedar                dyo|daar
159. fig (fruit)          an|jiir
160. grape(s)             zas
161. grass/fodder         gaas
162. leaf                 pan|nii
163. maize                chah, mak|kii
164. mulberry tree        ma|roos
165. pomegranate          a|nar
166. poplar               phal|tsaa
167. root                 pat|taq
168. seed                 bii
169. tree                 sin|tso,
                            laq|tshuks
170. walnut               a|choo
171. willow               can|ma

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              khu|tis
173. to bite              can this
174. to burn i.           |daazis
175. to burn tr.          daahis
176. to come              is
177. to cry               r[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]s
178. to die               mi|nis
179. to drink             pis
180. to eat               kxus
181. to fly               u|this
182. to give              dis
183. to go                byaas
184. to harvest           l[??][??]s
185. to hear              kon this
186. to kill              ma|ris
187. to know              z[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]s
188. to laugh             |haazis
189. to lie (down)        s[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]s
190. to say               |raazis
191. to see               skis
192. to sit               b[??][??]s
193. to sleep             s[begin strikethrough]u[end strikethrough]s
194. to stand             u|this
195. to swim              skela|ris
196. to walk              zaa|zis
197. to wash tr.          dus

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           cuk
199. all (sab)            cuk
200. big                  |bono
201. bitter               |cito, |tiito
202. black                |kyono
203. blind                zar|baa
204. cold                 cyya
205. dry                  |suko
206. eight                as
207. eighteen             as|tos
208. eleven               |qudes
209. few                  |apo, kjii
210. fifteen              |paades
211. five                 poos
212. forty-one            |dobuzu |ek
213. four                 coor
214. fourteen             |c[??]des
215. full                 |punjis, pe|ree
216. good                 |thaalo
217. green                |niilo
218. hot                  |taato
219. hundred              so
220. hungry               thaa, than|yaa
221. left (direction)     hjin
222. long                 |zigo
223. many                 |bede
224. new                  nyy
225. nine                 n[??][??]
226. nineteen             |kunjaa
227. old (person)         |jaaro
228. one                  ek
229. red                  |loooo
230. right (direction)    tran w[??]|ji
231. round                di|duuro, |rilbu
232. seven                sat
233. seventeen            sat|toos
234. sharp                |tino, tsap tsap
235. six                  saa
236. sixteen              |sobes
237. small                |titaq, |saeaeno
238. sour                 |cukro
239. ten                  daas
240. thirteen             trobes
241. thirty-nine          |biz[??] |kunjaa
242. three                traa
243. thousand             |ston
244. twelve               |budes
245. twenty               bi|zaa
246. twenty-nine          bizi|n[??][??]
247. two                  d[begin strikethrough]uu[end strikethrough]
248. white                soo
249. yellow               hal|dzuro

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   pho
251. I                    mo
252. not                  nws
253. she                  pho mu|ley
254. they m. far          |pheeu
255. they f. far          |pheeu
256. they m. near         a|lo
257. they f. near         a|lo
258. that m.              a|lo
259. that f.              no data
260. this m.              a|lam
261. this f.              no data
262. these                no data
263. we                   ben, b[??][??]
264. what?                yee
265. who?                 koo
266. you sg.              ti
267. you pl.              tshw

XII. Supplementary list

268. camel                no data
269. chain                no data
270. cheese               no data
271. copper               no data
272. enemy                no data
273. fairy                no data
274. far                  no data
275. fever                no data
276. flour                no data
277. foam                 no data
278. fox                  no data
279. frog                 no data
280. gold                 no data
281. gun                  no data
282. hedgehog             no data
283. heel                 no data
284. lamb                 no data
285. leopard              no data
286. Milky Way            no data
287. mirror               no data
288. nut                  no data
289. palm of hand         no data
290. rainbow              no data
291. rice (paddy)         no data
292. rice (cooked)        no data
293. scorpion             no data
294. shame                no data
295. sleep                no data
296. spleen               no data
297. to write             no data

(1) Also: baro maalo 'elder father', cuno maalo 'younger father'.

(2) Not an error; same words provided by two separate
speaker for 'son' and 'man'.

(3) The same word was given for 'son' and 'child'.

(4) Shina of Nager.

(5) Shina of Nager.

(6) Some nasalization on the suffix, dajoonu

(7) piy[??][??]nu

(8) Also: aspo-ga dooney pon, 'path of the horse and bull'.

(9) This may mean 'poisonous spider'. Scorpions are not found in
Gilgit.

TABLE 3: COMPARATIVE KASHMIRI VOCABULARIES
Stress on first syllable unless otherwise noted. v = rising
tone; v = a low rising tone.

