A Hungarian preschool for the children, teachers, and families.This article describes an exceptional Eastern European preschool where all stakeholders--children, teachers, and parents--place a high value on the unique synergy of inclusive and bilingual education bilingual education, the sanctioned use of more than one language in U.S. education. The Bilingual Education Act (1968), combined with a Supreme Court decision (1974) mandating help for students with limited English proficiency, requires instruction in the native .
Imagine you are going on a bicycle ride in a small town in Hungary. After leaving the noisy town behind, you cross a bridge over a picturesque stream. The fresh air fills your lungs, and you feel happy and carefree. Soon, you see gardens with fruit trees; as you peek through the green leaves, you catch sight of neat, little red-roofed houses. You remember why you came here. One of those red roofs belongs to the preschool you once attended. Now a researcher, you enter the building, and your heart starts beating faster. Yes, the building looks familiar. Soon you see faces of your former teachers smiling at you--they still remember who you are, as if those 23 years never went by. The interviews with the director and teachers, along with the observations in the classrooms, reaffirm re·af·firm
tr.v. re·af·firmed, re·af·firm·ing, re·af·firms
To affirm or assert again.
re the feelings you felt there as a child. This is a place that children, parents, and teachers all deserve.
The Maci (Teddy Bear) Preschool (1) described above is located in the suburbs of Jaszbereny, a small town in the eastern part of Hungary. The school has had two beginnings. Its role when first founded in 1973 was to provide child care for the children of workers at a refrigerator factory. After the political changes of 1989, an international corporation, Electrolux, bought the factory. Although the new owners decided not to operate the center any more, a small group of enthusiastic teachers, with the help of people in the community, established a board of trustees board of trustees Politics The posse of thugs who oversee an institution's administration. See Board of directors. to keep the school alive. In response to the various needs of an emerging democratic society, these educators launched an English-Hungarian bilingual preschool. A year later, their program became even more responsive to diversity through the inclusion of children with special needs. These two goals, at that time completely new, are still considered innovative in Hungary. The hard work of the dedicated teachers, national and international educators, and parents has resulted in a supportive and mutually respectful atmosphere that facilitates children's learning, as well as teachers' and families' well-being.
Janka Szilagyi and Tunde Szecsi Janka Szilagyi is a doctoral student, early childhood education, Department of Learning and Instruction, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of . Tunde Szecsi is Assistant Professor, Department of Undergraduate Teacher Education, Florida Gulf Coast University About FGCU
The newest university in the State University System of Florida, the school was established by then-governor Lawton Chiles in 1991, although the site of the university wasn't chosen until 1992, and construction pushed back even further still (until ; Fort Myers Fort Myers, city (1990 pop. 45,206), seat of Lee co., SW Fla., on the Caloosahatchee River, near the Gulf of Mexico; founded 1850, inc. 1905. It has a tourist trade and light industry and is a shipping point for citrus fruits, winter vegetables, flowers (especially .
This article describes this exceptional Eastern European preschool where all stakeholders--children, teachers, and parents--place a high value on the unique synergy of inclusive and bilingual education.
Curriculum With Three Pillars
Hungarian preschools must develop their own educational program in compliance with the National Program of Preschool Education preschool education: see kindergarten; nursery school.
Childhood education during the period from infancy to age five or six. Institutions for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do their names (e.g. (1996). They are guaranteed independence in professional matters, enabling the preschool to respond to the individual needs of the community. In 1996, the Maci Preschool developed its developmentally appropriate curriculum, which reflects teachers' and parents' shared views and knowledge about the education of young children (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997).
The Maci Preschool teachers A Preschool Teacher is a type of early childhood educator who instructs children from infancy to age 5, which stands as the youngest stretch of early childhood education. Early Childhood Education teachers need to span the continum of children from birth to age 8. treasure children, no matter their abilities or social backgrounds. They agree that every child is able to grow and progress at his or her own rate. Therefore, they do not rush children's physiological and psychological development, but rather promote it through appropriate interventions and activities. Teachers also believe that certain crucial competencies, such as awareness of others' needs and perspectives, adaptability, empathy, and sensitivity toward diversity, can be enhanced most effectively in an inclusive as well as bilingual early childhood environment (Derman-Sparks & the A.B.C. Task Force, 1989; K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004). Furthermore, the preschool staff places an emphasis on nurturing children's sense of responsibility and independence. In alignment with the Montessori curriculum, this goal is partially accomplished through using real items in the classroom. For example, prior to meals, all children help set the tables with a tablecloth, china plates, and glasses; after meals, they take the dishes to the cart and sweep the floor. These experiences provide a transition from home to the classroom (Roopnarine & Johnson, 2000) and promote skills such as fine motor coordination Gross motor coordination addresses the gross motor skills: walking, running, climbing, jumping, crawling, lifting one's head, sitting up, etc.
