A beginner's guide to Walter de la Mare, literary forensics and poetic finger-printing.
Winter Clouded with snow The cold winds blow, And shrill on leafless bough The robin with its burning breast Alone sings now. The rayless sun, Day's journey done, Sheds its last ebbing light On fields in leagues of beauty spread Unearthly white. Thick draws the dark, And spark by spark, The frost-fires kindle, and soon Over that sea of frozen foam Floats the white moon.
Walter de la Mare Noun 1. Walter de la Mare - English poet remembered for his verse for children (1873-1956)
de la Mare, Walter John de la Mare
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A jargon systematically formed by the transposition of the initial consonant to the end of the word and the suffixation of an additional syllable, as igpay atinlay for pig Latin. , Obby Dobby and other fun ways of obfuscating language codes! The popular imagination also loves the idea of forensic science The application of scientific knowledge and methodology to legal problems and criminal investigations.
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n. Abbr. mg
A metric unit of mass equal to one thousandth (10-3) of a gram. of its dandruff dandruff, excessive flaking of skin from the scalp, apparent as dry or greasy diffuse scaling with variable itching. It is the sign of a skin disease, such as seborrhea or a fungal infection. ? Add to this mix the fact that the only Walter de la Mare poem anyone has ever heard of is 'The Listeners' and you have the makings of a different take on a sadly-neglected poet.
What do I mean by poetic fingerprinting?
I am talking about investigating the formal elements of a poem such as: rhyme scheme rhyme scheme
The arrangement of rhymes in a poem or stanza. , syllabic syl·lab·ic
a. Of, relating to, or consisting of a syllable or syllables.
b. Pronounced with every syllable distinct.
2. and lexical patterning. Once you have established a poetic fingerprint, you can invite pupils to use it to 'clone' a chunk of a text which you have deliberately withheld. Here is an example of one I made earlier:
A teacher's guide to poetic fingerprinting Walter de la Mare's poem: 'Winter'
I begin by showing the prepared poem and discussing briefly the effects of the given words to tune them into the task. The task is to recreate the missing middle verse from the jumbled-up words and phrases Words and Phrases®
A multivolume set of law books published by West Group containing thousands of judicial definitions of words and phrases, arranged alphabetically, from 1658 to the present. . Then I show how to use investigative methods to arrive at a 'poetic fingerprint'. The key concept is that poets work through setting up consistent patterns of language and meaning. We exploit this fact when we investigate a poem. We then make use of the fact that the poem is in a sense 'predictable'.
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How to find the poem's fingerprint through investigative methods
What rhyme scheme did the poet use?
I annotate annotate - annotation each last word in a verse line, starting with 'a' and marking any rhymes at the end of other lines with 'a'. So, verse 1 has a rhyme scheme of a, a, b, c, b. I then check this with verse 3 to make sure the poet used a consistent rhyme scheme pattern, which he did.
How many syllables per line?
Next I look to check if the poet is using a consistent pattern of syllables in each line. Does each verse contain the same number of lines? In 'Winter', de la Mare de la Mare , Walter John 1873-1956.
British writer whose delight in the fantasy world of childhood is reflected in his poems and novels, such as Early One Morning (1935).
Noun 1. uses five lines per verse. Then I count the number of syllables in lines 1 to 5 of verse 1. The pattern of syllables per line is 4-4-6-4. Is this the same pattern he used in verse 3? It is. So I hypothesise Verb 1. hypothesise - to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds; "Scientists supposed that large dinosaurs lived in swamps"
conjecture, hypothesize, speculate, theorise, theorize, hypothecate, suppose that he used the same pattern in the missing middle verse.
Now I look at how many sentences the poet packs into a verse. The first and final verses each contain only one, so--once again--I hypothesise that he will be consistent and confine himself to one sentence in the missing verse.
Other punctuation cues?
Are there any other punctuation marks? Yes. The poetic gets the reader to pause at the end of the second line in verse 1 by ending the line with a comma. He does the same for verse 3 so I hypothesise that he will do the same for the final verse. I am correct. So once more I hypothesise that he will do the same in the missing verse.
Does the poem contain meaning clusters where separate 'cells' share common elements?
Again, I am looking for patterning, for predictable repetitions. In verse 1, I find 'cells' (words) to do with: the weather ('clouded', 'snow', 'cold winds'); nature ('bough', 'robin', 'breast) and light ('burning'). Can I find matches for these meaning clusters in verse 3? Weather words: 'frost', 'frozen'. Nature words: 'sea', 'foam', 'moon'. Light words: 'dark', 'spark' (twice); 'fires' 'white'. So I hypothesise that verse 3 will contain those three meaning clusters because this poet is using consistent and therefore predictable patterns of meaning.