Gloss                     Kashmiri

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 katsh
2. beard                  d[??]:r
3. belly                  yad
4. blood                  rath
5. bone                   adidz
6. brain                  di|ma:g (1)
7. breast                 mam[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
8. ear                    kan
9. elbow                  khon[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]wath
10. eye                   [??]ch
11. face                  buth
12. finger                ong[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]dz
13. fingernail            nam
14. flesh                 ma:z
15. foot                  kh[??]r
16. hair                  mas
17. hand                  ath[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
18. head                  kal[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
19. heart                 dil
20. kidney                bok[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]wath
21. knee                  koth
22. lip                   vuth
23. liver                 kr[??]hn[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] ma:z
24. moustache             go:[??]ts
25. mouth                 [??]:s
26. neck                  gardan
27. nose                  nas
28. skin                  m[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]sl[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
29. shoulder              phjok
30. thumb                 nj[??]th
31. tongue                zjau
32. tooth                 dand
33. urine                 m[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]th[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]r

II. Terms for kin and human beings

34. brother               bo:y
35. brother's wife        b[??]y ka:kin
36. daughter              ku:r
37. daughter-in-law       n[??]s
38. father                mo:l

39. Father's brother      pj[??]tir

40. father-in-law         hjohur
41. granddaughter         pot[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
42. grandson              potur

43. mother                m[??]:dz
44. mother's brother      ma:m
45. mother-in-law         has
46. sister                beni
47. son                   necu
48. son-in-law            za:mtur
49. Wife's brother        h[??]har
50. child                 sur
51. man                   mar[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]d
52. name                  na:o
53. person                in|sa:n, a:dam
54. woman                 ze|na:n

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 ti:r
56. ashes                 su:r
57. bed                   pa|lan, ca:rpa:I
58. bread                 tsot
59. churn                 do:[??]n, cho[??]:p
60. curds                 za:mut dwad
61. dream                 sopun, xwa:b
62. fertilizer            pah
63. field                 khah, dal
64. fire                  na:r
65. ghee                  gjau
66. grease                car|bi:h
67. handspan              ast[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
68. honey                 ma:ch
69. house                 gar[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
70. irrigation channel    yan, k[??]l
71. loom                  va:n
72. mattock (hoe)         bi:lci
73. milk                  dwad
74. path                  vath
75. plow                  a:l[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
76. roof                  pas
77. salt                  nu:n
78. sickle                dro:[??]t
79. smoke                 d[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]h
80. spinning wheel        yand[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
81. village               ga:m
82. wood                  zjun
83. work                  k[??]:m

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              nju:las|ma:n
85. cloud                 obur
86. lightning             vuzmal
87. moon                  zu:n
88. rain                  ru:d
89. sky                   as|ma:n
90. snow                  si:n
91. star                  ta:rux
92. sun                   si|ri:, af|ta:b
93. water                 po:[??]nj,a:b
94. wind                  hava:, va:u

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             pesin, digar
96. autumn                harud
97. day                   doh
97a. Saturday             bat([begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]) va:r
97b. Sunday               a:th va:r
97c. Monday               tsand[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r va:r
97d. Tuesday              bo: va:r
97e. Wednesday            b[??]d(u) va:r
97f. Thursday             bres va:r
97g. Friday               dzumah
98. day after tomorrow    k[??]:lj keth
99. down(hill)            bon
100. east                 pu:r, masrik
101. evening              sa:m[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough], sa:m
102. month                no data
102a. Vaisakha            vaihek
102b. Jestha              ze:[??]th
102c. Asadh               ha:r
102d. Sravan              sra:vun
102e. Bhadra              b[??]:d[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r pjath
102f. Ashvina             [??]su:dz
102g. Kartika             ka:rtikh
102h. Marga               magar
102i. Pausha              poh
102j. Magha               ma:g
102k. Phalguna            pha:gun
102l. Chaitra             tsith[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
103. morning              subhai
104. night                ra:th
105. sunny side of
  mountain                --
106. shady side of
  mountain                --
107. Seasonal
  migration               na:i gatsnuk wax[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]t
108. spring (season)      so:t ka:l
109. summer               ret ko:l
110. today                az
111. up(hill)             peth
112. west                 qibl[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough], pasim, magrib
113. winter               vand[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
114. year                 v[??]ri:

VI. Earth

115. earth                z[??]|mi:n
116. earthquake           bunjul
117. forest               dzangal
118. highest summer
  pasture                 na:i, nju:r
119. hill                 te:[??]ng
120. mountain             ba:l, pa|ha:r, koh
121. river                d[??]r|ya:u
122. sand                 sjakh
123. spring (of water)    na:g
124. stone                k[??]nj

VII. Animals

125. ant                  re:i
126. ass                  khar
127. bear                 ha:put
128. bird                 dza:nvar, dza:na:va:r
129. bull                 da:nd
130. bumblebee            bombur
131. cat m.               bro:r
132. cat f.               br[??]:r
133. crow                 ka:u
134. cow                  ga:u
135. dog                  hu:n
136. egg                  thu:l
137. feather              pakh
138. fish                 g[??]:r
139. flea                 pjus
140. goat m.              tsa:vul
141. goat f.              tsa:vidz
142. hen                  k[??]k[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
143. horn                 hen
144. horse                gur
145. louse                z[??]u
146. louse (nit)          l[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]ch
147. mouse, rat           khr[??]:ts, gag[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
148. rooster              k[??]:kor
149. sheep                ti:rj
149a. ewe                 g[??]b
149b. ram                 kath
150. snake                saruf
151. tail                 l[??]t
152. wasp                 tul[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r, d[??]t[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]r