Fine motor coordination , independence, cooperation with peers, and sequencing of different tasks. Children with these social and cognitive skills cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component feel confidence when entering elementary school elementary school: see school. .
The Maci Preschool curriculum delineates the following major goals:
* Fostering the development of the whole child through developmentally and individually appropriate practices
* Building preschool education on a foundation of family and home culture
* Empowering children with skills and dispositions for elementary school
* Closely collaborating with families.
To ensure the accomplishment of these major goals, the three pillars of the curriculum are: a clear focus on physical activities, an inclusive approach regarding children with special needs, and a culturally and linguistically rich learning experience. The synergy of these three pillars provides a strong foundation for children's learning and development.
Pillar # 1--Physical Activity
Physical activity and movement in the early years contribute to the children's development and well-being. The early childhood years can be important in establishing a positive attitude toward and appreciation for lifelong participation in physical activity. Armstrong (1991) found that children's physical activity patterns persist into adulthood. Early involvement in appropriate physical activities also may prevent obesity and health problems (Fox, 1991). Other benefits of incorporating appropriate movement activities include: 1) developing and refining fundamental motor skills and movement awareness (Ignico, 1994); 2) promoting learning in other areas through integrated, multimodal Two or more modes of operation. The term is used to refer to a myriad of functions and conditions in which two or more different methods, processes or forms of delivery are used. On the Web, it refers to asking for something one way and receiving the answer another; for example requesting experiences (Werner, 1994); 3) facilitating children's social and emotional development (Ignico, 1994); and 4) allowing children avenues for creativity (Pica, 1997).
At the Maci Preschool, planned and spontaneous physical activities are part of the children's everyday life. Weather permitting, the children spend a significant amount of time outside on the spacious playground. Swing sets, jungle gyms, various climbing equipment A wide range of equipment is used during rock climbing. The most popular types of climbing equipment are briefly described in this article. The article on protecting a climb describes equipment commonly used to protect a climber against the consequences of a fall. , sandboxes, and trees invite the children to exert their energy, improve their motor skills, and explore their environment. On hot summer days, a small pool partly filled up with water welcomes children who wish to cool down and play. In the event of bad weather, the children do gymnastics gymnastics, exercises for the balanced development of the body (see also aerobics), or the competitive sport derived from these exercises. Although the ancient Greeks (who invented the building called a gymnasium activities inside the gym, with the guidance of a teacher certified See certification. in physical education. Through role-modeling, teachers encourage all the children, regardless of ability, to try different sports. They also help the children use their bodies and any equipment with imagination and confidence.
Teachers make the most of the recreational opportunities offered in the neighborhood. As the weather permits, teachers and children regularly visit indoor and outdoor swimming pools, sports fields, playgrounds, a sports hall, a roller skating roller skating, gliding on a hard, smooth, durable surface on skates with rollers or wheels, in recent years has become a popular adult sport. Skates mounted on wooden rollers date from the 1860s, and soon wooden wheels replaced the rollers. rink, a zoo, and botanical gardens A botanical garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are grown and displayed for the purposes of research, conservation, and education. . At the sports fields, they play ball, run around, and play outdoor games. Horseback riding horseback riding: see equestrianism. , inline skating skating: see ice skating; ice dancing; roller skating.
Sport in which bladelike runners or sets of wheels attached to shoes are used for gliding on ice or on surfaces other than ice. , and taking long walks also are part of children's everyday life. In addition, every toilet-trained child can regularly participate in swimming practice with a swim coach all year round.
Pillar #2--Welcoming All Children
In the past, the Hungarian school system was highly segregated; the first opportunities for educating children in inclusive settings did not emerge until the late 1980s. The Act of Public Education of 1993 and the Act of Equal Opportunities of 1998 granted parents the right to choose a school for children in harmony with their individual needs. Therefore, children with special needs may attend regular schools if the school is prepared for inclusive education (Csanyi, 2001).
Ten years ago, the Maci Preschool launched a program for a dozen children with severe learning disabilities, mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. , or physical impairments. After the first year (during which the school experiences were mainly segregated), the director, teachers, and parents developed an experimental inclusive program. Currently, all classrooms in this center welcome children with various abilities, including children with ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Definition
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsive behaviors, and the inability to remain focused on tasks or , autism autism (ô`tĭzəm), developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning. , mild and severe mental retardation, and physical impairments.