How to use a poetic fingerprint to re-create a missing verse
I provide a copy of the incomplete poem. Where the poem has a 'hole', I drop in a results box and a thinking pad. I also provide the raw materials: the jumbled up text and the poetic fingerprint for 'Winter'. Figure 1 shows what my own working-out looks like. Figure 2 shows these materials with my scribbled notes. I provided a clue as well to make sure the process heads in the right direction. I then proceed in a sudoku-like manner, using a combination of trial-and-error together with the information given to get as close as possible to the poet's original.
Application of the fingerprint to the problem
(Try the task before you read my account of how I proceeded with the task.)
a) I begin by counting up the syllables in each 'bit' of jumbled up text. These are useful building blocks because I know that the poet used a consistent pattern of syllables per line.
b) I drop in the word 'sun' which the fingerprint tells me is the end word of line 1.
c) I know that the end word of line 2 rhymes with 'sun'. I find the two-syllable phrase, 'journey done', which fits the bill.
d) Because line 2 contains four syllables and 'journey done' is three syllables long, I know I need only one more syllable to complete the line. My three options are: 'sheds', 'the' and 'day's'.
e) The first word choice is ambiguous--is it a verb or a noun? I quite like 'day's' because it could 'own' the journey--so I'll pencil it in.
f) I need three more syllables for line 1. These cannot come from either 'ebbing light' or 'unearthly white'. Why? Because they rhyme so they must end lines 3 and 5.
g) Could it be 'rayless' because in verse 1 the snow-clouds are making it dull while by verse 3 the sun has been replaced by the moon. So a sun which has no power to produce rays makes sense. I'll try it.
h) I need one more syllable for line 1. What would go well in front of the noun phrase noun phrase
n. Abbr. NP
A phrase whose head is a noun, as our favorite restaurant.
Noun 1. noun phrase - a phrase that can function as the subject or object of a verb
nominal, nominal phrase , 'rayless sun'? I'll try the determiner, 'the'. Line 1 is complete.
i) I read back what I've got. Two lines and no verb yet--lots of compacted noun phrasing. So line 3 could do with a verb. I've only got 'sheds' and 'spread'.
j) I've just discovered a bit more fingerprinting. Verses 1 and 3 are written in the present tense. Applying that bit of knowledge, shows that the missing verb must be 'sheds'. I'll try it.
k) So, line 3 reads 'sheds ....... ebbing light'. I still need two syllables to fill it. I've got two choices. I'll guess 'its last' because... it fits!
l) If 'ebbing light' is right for line 3 then line 5 must contain 'unearthly white'. That phrase is four syllables long--so I have the last line complete.
m) Only line 4 left, I will try the last three 'bits' for best fit.
n) I've finished, so I'll see how close I got to the poet's original verse!
Why use poetic fingerprinting?
This approach builds on 'Ways into poems' (Able, Gifted and Talented Learning in English by Frances Gregory and Bob Cox) which asks pupils to reflect on the strategies they use to help them interpret and give meaning to a poem when they first see it. To do this, they have to make a coherent poem from jumbled up words. It is an alternative to the familiar cloze cloze
Based on or being a test of reading comprehension in which the test taker is asked to supply words that have been systematically deleted from a text.
[Alteration of closure.]
Adj. passage where pupils have to suggest appropriate words deleted from a text. In my experience, while pupils enjoy solving the 'problem' of the missing words, they are less keen to articulate the strategies they used in finding the solution. Investigating the 'bones' of a poem to define its 'fingerprint' forces pupils to be much more up-front about its features. Then when they 'clone' the missing verse, they have to do something transformative with that knowledge; so it's more likely to 'stick'.
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Why fingerprint the poems of Walter de la Mare?
A friend of mine pointed out recently, the only poem of Walter's most of us know is 'The Listeners'. Start with a copy of his Selected Poems (the Faber paperback edition edited by Matthew Sweeney) and you will discover what Auden described as 'the delicacy of his metrical met·ri·cal
1. Of, relating to, or composed in poetic meter: metrical verse; five metrical units in a line.
2. Of or relating to measurement. fingering and the graceful architecture of his stanzas'. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , de la Mare's 'perfect ear and staggering technical assurance' are the perfect place for pupils to hone their poetic fingerprinting skills because his poems--while never predictable--do offer consistent patterning.
Poems by Walter de la Mare (all page references are to Matthew Sweeney's edition published by Faber): 'The Fly' (p.4-5); 'Haunted' (p. 13-14); 'The Scarecrow' (p.22-3); An Epitaph' (p.30); 'Silver' (p. 48); 'Please to Remember' (p. 85-86); 'The Snowflake' (p.97- 98).
Investigative challenges for further poetic forensics:
'Can you decide on an investigative framework for building a poet's fingerprints?' In other words, what are the different ways in which we can study a poem?
'Can you recognise Walter de la Mare's poetic style by sorting out some of his poems from an anonymous collection which includes texts written by other poets?'