VIII. The plant word

153. apple                tsu:th
154. apricot              tse:r
155. bark (of tree)       del
156. barley               v[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]sk[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
157. birch                burzu kul
158. cedar                djovda:r
159. fig (fruit)          an|dzi:r
160. grape(s)             dach
161. grass/fodder         ga:s[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough], kach
162. leaf                 pan[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]v[??]t[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]r
163. maize                ma|k[??]:i
164. mulberry tree        tul kul
165. pomegranate          d[??]:n
166. poplar               fras
167. root                 mu:l
168. seed                 bjo:l
169. tree                 kul
170. walnut               du:nj
171. willow               vi:r

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              la:yun
173. to bite              tsop hjon
174. to burn i.           dazun
175. to burn t.           za:lun
176. to come              yu:n
177. to cry               vadun hjon, vadun
178. to die               marun
179. to drink             con
180. to eat               khjon
181. to fly               vudun
182. to give              djun
183. to go                gatsun
184. to harvest           lo:nun
185. to hear              bo:zun
186. to kill              ma:run
187. to know              za:nun
188. to laugh             asun
189. to lie (down)        da:f tra:vun
190. to say               vanun
191. to see               vuchun
192. to sit               bihjun
193. to sleep             sanun
194. to stand             thod v[??]thun
195. to swim              tsa:t va:in
196. to walk              pakhun
197. to wash t.           chalun

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           s[??]:ri: (2)
199. all (sab)            kul
200. big                  bod
201. bitter               no data
202. black                kruhun
203. blind                no data
204. cold                 t[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough][??]r
205. dry                  kh[??]s[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]kh
206. eight                [??]:t
207. eighteen             ardah
208. eleven               kah
209. few                  keh
210. fifteen              pandah
211. five                 pa:tsh
212. forty-one            ak[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]t[??]:dzih
213. four                 tso:r
214. fourteen             ts[??]|dah
215. full                 b[??]rit, pu:ri
216. good                 dza:n
217. green                sab[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]z
218. hot                  tot, garim
219. hundred              hath, sath
220. hungry               no data
221. left (direction)     kh[??]:vur
222. long                 zju:th
223. many                 va:riyah
224. new                  nov
225. nine                 nav
226. nineteen             kun[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]vuh
227. old (person)         bud[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
228. one                  akh
229. red                  v[??]zul
230. right (direction)    d[??]chun
231. round                go:l
232. seven                sath
233. seventeen            sadah
234. sharp                te:z
235. six                  se
236. sixteen              surah
237. small                l[??]kut
238. sour                 tsok
239. ten                  d[??]h
240. thirteen             truvah
241. thirty-nine          kun[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]t[??]:dzih
242. three                tre
243. thousand             sa:s
244. twelve               bah
245. twenty               vuh
246. twenty-nine          kun[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]tr[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]h
247. two                  z[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
248. white                saphe:d
249. yellow               Ijodur

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   su
251. I                    b[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
252. not                  n[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
253. she                  s[??]
254. they m. far          tim
255. they f. far          tim[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
256. they m. near         yim
257. they f. near         yim[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
258. that (thing)         ti
259. that (person)        su
260. this (thing)         yi
261. this (person)        yi
262. we                   [??]sj
263. what?                kja:
265. who?                 kus
266. you sg.              ts[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
267. you pl.              tohj

Gloss                     Kishtawari

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 kas
2. beard                  t[??]:r[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
3. belly                  yad
4. blood                  rath
5. bone                   adu:r
6. brain                  de|ma:g
7. breast                 m[??]m
8. ear                    kan
9. elbow                  khoi va:th
10. eye                   [??]chj
11. face                  s[??]nd
12. finger                angulj
13. fingernail            nam
14. flesh                 ma:z
15. foot                  kh[??]r
16. hair                  va:l, tso:t
17. hand                  ath[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
18. head                  si:rj
19. heart                 dil
20. kidney                gur|d[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
21. knee                  koth
22. lip                   uth
23. liver                 ka|ledza
24. moustache             kots[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
25. mouth                 [??]:sj
26. neck                  gar|dan
27. nose                  nas
28. skin                  musl[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
29. shoulder              sok
30. thumb                 n[??]th
31. tongue                zjau
32. tooth                 dad
33. urine                 muth[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r

II. Terms for kin and human beings

34. brother               po:y
35. brother's wife        p[??]:bj
36. daughter              ku:rj
37. daughter-in-law       n[??]s
38. father                mo:l
39. Father's brother      ca:c[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
40. father-in-law         ya:r
41. granddaughter         pu:tir

42. grandson              pu:|tur

43. mother                m[??]:l
44. mother's brother      ma:[??]m
45. mother-in-law         a:s
46. sister                did
47. son                   bo|kut
48. son-in-law            za|motur
49. Wife's brother        sa:l[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
50. child                 bac[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
51. man                   m[??]:n
52. name                  na:m
53. person                m[??]i
54. woman                 ze|na:n m[??]i