The curriculum and the daily activities at Maci Preschool are built around play. Play is an essential activity for children, regardless of ability; through play, children learn about the world, develop skills, and acquire dispositions (Bergen & Coscia, 2000; Isenberg & Quisenberry, 2002). Teachers and assistants at the preschool facilitate and guide children's active discovery. Although children with special needs might receive more assistance, they also are encouraged to become actively engaged with peers in block building, socio-dramatic play, and other activities. In this inclusive environment, the children sit down for the daily circle time to discuss past and future activities, read books, and tell stories--all considered important building blocks of children's mental health (K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004).
The daily schedule is finely attuned at·tune
tr.v. at·tuned, at·tun·ing, at·tunes
1. To bring into a harmonious or responsive relationship: an industry that is not attuned to market demands.
2. to children's individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. needs and interests. Children who need one-on-one attention or small-group intervention, including speech and physical therapy, work with a professional. In addition to traditional interventions, such activities as horseback riding and swimming, although offered to all children, are especially recommended to children with physical and psychological impairments. The director proudly mentioned that the center has a therapy horse to enable immobile im·mo·bile
1. Immovable; fixed.
2. Not moving; motionless.
immo·bil children to experience mobility (K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004). Every day, the children spend a long stretch of time outdoors. Regardless of their differences in movement ability, they all go for a walk in the zoo, in the botanical gardens, or along the river. Hands-on real life experiences with feeding animals, taking care of plants, and examining seasonal changes in the riverbank support the children's learning and self-esteem.
Considering the novelty of inclusive education in Hungary In Hungary most schools are owned by the government, although since the 1990s there are also church owned and private schools.
Students attend school five days a week, from Monday to Friday and usually have 5-8 classes a day. , these teachers have found that the implementation of an inclusive philosophy requires constant professional development. Therefore, in addition to obtaining a bachelor's degree in early childhood education, the teachers all seek inservice professional development opportunities in various areas of special education, speech pathology speech pathology
The science concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of functional and organic speech defects and disorders. Also called speech-language pathology. , physical and occupational therapy, and play therapy (K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004).
Teachers and parents at Maci Preschool all agree that children growing up in this inclusive environment accept as natural that people have diverse abilities, and they value their peers the way they are (Derman-Sparks & the A.B.C. Task Force, 1989; K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004). Teachers describe how children imitated their teacher's behavior while assisting their peers with special needs in everyday skills like holding a spoon or feeding themselves (Sombor, 1998).
Pillar #3--Windows to New Cultures Through Language
In the early 1990s, a Hungarian businessman initiated a collaborative project between Hungarian and American educators to establish an English-Hungarian bilingual preschool program in Hungary. Its ultimate goal was to help Hungarian children develop sensitivity toward cultural and linguistic diversity through developmentally appropriate English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. experiences. James Hoot, professor at the University at Buffalo, coordinated this educational enterprise on the American side. By September 1994, he recruited the first two American students for a year-long student-teaching experience at the Maci Preschool. Along with Hungarian educators, they took a pioneer role in devising and implementing a bilingual early childhood program. Hard work in this cross-cultural collaboration has resulted in a culturally and linguistically responsive environment, where Hungarian children are exposed to English language in a program based on theory (Cummins, 1984; Krashen, 1982), research (Tabors & Snow, 1994; Wong Fillmore, 1991), and best practices of early foreign language learning.
In the classrooms of the Maci Preschool, the topics for the week/month emerge from children's interests, or relate to seasonal topics. In the bilingual classroom, the English language activities are completely embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. in the daily activities. The Hungarian and American teachers share all responsibilities in care and education, including getting children dressed, breakfast and lunchtime, sports, and play activities. Thus, children are exposed to both languages in a natural, joyful joy·ful
Feeling, causing, or indicating joy. See Synonyms at glad1.
joyful·ly adv. , and non-threatening environment, which offers ample opportunities to use English in real situations (e.g. "Please tie your shoes!," "Would you like some more tea?," "Where is your coat?"). In addition, children's comprehension is fostered by metalinguistic met·a·lin·guis·tic
Of or relating to a metalanguage or to metalinguistics.
meta·lin·guis elements of gestures, facial expressions facial expression,
n the use of the facial muscles to communicate or to convey mood. , and visual aids visual aids
objects to be looked at that help the viewer to understand or remember something .
To promote emerging expressive skills, children often participate in regular curricular activities with the English-speaking teacher. For example, while going for a walk in the zoo and talking about the animals in English, children enrich their emerging English vocabulary through real-life experiences. They enthusiastically incorporate English words into Hungarian sentences, such as "Nezd ott a monkey," "Alszik a buffalo," and "Ott van a billy goat." Both parties--children and teachers--feel rewarded; regardless of their linguistic background, they are able to communicate with the help of an emerging common language.
A favorite activity is singing English songs and rhymes, accompanied by movement, which helps reinforce English words and grammatical structures (Asher, 1969). Singing together provides an enjoyable opportunity for introducing emergent emergent /emer·gent/ (e-mer´jent)
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.
2. pertaining to an emergency.
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.
2. coming on suddenly. literacy in English. When the teacher writes the lyrics lyrics npl [of song] → paroles fpl
lyrics lyric npl [of song] → Text m on a poster and substitutes objects' or animals' names with a picture, it helps the children figure out what the song is about, and make the first associations of sounds, meanings, and written symbols. The pictures and words on these posters, displayed in the hallway, enable children to revisit re·vis·it
tr.v. re·vis·it·ed, re·vis·it·ing, re·vis·its
To visit again.
A second or repeated visit.
re these songs.
The ultimate goal of the bilingual program is raising children's interest in diverse cultures, in addition to providing a steppingstone step·ping·stone
1. A stone that provides a place to step, as in crossing a stream.
2. An advantageous position for advancement toward a goal. for an exciting journey into the world of languages (K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004). In harmony with these goals, the findings of a survey (Szecsi, 2000) suggest that the majority of the parents selected this preschool because of its effective bilingual program. They seemed to be aware and appreciative of the positive impact of the natural and play-like language learning processes. One parent stated, "They [the children] do not learn the language; they live in it." Furthermore, parents also seem to approve of the cultural factor of the program. One parent said, "I have chosen this preschool because I want my child to find it natural that there are other cultures as well."
We All Pull Together: Parental Involvement
To guarantee an effective preschool program, family involvement is essential. From the very first day, the Maci Preschool teachers work hard to build a long-lasting, fruitful, and mutually respectful relationship between families and school. This collaboration is multi-faceted, involving families as a resource of information about the children, and as active participants in school activities (K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004). For the first few days of the school year, parents are encouraged to stay at school with their children. These "getting to know each other" days play an important role in the future relationship between children and school. Parents are welcome to visit or volunteer at any time. Furthermore, to establish a rapport The former name of device management software from Wyse Technology, San Jose, CA (www.wyse.com) that is designed to centrally control up to 100,000+ devices, including Wyse thin clients (see Winterm), Palm, PocketPC and other mobile devices. with the families, teachers visit the children's homes children's home n → centro de acogida para niños
children's home n → foyer m d'accueil (pour enfants)
children's home n once a year. Through these visits, teachers may gain a better understanding of the home environment, and learn more about the child's previous experiences and "funds of knowledge," around which the curriculum is built.
Parents and teachers at Maci Preschool agree that regular communication between families and schools is vital. Therefore, parent-teacher conferences, both in groups and individually, are regularly scheduled to ensure the flow of communication. In addition, children carry notebooks so that both teachers and parents can record the details of what happened to the child at home and at school. For instance, sometimes even small changes in regular daily activities might challenge the child's equilibrium. In order to be able to react accordingly, teachers and parents need the most detailed information possible (K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004).
To discuss issues of child development, behavior management behavior management Psychology Any nonpharmacologic maneuver–eg contingency reinforcement–that is intended to correct behavioral problems in a child with a mental disorder–eg, ADHD. See Attention-deficit-hyperactivity syndrome. , and appropriate practices, a parents' club is available for interested parents. Their expressed needs determine the topic for the meetings, which are free of charge and optional. The parents, teachers, and other professionals explore diverse approaches to children's learning and development, and together investigate potential solutions to emerging problems.
To expand the quality time that parents spend with children, the Maci Preschool organizes various celebrations, field trips, and picnics. A trip to the hills in early September provides good opportunities for children and their families to get to know other families and make new friends. The Day of Children, held on the last Sunday of May, is always an occasion for families and teachers to come together. Every summer, as the culmination of the child-teacher-parent collaboration, the staff and children, along with most of the parents, spend 10 days in a camp by a lake. When this tradition was started, six years ago, most parents, especially the parents of children with disabilities, were skeptical about the feasibility of this "dream-camp" (K. Rebicsek, personal communication, June 2, 2004). However, the summer camp has been a huge success. Taking a private train car to the campsite makes this experience even more distinctive for those children who have never traveled on a train. Practically the whole preschool, including toys, musical instruments, and sports equipment, is relocated to the campsite by the lake. Teachers and parents work together and are both activity developers and participants in games, nature walks, and swimming. This 10-day learning experience is one that the children will never forget.