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 ti:r
56. ashes                 swa:s
57. bed                   khath
58. bread                 mandz
59. churn                 cho:p
60. curds                 dai
61. dream                 sopan
62. fertilizer            pama
63. field                 vodzj
64. fire                  na:r
65. ghee                  kjau
66. grease                tsjop
67. handspan              pa:u
68. honey                 ma:ch
69. house                 kar[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
70. irrigation channel    koi
71. loom                  va:n
72. mattock (hoe)         d[??]:lj
73. milk                  dwad
74. path                  vath
75. plow                  a:l[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
76. roof                  lo:r
77. salt                  lu:n
78. sickle                dro:t
79. smoke                 tu:m
80. spinning wheel        yand[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
81. village               ga:m
82. wood                  tsu:rj
83. work                  ka:r

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              njo:las|ma:n
85. cloud                 abar
86. lightning             tsapki
87. moon                  zo:|san
88. rain                  ru:d
89. sky                   as|ma:n
90. snow                  si:n
91. star                  to:r
92. sun                   do:s
93. water                 pa:i
94. wind                  va:u

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             do:s|le
96. autumn                sae:r ka:l
97. day                   do:s|le
97a. Saturday             saec[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r va:r
97b. Sunday               ae:th va:r
97c. Monday               tsand[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r va:r
97d. Tuesday              mangal va:r
97e. Wednesday            b[??]d va:r
97f. Thursday             brest va:r
97g. Friday               suk[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r va:r
98. day after tomorrow    tre do:s
99. down(hill)            bon pa:ras kinj
100. east                 pu:r[??]b
101. evening              kwal[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
102. month                no data
102a. Vaisakha            v[??]|sa:k
102b. Jestha              ze:[??]th
102c. Asadh               a:r
102d. Sravan              sra:van
102e. Bhadra              pa:dr[??]t
102f. Ashvina             a:s[??]t
102g. Kartika             ka:rtikh
102h. Marga               ma:dza:r
102i. Pausha              poh
102j. Magha               ma:g
102k. Phalguna            pha:rgun
102l. Chaitra             tsith[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
103. morning              ig|ri:
104. night                ra:t[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
105. sunny side of
  mountain                --
106. shady side of
  mountain                --
107. Seasonal
  migration               ret ka:l
108. spring (season)      sot ka:l
109. summer               ret ka:l
110. today                az
111. up(hill)             peth pa:ras kinj
112. west                 pascim
113. winter               pa|d[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
114. year                 phuri:

VI. Earth

115. earth                z[??]|mi:n
116. earthquake           pu|mil
117. forest               van
118. highest summer
  pasture                 ta:r
119. hill                 tob
120. mountain             pa:r
121. river                d[??]r|ya:u
122. sand                 re:t
123. spring (of water)    na:g
124. stone                kh[??]:r, rwad

VII. Animals

125. ant                  bi|di:l
126. ass                  kho:|ta
127. bear                 a:p[??]t
128. bird                 pa|rind[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
129. bull                 da:t
130. bumblebee            ti:d
131. cat m.               bro:r
132. cat f.               br[??]:rj
133. crow                 ka:u
134. cow                  ga:u
135. dog                  u:n
136. egg                  thu:l
137. feather              pakh
138. fish                 ga:d
139. flea                 pjus
140. goat m.              s[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]|du:l
141. goat f.              si:lj
142. hen                  ku|kirj
143. horn                 hin
144. horse                kor
145. louse                tso:i
146. louse (nit)          l[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]ch
147. mouse, rat           ga|g[??]r
148. rooster              kok[??]r
149. sheep                g[??]biz, ti:rj
149a. ewe                 g[??]biz
149b. ram                 g[??]bur
150. snake                sa|raph
151. tail                 po:s[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r
152. wasp                 tsrae:d[??]:lj

VIII. The plant word

153. apple                tsu:th
154. apricot              kho|ba:n
155. bark (of tree)       djal
156. barley               vo:r
157. birch                da:l
158. cedar                djo|da:r
159. fig (fruit)          ph[??]:g
160. grape(s)             no data
161. grass/fodder         ka:s[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
162. leaf                 patar
163. maize                kok|re
164. mulberry tree        tul kul
165. pomegranate          d[??]:n
166. poplar               frast kul
167. root                 zi:l
168. seed                 bj[??]:l
169. tree                 kul
170. walnut               chu:r
171. willow               yi:r

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              cho:b din
173. to bite              tsop koron
174. to burn i.           dazun
175. to burn t.           za:lun
176. to come              yu:n
177. to cry               ru:n
178. to die               marun
179. to drink             con
180. to eat               khjon
181. to fly               vudun
182. to give              djun
183. to go                gatsun
184. to harvest           lo:nun
185. to hear              bo:zun
186. to kill              ma:run
187. to know              za:nun
188. to laugh             asun
189. to lie (down)        da:f tra:vin
190. to say               zabun
191. to see               uchun
192. to sit               bjun
193. to sleep             sonun
194. to stand             os[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] vatun
195. to swim              tjorun
196. to walk              othun
197. to wash t.           chalun

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           s[??]ri:
199. all (sab)            s[??]ru|wi:
200. big                  bod
201. bitter               tjoth
202. black                krisun
203. blind                ko:n
204. cold                 thath
205. dry                  hukh
206. eight                e:[??]th
207. eighteen             ar|dah
208. eleven               kah
209. few                  kje[??]
210. fifteen              pan|dah
211. five                 patsh
212. forty-one            ak ta[??]lih
213. four                 tso[??]r
214. fourteen             ts[??],dah
215. full                 par|ye:[??]th
216. good                 dza:n
217. green                nju:l
218. hot                  tot
219. hundred              hath
220. hungry               poch|wi
221. left (direction)     kh[??][??]:vur
222. long                 lamb[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
223. many                 va:riyah
224. new                  nau
225. nine                 nau
226. nineteen             kunno
227. old (person)         bud[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
228. one                  ekh
229. red                  la:l
230. right (direction)    d[??]chun
231. round                go:l
232. seven                sath
233. seventeen            sa|ah
234. sharp                te:z
235. six                  se
236. sixteen              su|dah
237. small                l[??]|kur
238. sour                 tsok
239. ten                  d[??]h
240. thirteen             truvah
241. thirty-nine          kun|ta:lih
242. three                tre
243. thousand             sa:s
244. twelve               bah
245. twenty               uh
246. twenty-nine          kun|tri:h
247. two                  z[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
248. white                safe:d
249. yellow               Ijodur

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   hu, su
251. I                    b[??]
252. not                  no data
253. she                  hu, sje
254. they m. far          hum
255. they f. far          hum
256. they m. near         yim
257. they f. near         yim
258. that (thing)         su, sje
259. that (person)        su
260. this (thing)         yi
261. this (person)        yi
262. we                   [??]sj
263. what?                kja:
265. who?                 k[??]
266. you sg.              tu
267. you pl.              tusj

Gloss                     Poguli

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 katsh
2. beard                  de[??]r
3. belly                  i:d
4. blood                  rath
5. bone                   adlje
6. brain                  de|ma:g
7. breast                 sina
8. ear                    kan
9. elbow                  thonju wa:th
10. eye                   as
11. face                  dil
12. finger                anglje
13. fingernail            nam
14. flesh                 ma:z
15. foot                  khur
16. hair                  mast[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
17. hand                  a:ht
18. head                  lot
19. heart                 dil
20. kidney                bukh
21. knee                  kuthe
22. lip                   lemur
23. liver                 kja:liz
24. moustache             guche
25. mouth                 mo|i:
26. neck                  gar|dun, math
27. nose                  na:ht
28. skin                  tsam, nja:l
29. shoulder              nakh
30. thumb                 nj[??]th
31. tongue                dze|ba:n, zjeu
32. tooth                 dat
33. urine                 muc

II. Terms for kin and human beings

34. brother               ba:run
35. brother's wife        ka:kin
36. daughter              kurj
37. daughter-in-law       nuh
38. father                m[??]:[??]l,
                            bo:[??]b
39. Father's brother      pi|cau
40. father-in-law         sa|hur
41. granddaughter         p[??]:[??]tri
42. grandson              p[??]:utru
43. mother                m[??]ae:l
44. mother's brother      ma:[??]m
45. mother-in-law         sah
46. sister                bje[??]n
47. son                   njuk, ba|kut
48. son-in-law            zamotru
49. Wife's brother        sa:le
50. child                 njuk
51. man                   ma|hun
52. name                  na:m
53. person                mard
54. woman                 kur  nah[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]|ni

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 ti:r
56. ashes                 swa:s, swa:h
57. bed                   khat
58. bread                 mend
59. churn                 ma|dhae:n, chop
60. curds                 zam dud
61. dream                 khwa:b
62. fertilizer            gun
63. field                 vae:g[??]
64. fire                  na:r
65. ghee                  gju[??]
66. grease                car|bi:
67. handspan              bith[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
68. honey                 mae:ch
69. house                 gor
70. irrigation channel    la:b
71. loom                  va:n
72. mattock (hoe)         no data
73. milk                  dud
74. path                  vath
75. plow                  al
76. roof                  chat
77. salt                  nu:n
78. sickle                da:ch
79. smoke                 du:om
80. spinning wheel        yand[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
81. village               ga:m
82. wood                  ka:the
83. work                  ka:r

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              nju:l as|ma:n
85. cloud                 pad
86. lightning             bidz|li
87. moon                  tsand[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
88. rain                  ro:[??]t
89. sky                   as|ma:n
90. snow                  si:[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]n
91. star                  ta:rgan
92. sun                   du:s
93. water                 pae
94. wind                  hawa, tshat

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             dusli ba:d
96. autumn                pant[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
97. day                   du:s
97a. Saturday             no data
97b. Sunday               no data
97c. Monday               no data
97d. Tuesday              no data
97e. Wednesday            no data
97f. Thursday             no data
97g. Friday               no data
98. day after tomorrow    cind[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]s
99. down(hill)            ba:lus khal
100. east                 masrik
101. evening              varn[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
102. month                no data
102a. Vaisakha            no data
102b. Jestha              no data
102c. Asadh               no data
102d. Sravan              no data
102e. Bhadra              no data
102f. Ashvina             no data
102g. Kartika             no data
102h. Marga
102i. Pausha              no data
102j. Magha
102k. Phalguna            no data
102l. Chaitra
103. morning              rechi
104. night                ra:t
105. sunny side of
  mountain                dasno
106. shady side of
  mountain                khauru
107. Seasonal
  migration               a|dhae:r
108. spring (season)      ba|ha:r
109. summer               garma
110. today                a:z
111. up(hill)             ma:l
112. west                 magrib
113. winter               band
114. year                 veh, ver

VI. Earth

115. earth                ze|min
116. earthquake           bum tsal
117. forest               van
118. highest summer
  pasture                 carga:na
119. hill                 ma:l
120. mountain             ba:l
121. river                dar|ya:u
122. sand                 re:[??]t
123. spring (of water)    na:g
124. stone                ru:nd[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]

VII. Animals

125. ant                  krimni
126. ass                  khar
127. bear                 sa:put
128. bird                 pa|rind[??]
129. bull                 da:nt
130. bumblebee            bhumur
131. cat m.               bra:r
132. cat f.               brae:r
133. crow                 ka:u
134. cow                  ga:u
135. dog                  hun
136. egg                  tho:l
137. feather              paht
138. fish                 ga:r[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
139. flea                 pjuh
140. goat m.              katlo
141. goat f.              tshel
142. hen                  kuk|ri:
143. horn                 hing
144. horse                gh[??]r
145. louse                zo:e
146. louse (nit)          dhak
147. mouse, rat           gagri
148. rooster              ku|kur
149. sheep                gjeb
149a. ewe                 lao
149b. ram                 gjeb
150. snake                saraph
151. tail                 let
152. wasp                 cum|hae:r

VIII. The plant word

153. apple                tsoh
154. apricot              ba|tsir
155. bark (of tree)       dhil
156. barley               dza|war
157. birch                ray[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]l
158. cedar                djov|da:r
159. fig (fruit)          ph[??]:g
160. grape(s)             dach
161. grass/fodder         g[??]:[??]s
162. leaf                 pat[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]r[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
163. maize                ma|kai
164. mulberry tree        tul
165. pomegranate          da:r[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]m
166. poplar               phrast[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] kwul
167. root                 mu:l
168. seed                 bj[??]:l
169. tree                 kwal[??]
170. walnut               ochur
171. willow               yer kwul

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              ma:r dje:ni~de:ni
173. to bite              tsop dje:nu
174. to burn i.           zalnu
175. to burn t.           za:lnu
176. to come              ye:nu
177. to cry               ba:ro dje:n[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
178. to die               phatnu
179. to drink             pi:nu
180. to eat               kha:lnu
181. to fly               udnu
182. to give              dje:nu
183. to go                gatsnu
184. to harvest           tsatnu
185. to hear              hunnu
186. to kill              anj lje:nu
187. to know              za:nnu
188. to laugh             hasnu
189. to lie (down)        sunnu
190. to say               vannu
191. to see               ba:lnu
192. to sit               bimnu
193. to sleep             sunnu
194. to stand             thod uthnu,
                            khar hunu
195. to swim              t[??]:[??]r
                            dje:nj[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
196. to walk              chalnu
197. to wash t.           dhaunu

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           sor
199. all (sab)            sor|wi[??]
200. big                  bor
201. bitter               tsihtu
202. black                krihnu
203. blind                on
204. cold                 tu:r
205. dry                  hukh
206. eight                a:ht
207. eighteen             ar|dah
208. eleven               kah
209. few                  ki:ts
210. fifteen              pas|tah
211. five                 pa:ts
212. forty-one            yak ta:lih
213. four                 tsa:war
214. fourteen             tso|dah
215. full                 bher
216. good                 la:yex
217. green                sabz[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
218. hot                  garm[??]
219. hundred              ha:th[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
220. hungry               bu:ch
221. left (direction)     no data
222. long                 zehtu
223. many                 zja:d[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
224. new                  nau
225. nine                 na:u
226. nineteen             kun|vih
227. old (person)         budh
228. one                  yah
229. red                  uzlu
230. right (direction)    das nis
231. round                go:[??]l
232. seven                sat
233. seventeen            sa|dah
234. sharp                te:[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]z
235. six                  seh
236. sixteen              so|dah
237. small                loktshu
238. sour                 tsukh
239. ten                  dah
240. thirteen             tro|vah
241. thirty-nine          kun|ta:lih
242. three                ca:i
243. thousand             sa:s
244. twelve               bah
245. twenty               vih
246. twenty-nine          kun|trih
247. two                  dih
248. white                safae:[??]d
249. yellow               lidru

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   su
251. I                    a:u
252. not                  na
253. she                  sa
254. they m. far          tja:u
255. they f. far          tja:u vah
256. they m. near         tja:u
257. they f. near         tja:u vah
258. that (thing)         sa
259. that (person)        su
260. this (thing)         ya
261. this (person)        yu
262. we                   as
263. what?                kut
265. who?                 kam
266. you sg.              tu
267. you pl.              tus

Gloss                     Siraji

I. Body parts

1. armpit                 kasa:|li:
2. beard                  da:|ri:
3. belly                  id
4. blood                  rath
5. bone                   ha|di:
6. brain                  me|dzo
7. breast                 tsu|tsu
8. ear                    kan
9. elbow                  khundri
10. eye                   achj
11. face                  mu:
12. finger                ang|li:
13. fingernail            nam
14. flesh                 ma:z
15. foot                  khor
16. hair                  zu|to
17. hand                  hat
18. head                  ro
19. heart                 dil
20. kidney                gur|da
21. knee                  kuth
22. lip                   ho:t
23. liver                 ka:l|zo
24. moustache             much
25. mouth                 a:si
26. neck                  mundi
27. nose                  nak
28. skin                  niya:li
29. shoulder              phak|ku
30. thumb                 not
31. tongue                zib
32. tooth                 dant
33. urine                 mu|tar

II. Terms for kin and human beings

34. brother               bra:u
35. brother's wife        bar|dza:i
36. daughter              re|ti:
37. daughter-in-law       nus
38. father                ba:bo
39. Father's brother      nikro ba:bo,
                            bado ba:bo
40. father-in-law         su:ro
41. granddaughter         po:tri, dhiyo:|ri:
42. grandson              po:tri, dhiyo:|ri:
43. mother                ma:|li:
44. mother's brother      mam|mo
45. mother-in-law         sas
46. sister                be:n
47. son                   ma|tho
48. son-in-law            dzama|tro:
49. Wife's brother        sa:lo, be:i|mo
50. child                 ma|tho:
51. man                   mard
52. name                  na:m
53. person                ma:|nu:
54. woman                 ze|na:n

III. Human artifacts

55. arrow                 ti:r
56. ashes                 swa:h
57. bed                   khat[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
58. bread                 ro|ti:
59. churn                 cha:mpw[??]
60. curds                 zam|ro dud[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
61. dream                 semi|no
62. fertilizer            hi:l
63. field                 ba|gi:
64. fire                  ag[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
65. ghee                  gyu:
66. grease                mez
67. handspan              grit[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
68. honey                 ma:chi:
69. house                 gar
70. irrigation channel    kul[??]
71. loom                  khaddi
72. mattock (hoe)         d[??]:l[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
73. milk                  dud[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
74. path                  ba:tt|t[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]:
75. plow                  hal[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
76. roof                  la|ro:
77. salt                  lu:n
78. sickle                no data
79. smoke                 du:m
80. spinning wheel        dzan|tar
81. village               gra:m
82. wood                  ka:tha, tso:ri|ya
83. work                  kamm[??]

IV. The sky, weather

84. blue sky              ni:lo a|mar
85. cloud                 bad[??]|lo
86. lightning             uzmuli|ya
87. moon                  ca:|ni:
88. rain                  de:o:
89. sky                   a|mar
90. snow                  hi:m
91. star                  ta:|ro:
92. sun                   di:s
93. water                 pa:ni
94. wind                  ba:th

V. Time and space

95. afternoon             bya:l[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]  ku|no
96. autumn                se:r
97. day                   diya:|ri:
97a. Saturday             sa|cal
97b. Sunday               a:th
97c. Monday               tsan|dar
97d. Tuesday              man|gal
97e. Wednesday            bod[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
97f. Thursday             bre|fat[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
97g. Friday               su|kar
98. day after tomorrow    te:|tse
99. down(hill)            o|ro:
100. east                 tsarn[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] t[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]|wa:t[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
101. evening              biya:|lo:
102. month                no data
102a. Vaisakha            bi|sa:kh
102b. Jestha              dze:th
102c. Asadh               hi|sa:r
102d. Sravan              sro:n
102e. Bhadra              bha:|dro
102f. Ashvina             [??]|su:dz
102g. Kartika             ka:t|ti:
102h. Marga               m[??]|gi:r
102i. Pausha              pa:|phi:
102j. Magha               dar|mi:
102k. Phalguna            pha:|gun
102l. Chaitra             tsithar
103. morning              o:|tre
104. night                ra:|ti
105. sunny side of
  mountain                da|lat[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]|wa:t[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
106. shady side of
  mountain                tsarn[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] t[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]|wa:t[begin
                            strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
107. Seasonal
  migration               retu:|ro
108. spring (season)      ne:|la:
109. summer               retu:|ro
110. today                adz[begin strikethrough]i[end strikethrough]
111. up(hill)             kha|ro:
112. west                 ma|grib
113. winter               hind[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
114. year                 ba|ri:

VI. Earth

115. earth                dze|mi:
116. earthquake           b[??]|tsal
117. forest               dza:r
118. highest summer
  pasture                 adu|va:r
119. hill                 no data
120. mountain             pa|ha:r
121. river                dar|ya:u
122. sand                 re:t
123. spring (of water)    na:g
124. stone                go:r

VII. Animals

125. ant                  bid|li:
126. ass                  kh[??]:|to
127. bear                 ich
128. bird                 pakh|nu:
129. bull                 da:nt
130. bumblebee            bh[??]:|ro
131. cat m.               bila:|ru:
132. cat f.               bila:|ri:
133. crow                 ka:u
134. cow                  ba|tshi:
135. dog                  su|na:
136. egg                  thu:l
137. feather              pakh
138. fish                 mach|li:
139. flea                 pri:|su:
140. goat m.              twa:th, tse|lu
141. goat f.              bak|ri:
142. hen                  kuk[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]|ri:
143. horn                 sing[??]
144. horse                gho:|ro
145. louse                dzu:
146. louse (nit)          lich
147. mouse, rat           mus|ni:
148. rooster              ku|kar
149. sheep                bhedd[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
149a. ewe                 bhedde:
149b. ram                 bheddu:
150. snake                sapp[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
151. tail                 lenan[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]
152. wasp                 trim|ri:
                          traend[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]|ha:l

VIII. The plant word

153. apple                se:o
154. apricot              khoba:|ni
155. bark (of tree)       s[??]|kar
156. barley               dzo:u
157. birch                da:|li:
158. cedar                di|ya:r
159. fig (fruit)          an|dzi:r
160. grape(s)             no data
161. grass/fodder         gha:s
162. leaf                 pat|tar
163. maize                kukari|ya
164. mulberry tree        tutta d[??] but[??]
165. pomegranate          a|na:r, dar|mo:li
166. poplar               safe:|do:
167. root                 dzi:l
168. seed                 bidz[??]
169. tree                 but[??]
170. walnut               acho:l
171. willow               be:d[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough] d[??] but[??]

IX. Verbs

172. to beat              ma:r|no
173. to bite              cak|ku de:|no
174. to burn i.           dzal|no
175. to burn t.           dza:l|no
176. to come              cae:|no
177. to cry               lera kha:|no
178. to die               mar|no
179. to drink             pi:|no
180. to eat               kha:|no
181. to fly               ud|no
182. to give              de:|no
183. to go                ga:|no
184. to harvest           lon|no
185. to hear              sun|no
186. to kill              ma:r|no
187. to know              dza:n|no
188. to laugh             has|no
189. to lie (down)        dzul|no
190. to say               dz[??]:|no
191. to see               her|no
192. to sit               bis|no
193. to sleep             dzul|no
194. to stand             kharo:th|no
195. to swim              tar|no
196. to walk              cal|no
197. to wash t.           chal|no

X. Adjectives

198. all (sara)           sa:|re
199. all (sab)            mat|te:
200. big                  ba|do:
201. bitter               ko:|ro:
202. black                ka:|lo:
203. blind                ka:|no:
204. cold                 tha|do:
205. dry                  suk|ro:
206. eight                ath
207. eighteen             atha:|ra
208. eleven               ya:|ra:
209. few                  ke:
210. fifteen              pan|dra:
211. five                 patsh
212. forty-one            iktal:li:
213. four                 tsu:r
214. fourteen             tsa:|li:
215. full                 bhau|ro:
216. good                 ro|lo:
217. green                ni:lo:
218. hot                  tat|to:
219. hundred              sou
220. hungry               buc|co:
221. left (direction)     ba:|me:
222. long                 lam|mo:
223. many                 mat|te:
224. new                  na|vo
225. nine                 nao
226. nineteen             un|ni:
227. old (person)         bu|do:
228. one                  ek[??]
229. red                  la:l
230. right (direction)    dae|no:
231. round                go:l
232. seven                sa:th
233. seventeen            s[begin strikethrough]i[end
                            strikethrough]ta:|ra:
234. sharp                no data
235. six                  sah
236. sixteen              so|ra:
237. small                nik|ro
238. sour                 am|lo
239. ten                  das
240. thirteen             te:|ra:
241. thirty-nine          unta:li:
242. three                trei
243. thousand             ha|za:r
244. twelve               ba:|ra:
245. twenty               bi:
246. twenty-nine          una|tri:
247. two                  du|i
248. white                chit|to:
249. yellow               hal|dro

XI. Pronouns etc.

250. he                   taen[??]
251. I                    a:u
252. not                  na
253. she                  tae|na
254. they m. far          taen[??]
255. they f. far          tae|na
256. they m. near         aen[??]
257. they f. near         aen[??]
258. that (thing)         taen ci:z
259. that (person)        tae ma:|nu:
260. this (thing)         in ci:z
261. this (person)        in ma:nu:
262. we                   a:u
263. what?                ko:
265. who?                 kje:
266. you sg.              tu
267. you pl.              tu:

(1) According to Wali and Koul 1997: 307, Kashmiri is a
syllable-timed language, and stress is not distinctive.
When non-initial, it is marked in this transcription on
items 1-197, which have been transcribed from recorded
data, but not on items 198-267, which are taken from
written sources using phonemic transcription.

(2) The Kashmiri word list was incomplete, and items 198-267
have been filled in from the following two sources: Wali and Koul
1997 (especially 5.2), and Kachru 1973, Vol. 2 (Glossary).
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Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Author:Schmidt, Ruth Laila; Kaul, Vijay Kumar
Publication:Acta Orientalia
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:21700
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