The Maci Preschool in Hungary is a school that all children, teachers, and parents ought to have. In this environment, each child is able to experience love and happiness, while developing at his or her own pace. The families feel involved in their children's education, and they feel appreciated for their cultures and values. The teachers are enthusiastic about responding to new challenges, and eager to grow professionally in this nurturing environment supported by the whole community. In this inclusive, physically active, and bilingual learning context, the children, the parents, and the teachers all grow to be productive, empathic em·path·ic
Of, relating to, or characterized by empathy.
Adj. 1. empathic - showing empathy or ready comprehension of others' states; "a sensitive and empathetic school counselor"
empathetic , and helpful members of society, who are open to diversity. This is a kind of school that everybody deserves.
Armstrong, N. (1991). Health-related physical activity. In N. Armstrong & A. Sparkes (Eds.), Issues in physical education (pp. 139-154). London: Cassell Educational Limited.
Asher, J. (1969). The total physical response approach to second language learning. Modern Language Journal, 53, 3-18.
Bergen, G., & Coscia, J. (2001). Brain research and childhood education: Implications for educators. Olney, MD: Association for Childhood Education International.
Bredekamp, S., & Copple, C. (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice Developmentally appropriate practice (or DAP) is a perspective within early childhood education whereby a teacher or child caregiver nurtures a child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development by basing all practices and decisions on (1) theories of child development, (2) in early childhood programs (Rev. ed rev.
2. .). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the largest nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, experts, and advocates in center-based and family day care. .
Csanyi, Y. (2001). Steps towards inclusion in Hungary. European Journal European Journal is a weekly Deutsche Welle (DW) news program produced in English. It is broadcast from Brussels, Belgium and primarily covers political and economic developments across the European Union and the rest of Europe, as well as issues of particular concern to of Special Needs Education, 16(3), 301-308.
Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. San Diego San Diego (săn dēā`gō), city (1990 pop. 1,110,549), seat of San Diego co., S Calif., on San Diego Bay; inc. 1850. San Diego includes the unincorporated communities of La Jolla and Spring Valley. Coronado is across the bay. , CA: College-Hill Press.
Derman-Sparks, L., & the A.B.C. Task Force. (1989). Anti-bias curriculum The anti-bias curriculum, in education, is an active/activist approach that proponents claim challenges forms of prejudice such as racism, sexism, ableism/disablism, ageism, homophobia, and other –isms. : Tools for empowering young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Fox, K. R. (1991). Physical education and its contribution to health and well-being. In N. Armstrong & A. Sparkes (Eds.), Issues in physical education (pp. 123-138). London: Cassell Educational Limited.
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Isenberg, J. P., & Quisenberry, N. (2002). Play: Essential for all children. A position paper of the Association for Childhood Education International. Retrieved June 20, 2004, from www.acei.org/playpaper.htm
Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York: Phoenix ELT ELT English Language Teaching
ELT n abbr (Scol) (= English Language Teaching) → Englisch als Unterrichtsfach .
National program of preschool education. (1996). Magyar Kozlony, 71, 4511-4516.
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Roopnarine, J. L., & Johnson, J. E. (2000). Approaches to early childhood education. Upper Saddle River Saddle River may refer to:
In 1913, law professor Dr. .
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Tabors, P., & Snow, C. (1994). English as a second language in preschools. In F. Genesee (Ed.), Educating second language children: The whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community (pp. 103-125). New York: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .
Werner, P. (1994). Whole physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 65(6), 40-44.
Wong Fillmore, L. (1991). Language and cultural issues in the early education of language minority children. In S. Kagan (Ed.), The care and education of America's young children: Obstacles and opportunities. Ninetieth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part 1 (pp. 30-49). Chicago: University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including .
(1) Hungarian children ages 3 to 7 attend ovoda, which means "caring place." It is equivalent to American preschools. Kindergartens are nonexistent non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
non in Hungary; around the age of 6 or 7, children start 1st grade. Unlike in the free public schools, parents at Maci Preschool are required to pay tuition to partially cover child care, meals, and curricular activities, including swimming, inline skating, and field trips. This preschool is also funded partially by the Hungarian government and civil organizations.
With special thanks to Katalin Rebicsek, the director of Maci Preschool; and the entire staff for their help in our data collection.
Janka Szilagyi is a doctoral student, early childhood education, Department of Learning and Instruction, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York. Tunde Szecsi is Assistant Professor, Department of Undergraduate Teacher Education, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers.