A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF SUBJECT INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING IN INTERNATIONAL INDEX TO MUSIC PERIODICALS, RILM ABSTRACTS OF MUSIC LITERATURE, AND THE MUSIC INDEX ONLINE.There are now three major online databases dedicated to current indexing of the literature of music: The Music Index (hereafter In the future.
The term hereafter is always used to indicate a future time—to the exclusion of both the past and present—in legal documents, statutes, and other similar papers. MI); RILM RILM Repertoire International de Litterature Musicale (International Repertory of Musical Literature) Abstracts of Music Literature (RILM); and International Index to Music Periodicals (IIMP IIMP Integrated Information Management Protocol
IIMP Integrated Information Management Program ).  The online version of MI provides citations, but not abstracts, for periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily. literature in music going back to 1979, and is available both on CD-ROM and via the Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the . It is produced by Harmonie HARMONIE Humanitarian Assistance Response Monitoring and Operations Network--Internet Enterprise Park Press, which has published the print version of MI since 1949. The Web version was used in the present study. Chadwyck-Healey, after briefly marketing an earlier CD-ROM version of MI, launched its own music database, IIMP, in 1996. Now owned by Bell & Howell How´ell
n. 1. The upper stage of a porcelian furnace. Information and Learning, IIMP, provides indexing and abstracts for music periodical literature since 1996 and is steadily adding citations (without abstracts) for pre-1996 literature. IIMP is available on CD-ROM and in two Web versions: a basic product with traditional citations and abstracts, and IIMP Full Text, which add s access to the full text of articles from over forty journals. Trial access to IIMP, Full Text was used for the present study, though no use was made of the full-text options.
RILM is a joint project of the International Musicological mu·si·col·o·gy
The historical and scientific study of music.
musi·co·log Society and the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, and Documentation Centers. Since 1967, it has published abstracts of the whole range of scholarly literature in music, going beyond journal articles to include books, dissertations, catalogs, Festschriften, conference proceedings, and other formats. RILM exists in two electronic versions: it is available on CD-ROM and via the Web from National Information Services See Information Systems. Corporation (NISC NISC National Institute of Senior Centers
NISC National Information Services Corporation
NISC National Information Solutions Cooperative
NISC NGO (Non-Governmental Organisation) Information and Support Centre USA), and Web access is also provided through OCLC FirstSearch. The OCLC product was the primary means of access for the present study, though trial access to the NISC product was arranged for comparison of a few points.
These three databases differ greatly in the ways in which they index the literature. The present study identifies a group of articles that have been treated by all three databases and compares those treatments in both quantitative and qualitative terms. 
The quantitative section involved randomly selecting a large group of articles and comparing the number of subjects assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. , total words in the subjects, and unique words in the subjects in each of the three databases, and the number of words in the abstracts in RILM and IIMP. The qualitative aspect required looking more closely at a smaller number of items to compare the appropriateness of subjects chosen for indexing, the content and style of abstracts (for IIMP and RILM), and the accessibility of vocabulary in both.
A search of the library literature found no studies comparing both indexing and abstracting of the same articles by different databases. Though many articles can be found comparing various utilities' coverage of particular topics or journals, very few actually examine subject access at the individual record level. MaryEllen C. Sievert sie·vert
Abbr. Sv A unit of ionizing radiation absorbed dose equivalent in the International System of Units, obtained as a product of the absorbed dose measure in grays and a dimensionless factor, stipulated by the International and Alison Alison
betrays old husband amusingly with her lodger, Nicholas. [Br. Lit.: Canterbury Tales, “Miller’s Tale”]
See : Adultery F. Verbeck  come closest with a document-level comparison of subject indexing Subject indexing is the act of describing a document by index terms to indicate what the document is about or to summarize its content. The index terms are often selected from some form of controlled vocabulary. of the literature of online searching in Library and Information Science Abstracts and the education database ERIC, but their study did not include comparison of abstracts.
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Quantitative Analysis
A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.
In order to carry out the comparisons envisioned for this study, it was necessary to generate a group of articles for which full treatment could be found in all three databases. This study was meant to be descriptive rather than predictive, and care was taken to make the sample generation process as objective as possible. The sample was limited to articles from 1996 in order to eliminate pre-1996 citation-only records in IIMP and post-1996 brief records added to RILM as part of its current citations project. A list was created of ninety-eight journals which each of the three databases claimed to index comprehensively.  Twenty-nine titles for which 1996 coverage could not be found in at least one of the three databases were dropped from this list, and the remaining sixty-nine journals were then divided into four classes: musicology musicology, systematized study of music and musical style, particularly in the realm of historical research. The scholarly study of music of different historical periods was not practiced until the 18th cent., and few published efforts were rigorously researched. ; performance; theory/composition; and music education. In order to examine specific trends in the treatment of non-English material, non-English journals were isolated into a se parate class. 
Using only titles from each database's comprehensive list resulted in very small groups for performance and music education. Therefore, seventeen journals that are covered comprehensively by MI and IIMP and selectively by RILM were added to these classes.  The final list consisted of eighty-six journals: thirty-nine in the musicology class; eight in theory/composition; ten in performance; seven in music education; and twenty-seven in the non-English class.
Each journal tide was searched for articles dated 1996 in RILM (using OCLC FirstSearch), yielding lists of 391 articles in the musicology class, 110 in theory/composition, 172 in performance, 119 in music education, and 399 in the non-English class. Articles were chosen randomly from these lists until thirty in each class were found for which there was coverage in all three databases. 
For each database record, the number of subjects and the total number of words in the subjects were counted.  Also, as a way of approximating how many distinct concepts were conveyed by the subjects, the number of unique words in the subjects was counted. For records from RILM and IIMP, the number of words in the abstract was counted by cutting and pasting paste 1
1. A soft, smooth, thick mixture or material, as:
a. A smooth viscous mixture, as of flour and water or of starch and water, that is used as an adhesive for joining light materials, such as paper and cloth. each abstract into a word-processing program and using the word count feature. (MI does not include abstracts.)
Patterns of strength and weakness emerged for each of the three databases as illustrated in table 1. Among the three, IIMP tended to have the most subjects per entry in all classes except music education, where MI had the highest average. Looking at the number of unique words in the subject fields, RILM had the highest averages in all classes except music education, which was again led by MI. The music education class showed the widest spread in the average number of subjects, with MI averaging 6.83 per entry and RILM only 2.63. The widest spread in the number of unique words came in the performance class, from RILM's 14.60 words per entry to 8.17 words per entry in MI.
Comparing length of abstracts, RILM devoted significantly greater length to articles in the musicology class than IIMP. On the other hand, while articles in the performance class had the shortest average abstract within IIMP, this average was still over twice that in RILM. The theory/composition and music education classes were more evenly covered, with the averages differing by just over one word between the databases.
Looking at the databases individually, IIMP (table 2) showed the most internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. , both across the journal classes as shown by the narrow ranges among all of the averages (just over six words in the abstract and less than three words per subject) and within the classes as reflected by the relatively small standard deviations compared to the other databases. Journals in the performance class had the highest average in each of the subject categories but the shortest average abstract. The longest average abstract was found in the music education class.
In RILM (table 3), the musicology class had the highest averages in all categories. Music education had the lowest averages in all the subject categories but the second longest average abstract. The shortest average abstract was found in the performance class. The large standard deviations show that many individual entries diverged widely from the averages. Across the whole sample, abstracts ranged from as many as 180 to as few as five words. A number of cases could be found where the number of words in the subjects was greater than the number in the abstract.
The standard deviations in the MI sample (table 4) show that individual records were widely distributed Adj. 1. widely distributed - growing or occurring in many parts of the world; "a cosmopolitan herb"; "cosmopolitan in distribution"
bionomics, environmental science, ecology - the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms across their range, which in the case of total words in the subject field ran from one to 107. Music education seemed to be MI's strong suit, the journals in this class having the highest averages in each category by a relatively wide margin. Performance journals, on the other hand, consistently had the lowest averages, also by a wide margin.
Table 5 shows the averages for the non-English class compared with the combined averages for the four topical classes. Looking at the three subject field categories across the databases, the patterns are similar, with IIMP having the highest average number of subjects and RILM the most total words and unique words, but the margins by which RILM led those categories was much greater in the non-English class. In the topical classes, MI had slightly higher combined averages than IIMP in total words and unique words, but in the non-English class MI had the lowest average in all three categories by a wide margin. Comparing averages for English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is versus non-English articles, RILM had higher averages in all the subject categories but a slightly shorter average abstract for the non-English class. This pattern was exactly reversed in IIMP, and in fact the average abstract for a non-English item in IIMP was over nine words longer than that in RILM
Some general impressions emerge from these numbers which are worth noting before reviewing the comparison of individual records. The first regards treatment of subject access. IIMP's high numbers of subjects but lower numbers of words suggest a highly browsable scheme with each significant concept providing a direct point of access. The patterns in MI suggest a similar approach, although generally with fewer access points than IIMP. The numbers in RILM are just the opposite, the average record having only a handful of subjects but containing many words suggesting the use of lengthy headings encompassing several concepts, less suited to browsing See browse. but highly descriptive.
Second, certain topical classes emerge as areas of relative strength for each of the three databases. As already noted, MI was particularly strong in music education. The journals in this class not only led all categories within MI, but MI also had higher averages in this class than the other two databases for number of subjects and number of unique words. As might be expected from a service begun by musicologists A musicologist is someone who studies musicology. An ethnomusicologist is someone who studies ethnomusicology; a zoomusicologist is someone who studies zoomusicology. , RILM was strongest in musicology, leading the other databases in all data categories for this class, and this class leading all topical classes within RILM. The clearest advantage for IIMP appeared in the performance class, where it outperformed the low averages in the subject categories in MI and the short abstracts in RILM.
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Qualitative Analysis
Securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on nonquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations.
The second phase of the investigation was to examine closely a smaller group of records and compare the content of the abstracts and subject headings in each database. This is by nature a more subjective operation than simply counting words and headings, but maximum possible objectivity was maintained by again using a random number generator A program routine that produces a random number. Random numbers are created easily in a computer, since there are many random events that take place such as the duration between keystrokes. to select the examples, five articles from each of the five journal classes. For purposes of space and readability, only three of those examples from each class are discussed here. It is recognized that this is far too small a sample from which to reach any predictive conclusions, but such an examination does allow one to begin to develop possible explanations for the trends seen in the statistical phase of the study.
Abstracts from RILM and IIMP were compared by extracting keywords and arranging them into parallel columns, connecting similar or identical terms, and highlighting those unique to one abstract. In the examples below, the abstracts as published will be presented in parallel columns, with connections and divergences pointed out in the commentary. 
Subjects were similarly arrayed into three parallel columns for comparison, and were then reordered to reflect representation of similar concepts. Because subjects in IIMP and MI display in alphabetical order, the relevance-based order of subjects in RILM was used as the basis for the reordering re·or·der
v. re·or·dered, re·or·der·ing, re·or·ders
1. To order (the same goods) again.
2. To straighten out or put in order again.
3. To rearrange.
v. in the examples. Because the focus is on distinct concepts, subdivisions that are repeated in RILM are not repeated in the tables that follow. Subdivisions are indented in·dent 1
v. in·dent·ed, in·dent·ing, in·dents
1. To set (the first line of a paragraph, for example) in from the margin.
a. below main entries.
Before beginning the individual comparisons, it is appropriate to note some general observations about each database's abstracting and subject indexing practices. The RILM and MI Web sites advertise the use of a thesaurus to guide their subject indexing.  IIMP makes no similar claim on its Web page, but editor Sarah Brechner referred to the use of a thesaurus in her response to an e-mail query.  Subjects in IIMP and MI are mostly one or two words and generally employ common language. IIMP subjects are not subdivided. MI uses a few standard subdivisions, such as "study and teaching" and "general works." RILM subjects are single words or brief phrases in scholarly language, and each can have several subdivisions. Subjects are frequently repeated in rotated rotated
turned around; pivoted.
see rotated tibia. form so important concepts contained in subdivisions also become main entries. For personal names used in subjects, both IIMP and RILM establish forms similar to those in common use, though neither agrees completely with the Library of Congress Name Authority File. MI consistently establishes the fullest possible form for each name, even if the form is not commonly used, for example, "Mozart An earlier screen scraper from Mozart Systems Corporation, Burlingame, CA, that was used to turn a character-based mainframe screen into a Windows or DOS front end via 3270 emulation. Originally named Enter 3270, it was noted for being able to easily combine multiple terminal screens into one. , Johann Chrysostom Chrysostom: see John Chrysostom, Saint. Wolfgang Wolfgang may refer to:
A fundamental difference in philosophy between IIMP and RILM is found when examining the abstracts. Abstracts in IIMP are indicative, using active voice sentences that tend to begin with a verb verb, part of speech typically used to indicate an action. English verbs are inflected for person, number, tense and partially for mood; compound verbs formed with auxiliaries (e.g., be, can, have, do, will) provide a distinction of voice. (implying a subject of "the author" or "the article") to describe the topic of the article. These abstracts are written by in-house staff, though abstracts published with an article may be used as the basis for the IIMP abstract with "sentences in the published abstract ... modified by IIMP's editors to conform to Verb 1. conform to - satisfy a condition or restriction; "Does this paper meet the requirements for the degree?"
coordinate - be co-ordinated; "These activities coordinate well" IIMP's stylistic sty·lis·tic
Of or relating to style, especially literary style.
sty·listi·cal·ly adv. and length guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. ." 
Authors of abstracts for RILM, on the other hand, are instructed to attempt to summarize sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum the conclusions of the article in a declarative de·clar·a·tive
1. Serving to declare or state.
2. Of, relating to, or being an element or construction used to make a statement: a declarative sentence.
n. style rather than simply convey the topic.  Abstracts appearing with articles are edited for style and published with attribution at·tri·bu·tion
1. The act of attributing, especially the act of establishing a particular person as the creator of a work of art.
2. . In the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , RILM actively encourages authors to contribute abstracts for their own publications; when author-contributed abstracts are not available, abstracts are written by volunteers who are themselves music scholars or librarians This is a list of people who have practised as a librarian and are well-known, either for their contributions to the library profession or primarily in some other field. .  In France and Germany Germany (jûr`mənē), Ger. Deutschland, officially Federal Republic of Germany, republic (2005 est. pop. 82,431,000), 137,699 sq mi (356,733 sq km). , most abstracts are written by RILM office staff in each country.
Another difference between the two services appears in their treatment of some documentary and generic publications. IIMP provides a full abstract for each record, regardless of the nature of the article. RILM provides only brief descriptions for most documentary publications such as bibliographies and catalogs, and also for generic pieces such as obituaries.  Examples of both will be seen below. IIMP abstracts often include sentences describing special features of the article, such as the presence of music examples or illustrations. RILM includes such information in a separate field.
The first group of records for in-depth comparison was drawn from the musicology class, beginning with "Thomas de Hartmann Hartmann is a surname and may refer to:
Rouge (rzh), river, c.30 mi (50 km) long, rising in S Michigan and winding S and SE to the Detroit River at the city of River Rouge. , not mentioned by RILM. But while the IIMP abstract mentions connections with Kandinsky Kan·din·sky or Kan·din·ski , Wassily 1866-1944.
Russian abstract painter who considered form and color capable of expression. A founder of Blau Reiter, a German group of abstract expressionists, he also taught at the Bauhaus School and Gurdjieff Gur·djieff , George Ivanovich Originally George S. Georgiades. 1874?-1949.
Armenian-born spiritual leader. Following a period of extensive travel in the Middle East and Asia, he founded (1919) the Institute for the Harmonious Development of , it is the RILM abstract that more clearly conveys the influence these affiliations had on Hartmann's career. These connections are further amplified by RILM's subjects, which include the entries "Kandinsky, Wassily-aesthetics--relation to Hartmann," "Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch-aesthetics--influence on Hartmann," and "Sakharoff, Alexandre-works, choreography--collaborations with Hartmann." MI includes subject entries for Gurdjieff and Kandinsky, but includes no subdivis ions to point out the connections. IIMP ignores these other persons in the subject entries, providing only the broad terms "biographies," "composers," and "Russian music" in addition to the entry for Hartmann.
The three different treatments of Hartmann's name are worth noting. As a point of comparison, the Library of Congress Name Authority File has established his name as "Hartmann, Thomas de." RJLM has established a form without the "de," while IIMP not only includes "de" but has made the questionable decision to treat it as the initial element of the surname SURNAME. A name which is added to the christian name, and which, in modern times, have become family names.
2. They are called surnames, because originally they were written over the name in judicial writings and contracts. . As mentioned in the general observations above, MI has used the fullest possible form of the name, including a variant variant /var·i·ant/ (var´e-ant)
1. something that differs in some characteristic from the class to which it belongs.
2. exhibiting such variation.
adj. name in parentheses. It should be noted that there were three records in MI for this article, two with Hartmann as the only subject, and the third having entries only for Gurdjieff and Kandinsky.
Example 2 shows the abstracts and subjects for an experimental article from the Journal of Band Research, as well as the abstract that was published with the article. Both RILM and IIMP condense con·dense
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.
2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.
a. the original abstract to some degree, but RILM retains more information about the design of the experiment. RILM also retains more of the language and syntax syntax: see grammar.
Arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts. of the original abstract, while IIMP adapts these to conform to its chosen indicative style. Even the one sentence taken nearly verbatim ver·ba·tim
Using exactly the same words; corresponding word for word: a verbatim report of the conversation.
adv. by IIMP from the journal's abstract has the phrase "Concludes that..." appended to its beginning.
Through the use of subdivisions, the two subjects each in MI and RILM convey a better idea about the content of the article than the six subject terms in IIMP. The latter's "band music" and "high school students" do correspond closely with subject elements in the other two databases, but the interaction between those concepts is not elucidated. Of the other terms in the IIMP record, two are near-synonyms for the type of group performing the excerpts, and the others ("emotions" and "music appreciation") are broad terms that include concepts studied in the article but that are better described by RILM's narrower terms. Nil's "students-attitudes" and "wind band music-evaluation" give a somewhat better idea of the nature of the investigation, though the age group information ("high school") provided by RILM and IIMP is lacking. But it is clearly the subjects with multiple subdivisions in RILM that best describe what the article is about and how the concepts are interrelated in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
The final item in the musicology class is an example of a documentary publication, specifically a bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books. (ex. 3). RILM simply makes a connection to previous entries in the series, noting the dates of material covered by the new installment. IIMP on the other hand gives a full description of the content of the bibliography, listing all of the categories of material included. Similarly, IIMP's subject treatment includes useful related terms in addition to "chants," with only the term "research" seeming overly broad. MI includes headings not only for topics in the bibliography ("hymns," "neumes," "oral tradition") but also for formats of material cataloged ("facsimile editions," "Festschriften"). RILM focuses more narrowly on "Christian Christian
flees the City of Destruction. [Br. Lit.: Pilgrim’s Progress]
See : Escape
travels to Celestial City with cumbrous burden on back. [Br. Lit. chant chant, general name for one-voiced, unaccompanied, liturgical music. Usually it refers to the liturgical melodies of the Byzantine, Russian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican churches and is analogous to cantillation in Jewish liturgical music, Qur'anic chanting ," and is the only one of the three databases to note the range of publication dates of the material cataloged.
The first item from this class illustrates that interviews are another genre of article for which RILM provides only minimal treatment (ex. 4). In fact, in this case even MI provides as much information as RILM, since the former includes a note field stating the same data as the RILM abstract. IIMP on the other hand, provides a lengthy abstract that lists the concepts Xenakis touches on in the interview, though without indicating what he says about them. The subject treatment is similarly more complete in IIMP, adding four topical terms (plus the broad "composers") to the name entry found in all three databases.
Example 5 is the treatment of "Articulating Microtime," which appeared in Computer Music Journal. The abstracts are almost exactly the same length, and the first half of the IIMP abstract is nearly identical to the last sentence of the RILM abstract. But even though the RILM abstract was contributed by the author of the article, it is the IIMP abstract that conveys more detail by listing specific areas of sound processing affected by the introduction of computers. There is a difference in emphasis in the subject treatment as well. Although both abstracts refer to the field of "sound processing," RILM's subjects are focused on composition, while IIMP includes both "compositional techniques" and "sound processing" as subjects. MI's headings place the emphasis somewhere between the two, but seem to lean toward the centrality of composition as a topic for the article. While neither RILM nor MI includes an entry for any temporal Having to do with time. Contrast with "spatial," which deals with space. concept, IIMP includes an entry for "microtime." This is not at all a common term, an d in fact as of this writing the present example is the only article assigned this subject term in IIMP. Application of a broader temporal concept would have made the article more retrievable.
The final example from the theory/composition class provides a telling comparison between the descriptive abstract style of IIMP and the summary style of RILM (ex. 6). IIMP's first two sentences, though quite lengthy, really only tell us that Webern's row for this concerto concerto (kənchâr`tō), musical composition usually for an orchestra and a soloist or a group of soloists. In the 16th cent. concertare and concertato implied an ensemble, either vocal or instrumental. is regarded as highly ingenious in·gen·ious
1. Marked by inventive skill and imagination.
2. Having or arising from an inventive or cunning mind; clever: an ingenious scheme. See Synonyms at clever.
3. , and that it is somehow related to a Latin Lat·in
a. The Indo-European language of the ancient Latins and Romans and the most important cultural language of western Europe until the end of the 17th century.
b. palindrome palindrome: see anagram. . The abstractor for RILM tells us more in fewer words by stating directly what Webern was attempting to accomplish. Similarly, considering the issue of the sketches, the IIMP abstract says only that "The author intends to ... put [them] in chronological chron·o·log·i·cal also chron·o·log·ic
1. Arranged in order of time of occurrence.
2. Relating to or in accordance with chronology. order." The RILM abstract states that the author actually has put the sketches in chronological order and what that information means to the researcher. So although the IIMP abstract is longer by nineteen words, it is the RILM abstract that more directly conveys the author's viewpoint. 
Similarly, comparable numbers of subject terms among the three databases do not translate into comparable quality of subject access. Webern's name is the only subject term shared by all three, and of these only RILM adds a subdivision for the particular work under consideration. MI and RILM both include subjects dealing with serialism serialism
Use of an ordered set of pitches as the basis of a musical composition. The terms 12-tone music and serialism, though not entirely synonymous, are often used interchangeably. (though MI's term is "twelve-tone twelve-tone
Relating to, consisting of, or based on an arrangement of the 12 chromatic tones.
Adjective scale"), symmetry symmetry, generally speaking, a balance or correspondence between various parts of an object; the term symmetry is used both in the arts and in the sciences. (though only as a subdivision in RILM) and the sketches (RILM: "source studies"; MI: "autographs").
IIMP, which had readily used the term "microtime" in example 5 above, amazingly Adv. 1. amazingly - in an amazing manner; to everyone's surprise; "amazingly, he finished medical school in three years"
amazingly adv → extraordinariamente does not use any subject term for the much more common concept of "serialism," providing only the broader terms "compositional techniques" and "harmony." The remaining IIMP, subject terms, "composers, "analysis" (also used by MI) and "musicology," are so broad as to offer little insight into the nature of the article.
MUSIC EDUCATION CLASS
The first example in this class comes from an issue of the Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education devoted to papers from a conference on qualitative methodology in music education research (ex. 7).
Each of the three databases deals with the conference aspect differently. IIMP actually includes it in the article record twice, including a separate "publication note" field as well as giving the full conference title in the body of the abstract. MI provides access to the conference by including it at the beginning of the article tide field. RILM creates a separate record for the full conference proceedings, with references to the records for the individual papers; however, there is no reciprocal Bilateral; two-sided; mutual; interchanged.
Reciprocal obligations are duties owed by one individual to another and vice versa. A reciprocal contract is one in which the parties enter into mutual agreements. reference from the individual paper to the collective record and no mention of the conference anywhere in the record.
There is remarkably little overlap o·ver·lap
1. A part or portion of a structure that extends or projects over another.
2. The suturing of one layer of tissue above or under another layer to provide additional strength, often used in dental surgery.
v. in terminology between the IIMP abstract and the author-contributed abstract in RILM. "Children" and "sound therapy" are the only significant words that appear in both abstracts, along with the concept of "learning disabilities," expressed in more clinical language in RILM. Neither abstract really explains what "layered analysis" or "sound therapy" is, but the RILM abstract does state what it attempts to do, making it more useful to the curious researcher.
The subject terms chosen for the concepts of music education and music therapy provide good examples of each database's approach to subject vocabulary. IIMP uses the most common forms, likely to be the way most undergraduates would express these concepts. MI's editors have decided that being a database of music literature, the word "music" can be safely dropped ("education-research") or rotated out of first position ("therapy, music") for many common concepts. RILM also drops "music" where it is not required, and its tendency toward scholarly vocabulary is seen in the use of "pedagogy" rather than "education." In the choice of concepts to index, most remarkable is MI's failure to include any heading pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to special education or learning disabilities, both of which are addressed by the two abstract services in similar terms. Apart from this omission omission n. 1) failure to perform an act agreed to, where there is a duty to an individual or the public to act (including omitting to take care) or is required by law. Such an omission may give rise to a lawsuit in the same way as a negligent or improper act. , MI's nine subjects describe more discrete concepts than IIMP's ten because IIMP includes two pairs of broader and narrower terms for similar concepts ("dis abilities" and "learning disabilities"; "research" and "research methods") and the generic heading "conference proceedings." Another IIMP subject term used here is "analysis." In earlier examples, we have seen this term applied to articles analyzing musical works; its use here illustrates one of the drawbacks of not using a subdivided structure to clarify the relationship between terms, and also raises the question of what "analysis" means in IIMP's subject field.
This troublesome heading appears in IIMP's subject for the next example as well (ex. 8), where it apparently refers to the experimental subjects' ability to "analyze ... rubato ru·ba·to Music
n. pl. ru·ba·tos
Rhythmic flexibility within a phrase or measure; a relaxation of strict time.
Containing or characterized by rubato. performances." The author, in the RILM abstract, uses the term "assessment," and it is the element being assessed, rubato, that is the most central concept to include in the subjects. All three databases have subject elements for this term (in RILM as a subdivision) along with the more general concept of interpretation (rendered in MI as "expression"). MI and RILM both include the psychological concept "perception," excluded by IIMP. IIMP and MT both account to some extent for the participants in the experiment ("music students" and "college students" respectively), while only RILM makes a heading for the musical work used in the experiment.
Comparison of the abstracts continues the trend we have seen in most of the previous examples, with the author-contributed RILM abstract providing more detail about the experiment and summarizing the findings. The only significant information unique to the IIMP abstract is the age group of the participants ("undergraduate or graduate students").
Example 9 comes from a journal that RILM covers selectively rather than comprehensively: only articles deemed scholarly receive full treatment from RILM. This article is practical in nature, and so receives a very brief abstract in RILM compared to that in IIMP. The RILM abstract does say a bit more about possible application of the ideas in the article, but does not provide the connection to the books found in the IIMP abstract.
Both MI and RILM assign subjects to account not just for the emotions of teachers, but also for the influence of students on those emotions. IIMP on the other hand assigns Individuals to whom property is, will, or may be transferred by conveyance, will, Descent and Distribution, or statute; assignees.
The term assigns is often found in deeds; for example, "heirs, administrators, and assigns to denote the assignable nature of only subject terms related to teachers. In some previous examples we have noted a tendency in IIMP toward overly broad headings. Here the opposite occurs; the term "emotional IQ" is taken from the article and applied as a subject to the exclusion of any other terms relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc psychology or emotion. As of this writing, this remains the only IIMP record to carry this subject term. 
All of the examples in this class come from journals covered selectively by RILM. Example 10 is an interview with guitarist Timo Korhonen Korhonen is a Finnish surname and may refer to the following people:
Examination of the intervertebral disk space using x-rays after injection of contrast media into the disk. which both MI and RILM note in the special features field. MI's subject treatment is disappointingly minimal, lacking entries for the interviewee's medium of performance and the principal composer discussed. RILM provides both of these while IIMP goes further by including terms relating to the performer's nationality nationality, in political theory, the quality of belonging to a nation, in the sense of a group united by various strong ties. Among the usual ties are membership in the same general community, common customs, culture, tradition, history, and language. and his educational and musical influences, though again the relationship is less than clear because these are presented as discrete terms rather than being connected via subdivision.
Example 11 is a tribute to violinist Josef Gingold Josef Gingold (1909-1995) was born in Brest-Litovsk, Russian Empire and emigrated to the United States in 1920 where he studied violin with Vladimir Graffman in New York City and then moved to Belgium for several years to study with master violinist Eugène Ysaÿe. . RILM treats this as an obituary and provides no abstract. An eight-page article would seem to qualify as more than a mere obituary, and thus warrants the full abstract in IIMP. IIMP's subject terms also seem appropriate, although the absence of "violinists This is a list of notable violinists. Baroque era
Michael Michael, archangel
Michael (mī`kəl) [Heb.,=who is like God?], archangel prominent in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions. In the Bible and early Jewish literature, Michael is one of the angels of God's presence. Kennedy's Opera article on Britten Brit·ten , (Edward) Benjamin 1913-1976.
British composer known for his song cycles, such as Les Illuminations (1939), and operas, including Peter Grimes (1945) and Death in Venice (1973).
Noun 1. receives abstracts of comparable length but slightly different emphasis (ex. 12). IIMP notes that the article discusses the popularity of Britten's works since his death, whereas RILM states that the public response "has intensified in·ten·si·fy
v. in·ten·si·fied, in·ten·si·fy·ing, in·ten·si·fies
1. To make intense or more intense: " in that time. The IIMP abstract focuses on the reviews of a number of opera performances, while RILM highlights two particular works that have been "revalued and rehabilitated" since 1976, and only RILM mentions Britten's influence on later composers. With the exception of the concept of Britten's influence, subject terms in both RILM and IIMP are mostly parallel. The major difference in vocabulary is IIMP's use of "popularity" while RILM uses the more scholarly (and less weighted) "reception." Once again MI'S only subject entry is the composer's name, subdivided for "works - operas."
All of the examples in the non-English journal class happen to be in German, reflecting the preponderance pre·pon·der·ance also pre·pon·der·an·cy
Superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence.
Noun 1. preponderance of German articles in the larger sample. The first is a two-page item on ways computers can be used in music (ex. 13). The primary uses noted in the brief RILM summary, "storing and synthesizing music" and "writing scores," are not much expanded upon by IIMP's eighty-word abstract, though it is helpful to note that particular software packages are described. MI and RILM each assign a single subject relating to computers without attempting to account for the uses made of them. IIMP uses three computer subject terms, including one for the particular protocol "MIDI MIDI
in full Musical Instrument Digital Interface
Protocol for transmission of musical data between digital components, such as synthesizers and a computer's sound card. MIDI uses 8-bit asynchronous serial transmission with a data rate of 31. ," along with a number of broad terms relating to uses of the machine.
The abstracts for example 14 differ in style but mention most of the same concepts: iconography iconography (ī'kŏnŏg`rəfē) [Gr.,=image-drawing] or iconology [Gr.,=image-study], in art history, the study and interpretation of figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secular; , painting, still life, musical instruments, and Baschenis (with dates). RILM is more geographically specific regarding Baschenis's circle ("Bergamo Bergamo (bĕr`gämō), city (1991 pop. 114,936), capital of Bergamo prov., in Lombardy, N Italy, in the foothills of the Alps. It is an industrial center and an agricultural market. Manufactures include machinery, textiles, and cement. school" rather than "school of Italian Renaissance painter.. .") and provides the museum name and catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C. number for the work being studied. On the other hand, the IIMP abstract includes the idea of "symbolic elements" not found in the RILM abstract, though it appears in the subjects in RILM. The difference in length of the two abstracts is mostly accounted for by the final two sentences in IIMP indicating the presence of the illustrations, bibliography, and notes. While most of this information is captured by RILM in the special features field, it is beneficial to have the presence of a reproduction of the painting explicitly stated.
IIMP's subject terms are inadequate, providing no access to the artist or his school and even lacking a term for the proper field of study, iconography. "Symbolism Symbolism
In art, a loosely organized movement that flourished in the 1880s and '90s and was closely related to the Symbolist movement in literature. In reaction against both Realism and Impressionism, Symbolist painters stressed art's subjective, symbolic, and decorative " is a useful term here, but "musicology" is simply too broad to be significant. MI provides two useful entries, but none for symbolism or musical instruments. RILM's subjects describe the content well, although rotation of a couple of the important concepts (symbolism, musical instruments) to initial positions would have facilitated browsing.
The final example is remarkable because although the abstracts are almost exactly the same length and share many keywords, the differences in how those words are framed considerably alter the apparent emphasis of the article (ex. 15). At the very outset, RILM says that instrumental works of mourning MOURNING. This word has several significations. 1. It is the apparel worn at funerals, and for a time afterwards, in order to manifest grief for the death of some one, and to honor his memory. 2. The expenses paid for such apparel.
2. are "numerous, while IIMP describes the same repertory REPERTORY. This word is nearly synonymous with inventory, and is so called because its contents are arranged in such order as to be easily found. Clef des Lois Rom. h.t.; Merl. Repertoire, h.t.
2. as "relatively limited." Later the two abstracts seem to reverse the relative importance of "tribute works" and those that depict de·pict
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.
2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent. stages of the grief process. RILM seems to dismiss the former with a brief clause ("Besides . . . tribute compositions") while focusing on the latter, whereas IIMP gives more emphasis to the former ("Discusses tribute compositions"), making the latter seem more of an afterthought af·ter·thought
An idea, response, or explanation that occurs to one after an event or decision.
1. ("... but also ...").
IIMP's subject terms include "Requiems," a genre mentioned in the abstract only in the context of distinguishing what the article is not about. To IIMP's credit, it is the only one of the three databases to add a subject term for "instrumental music," which is a distinguishing part of the article's topic.
In their application of subjects to the fifteen items sampled, the three databases under consideration may be seen to lie along a continuum Continuum (pl. -tinua or -tinuums) can refer to:
That subjects in RJLM began as a separate index to a printed collection of abstracts may be seen in its very focused terms and extensive employment of relational and hierarchical A structure made up of different levels like a company organization chart. The higher levels have control or precedence over the lower levels. Hierarchical structures are a one-to-many relationship; each item having one or more items below it. subdivisions. More than just retrieval points, RJLM subjects help convey the "aboutness" of the item. This is amplified online by the relevance-based order of display in the individual record. Drawbacks to RILM's approach to subject access are that the highly subdivided structure does not lend itself easily to online browsing (this is true using either the OCLC or the NISC interface), and the preference for scholarly over common language can be an obstacle for inexperienced in·ex·pe·ri·ence
1. Lack of experience.
2. Lack of the knowledge gained from experience.
Subjects in MI were created as a tool for collocating similar entries in a printed index. As such, the tendency is to use rather broader terms than RILM, and to apply more subjects to each item. Though MI subjects were initially modeled on Library of Congress Subject Headings The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus (in the information technology sense) of subject headings, maintained by the United States Library of Congress, for use in bibliographic records. , its Subject Heading List has evolved independently, and MI uses subdivisions much more sparingly spar·ing
1. Given to or marked by prudence and restraint in the use of material resources.
2. Deficient or limited in quantity, fullness, or extent.
3. Forbearing; lenient. . In the examples, MI subjects were generally well-focused on the main topics of the articles. This makes the alphabetical arrangement in the online display less of a drawback DRAWBACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. than it might be. Though the shorter headings and minimal use of subdivisions make relationships between concepts less clear than in RILM, the greater number of entry points makes MI much more browsable. There are some constructions used in MI subjects that could pose problems for the novice user ("wind band," "tape, video"), but an online "cross-reference browser browser
Software that allows a computer user to find and view information on the Internet. The first text-based browser for the World Wide Web became available in 1991; Web use expanded rapidly after the release in 1993 of a browser called Mosaic, which used " provides the necessary connections from more familiar terminology.
IIMP is a product of the computer age, and its application of subject terms seems to reflect the awareness that most users will begin by performing keyword searches. IIMP subject terms are single words or short phrases generally couched in common language, and no subdivisions are employed. Placing all concepts on the same level makes for very high browsability, and the use of accessible language eases retrieval for novice users. Looking at the subject terms applied to individual records and then thinking backwards about how they might be retrieved, however, exposes some drawbacks to the keyword-driven approach to subject access. In the sample, this was seen in the application of terms for concepts receiving only passing mention in the article, of terms whose meaning seems to shift ("analysis"), and of some terms so broad as to be of little assistance ("musicology," "composers"). Many records contain both broad and narrow terms relating to the same concept ("disabilities" and "learning disabilities"). Convers ely, examples were found where unique terms ("microtime," "emotional IQ") were applied to the exclusion of related broader terms that would have eased retrieval. (According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. editor Sarah Brechner, II VIP endeavored during the summer of 2000 to address thesaurus issues such as "tightening up terms, establishing relationships, deleting redundant or inappropriate terms," though of course without updating older records, the infelicities above will remain in the database. ) The decision not to employ any subdivisions renders relationships between concepts unclear, and the display of subject terms in alphabetical order makes it difficult to differentiate between topics that are the focus of the article and those more tangentially tan·gen·tial also tan·gen·tal
1. Of, relating to, or moving along or in the direction of a tangent.
2. Merely touching or slightly connected.
Abstracts in an online database serve two purposes: to provide a pool of keywords for access and retrieval; and to convey an idea of what the article says so that its potential usefulness to the reader can be estimated.  Based on the fifteen examples above, both RILM and IIMP abstracts fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. the first function well; however, RILM's summary style abstracts were in general more informative about what the articles actually say than were the descriptive abstracts in IIMP. The latter's practice of giving full treatment to all items made its abstracts preferable for some articles in the performance class and for interviews, obituaries, and documentary items for which RILM admittedly provides minimal treatment.
Of course, the findings of this study cannot be considered predictive because of the small sample sizes, and firm recommendations of one database over another cannot be made without considering other issues such as journals covered, currency, and search interface. Nevertheless, a number of observations can be made that will be useful to both scholars and librarians as they use these tools or teach patrons about them.
IIMP browsability and common language make it quite approachable for undergraduates, but users will have to read the abstracts carefully to determine if articles retrieved actually focus on the topics they are seeking. The depth of indexing in IIMP did not vary greatly among the various fields of music, but comparison with the other two databases suggests that IIMP might be the better place to start for users seeking performance-related information.
Although lack of abstracts is a handicap handicap
In sports and games, a method of offsetting the varying abilities or characteristics of competitors in order to equalize their chances of winning. Handicapping takes many, often complicated, forms. for MI, the precision of its subject indexing helps ensure that articles retrieved are focused on the topic sought. As noted above, though some of the subject vocabulary is arcane ar·cane
Known or understood by only a few: arcane economic theories. See Synonyms at mysterious.
[Latin arc , the "cross-reference browser" feature leads inexperienced users to the proper terms. It is hoped that eventually the duplicate DUPLICATE. The double of anything.
2. It is usually applied to agreements, letters, receipts, and the like, when two originals are made of either of them. Each copy has the same effect. records can be merged, eliminating a major source of misleading search results. MI will serve most undergraduates well, especially those doing research in music education.
The use of very precise, scholarly indexing language suggests that RILM will best be used by scholars and advanced students, especially in musicology. The lack of cross-references means that librarians will want to encourage less experienced users to consider their terminology carefully. Such users might be well served by beginning with a keyword search of the abstracts, and then noting useful subject terms in relevant records for further searches. Users should also keep in mind that RILM extends its coverage beyond journals to include the whole range of scholarly publishing, and that its summary abstracts generally convey more about the conclusions of a work than the descriptive abstracts in IIMP.
It is hoped that these observations, coupled with the findings of the other studies referred to above, will help librarians and researchers in their approaches to using and teaching about these three databases. Database producers will want to be guided by these studies as they continue to develop their products.
Martin D. Jenkins is music and humanities librarian (1) A person who works in the data library and keeps track of the tapes and disks that are stored and logged out for use. Also known as a "file librarian" or "media librarian." See data library.
(2) See CA-Librarian. at Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio Dayton is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States. It is the county seat and largest city of Montgomery County. As of the 2005 census estimate, the population of Dayton was 158,873. . The author wishes to thank Alan Green Alan Green may refer to:
(1.) Music Index (http://www.harmonieparkpress.com/musicindex.html), accessed 14 January January: see month. 2001; RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (http://www.rilm.org See .org.
(networking) org - The top-level domain for organisations or individuals that don't fit any other top-level domain (national, com, edu, or gov). Though many have .org domains, it was never intended to be limited to non-profit organisations.
RFC 1591. ), accessed 14 January 2001; International Index to Music Periodicals (http://iimpft.chadwyck.com), accessed 14 January 2001.
(2.) Concurrent with this project, other investigators compared these three databases for comprehensiveness of journal coverage (Leslie Leslie (Gaelic, derived from a surname meaning 'garden of hollies,'grey fortress, or'garden by the pool') can refer to any of the following: Places
n. pl. Jer·ries Chiefly British Slang
A German, especially a German soldier.
[Alteration of German. McBride). Troutman and Green presented their findings at the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, anti Documentation Centers conference in Edinburgh Edinburgh (ĕd`ĭnbərə), city (1991 pop. 433,200) and council area, royal burgh, capital of Scotland, on the Firth of Forth. Leith, part of the city since 1920, is Edinburgh's port. , Scotland, August 2000, and all three will be reporting their results in other publications.
(3.) MaryEllen C. Sievert and Alison F. Verbeck, "The Indexing of the Literature of Online Searching: A Comparison of ERIC and LISA The first personal computer to include integrated software and use a graphical interface. Modeled after the Xerox Star and introduced in 1983 by Apple, it was ahead of its time, but never caught on due to its $10,000 price and slow speed. ," Online Review 11, no. 2 (1987): 95-104.
(4.) This list was developed by Alan Green as part of the preparation for Isis paper mentioned in n. 2.
(5.) Bilingual bi·lin·gual
a. Using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency.
b. journals were placed in both the non-English class and the appropriate subject class, with individual articles being placed according to language at the time populations were generated.
(6.) For a description of selective v. core coverage in RILM, and a list of journals in these categories, see RILM, "RILM's Primary Journal Titles" (http://www.rilm.org/prime-jt.html), accessed 14 January 2001. Lists of journals indexed by MI and IIMP may be found at Harmonic harmonic.
1 Physical term describing the vibration in segments of a sound-producing body (see sound). A string vibrates simultaneously in its whole length and in segments of halves, thirds, fourths, etc. Park Press, "The Music Index Periodical List (1979-99)" (http://www.harmonieparkpress.com/periodical.html), accessed 14 January 2001, and IIMP, "Title Lists" (http://iimpft.chadwyck.com), accessed 14 January 2001.
(7.) Because the goal was to identify articles covered by all three databases, the eighty-six journal title searches were not repeated in MI and IIMP. Any articles found there but not in RILM would have been discarded dis·card
v. dis·card·ed, dis·card·ing, dis·cards
1. To throw away; reject.
a. To throw out (a playing card) from one's hand.
b. anyway. Similarly, articles randomly chosen from the RILM list for which coverage was not found in one of the other databases were also withdrawn from the sample.
(8.) In MI there are multiple records for some articles. For the present study, subjects from all relevant records were counted. McBride found that "the presence of duplicate citations [in MI] appears to have been the result of the conversion from print to the electronic index. In the print index, the same citation Citation
(foaled 1945) U.S. Thoroughbred racehorse. In four seasons he won 32 of 45 races, finished second in ten, and third in two. He won the 1948 Triple Crown, and became the first horse to win $1 million. He set a world record in 1950 by running a mile in 1:33 3/5. appears tinder every applicable subject heading. Most of the subject headings for each citation were merged on to a single record in the online index, but some still survive in the database as separate records with a single subject heading." Jerry L. McBride, "comparison of searching in Three Online Indexes of Literature on Music" (unpublished draft, November 2000),8.
(9.) All IIMP abstracts [C]Bell & Howell Information and Learning; all RILM abstracts [C]RILM International. All abstracts reprinted with permission.
(10.) MI, "Welcome to the Music Index: A Subject Author Guide to Music Periodical Literature!" (http://www.hppmusicindex.com/). accessed 15 January 2001, states "Topics ... are carefully categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat and organized according to the framework of an internal Subject Heading List." RILM, "About RILM" (http://www.rilm.org/about.html), accessed l5 January 2001, states "A thesaurus is available as a guide to headwords and indexing policies."
(11.) E-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner, associate editor, Humanities Department, Bell & Howell Information and Learning, dated 28 June 2000.
(12.) IIMP policy quoted in e-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner dated 13 October 2000. Another e-mail message from Brechner dated the same day states that policy in place in 1996 allowed editors to use published abstracts as written with attribution, but all abstracts found in this investigation conformed to the current policy.
(13.) This aim is stated explicitly in sections 4 and 5 of RILM, "How to Write a RILM Abstract" (http://www.rilm.org/abstinfo.html), accessed 14 January 2001.
(14.) The author is a volunteer contributor of abstracts to RILM.
(15.) See "How to write a RILM Abstract," section 3.
(16.) Based on a search for "microtime" in IIMP on 2 November 2000.
(17.) The IIMP abstract includes a statement about the presence of examples and tables, which was included in the word count.
(18.) Based on a search for "emotional IQ" in IIMP on 2 November 2000.
(19.) E-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner dated 28 June 2000.
(20.) F. W. Lancaster, Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice (Urbana: University of Illinois University of Illinois may refer to:
Table 1. Averages for Each Database in Each Journal Group Subjects Total Words Journal Class RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP MI Musicology 4.10 6.80 5.67 28.30 11.53 13.07 Theory 3.63 6.07 4.27 23.27 11.07 10.93 Music Education 2.63 6.40 6.83 18.33 12.03 16.50 Performance 3.37 7.10 3.17 22.67 12.87 9.10 Unique Words Words in Abstract Journal Class RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP Musicology 16.57 10.30 11.77 70.80 57.30 Theory 13.00 10.20 9.87 55.63 54.57 Music Education 11.83 10.00 14.43 61.60 60.37 Performance 14.60 11.47 8.17 26.07 52.63 Table 2. IIMP Averages and Standard Deviations Journal Class Subjects Total Words Unique Words Abstract Musicology avg. 6.80 11.53 10.30 57.30 s.d. 2.94 5.98 4.86 13.53 Theory avg. 6.07 11.07 10.20 54.57 s.d. 1.81 3.54 3.45 23.27 Music Education avg. 6.40 12.03 10.00 60.37 s.d. 2.35 5.60 3.97 13.12 Performance avg. 7.10 12.87 11.47 52.63 s.d. 2.45 6.09 4.77 16.32 Non-English avg. 5.97 9.80 9.07 60.63 s.d. 2.96 5.17 4.52 21.65 Table 3. RILM Averages and Standard Deviations Journal Class Subjects Total Words Unique Words Abstract Musicology avg. 4.10 28.30 16.57 70.80 s.d. 1.85 20.33 10.29 41.89 Theory avg. 3.63 23.27 13.00 55.63 s.d. 2.80 22.75 9.07 45.64 Music Education avg. 2.63 18.33 11.83 61.60 s.d. 1.49 18.44 7.43 42.92 Performance avg. 3.37 22.67 14.60 26.07 s.d. 1.78 13.89 7.80 20.97 Non-English avg. 3.70 29.10 16.33 51.33 s.d. 2.04 19.35 8.68 33.88 Table 4. Music Index Averages and Standard Deviations Journal Class Subjects Total Words Unique Words Musicology avg. 5.67 13.07 11.77 s.d. 3.57 8.82 7.57 Theory avg. 4.27 10.93 9.87 s.d. 3.03 8.88 7.83 Music Education avg. 6.83 16.50 14.43 s.d. 3.52 7.54 6.25 Performance avg. 3.17 9.10 8.17 s.d. 3.02 8.55 7.52 Non-English avg. 2.37 6.40 5.73 s.d. 2.06 6.36 5.32 Table 5. Averages for English and Non-English Articles Subjects Total Words RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP MI Non-English 3.70 5.97 2.37 29.10 9.80 6.40 English 3.43 6.59 4.98 23.14 11.88 12.40 Unique Words Abstracts RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP Non-English 16.33 9.07 5.73 51.33 60.63 English 14.00 10.49 11.06 53.53 56.22 Ex. 1. Abstracts and subjects for John Mangan, "Thomas de Hartmann: A Life," Notes 53, no. 1 (September 1996): 18-29 IIMP abstract Researches the life and music of Russian composer Thomas Alexandrovich de Hartmann (1885-1956). Details his musical training, his early successes including the ballet "La Fleurette rouge," his friendship with painter Wassily Kandinsky, his affiliation with mystic spiritualist Georgi Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, and his career struggles as he moved throughout Europe, eventually settling in New York City in 1950. IIMP subjects RILM subjects de Hartmann, Thomas Hartmann, Thomas biographies life Kandinsky, Wassily aesthetics relation to Hartmann creative process Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch influence on Hartmann Sakharoff, Alexandre works, choreography collaborations with H. choreographers dance music composers Russian music IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor Janet Brewer) Researches the life and music of In his search for new Russian composer Thomas Alexandrovich compositional techniques, Thomas de Hartmann (1885-1956). Details his Hartmann (1885-1956) was inspired musical training, his early successes by several prominent artists and including the ballet "La Fleurette thinkers of the early 20th c. rouge," his friendship with painter Hartmann believed firmly in the Wassily Kandinsky, his affiliation interrelations among the arts; with mystic spiritualist Georgi his search for new compositional Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, and his career techniques was analogous to struggles as he moved throughout Kandinsky's quest for the Europe, eventually settling in New abstract in the visual arts. York City in 1950. Hartmann's work with the choreographer Alexandre Sakharoff sparked much discussion around Munich in 1910. The Georgian mystic Georges Gurdjieff profoundly affected Hartmann's spiritual life. IIMP subjects MI subjects de Hartmann, Thomas Hartmann, Thomas biographies Alexandrovich de Kandinsky, Vasily Gurdjieff, George Ivanovitch composers Russian music Ex. 2. Abstracts and subjects for David J. Boyle, Nicholas J. DeCarbo, and Douglas M. Jordan, "A Comparison of High School Band and Nonband Students' Reactions to Selected Wind Band Excerpts," Journal of Band Research 31, no. 2 (1996): 35-51 IIMP abstract Compares affective responses of high school band and nonband students to eight wind band excerpts that varied in familiarity and stimulative or sedative characteristics. Concludes that band students rated excerpts as more familiar more likable, more interesting, and better in quality than did nonband students. Energy and familiarity of excerpts produced differences in responding. IIMP subjects RILM subjects band music bands band music (performing ensembles) wind ensembles high school students reception high school students preferences perception influenced by familiarity emotions music appreciation IIMP abstract RILM abstract (based on journal's abstract) Compares affective responses of High school students enrolled in high school bandand nonband students to band (n=115) and nonband (n=64) eight wind band excerpts that varied in classes listened to eight excerpts; familiarity and stimulative or four were believed to be familiar sedative characteristics. Concludes that to most band students, and the band students rated excerpts as more other four unfamiliar. In addition, familiar more likable, more interesting, each excerpt was categorized as and better in quality than did nonband reflecting either high energy students. Energy and familiarity (stimulative) or low energy of excerpts produced differences in (sedative) characteristics. responding. Generally, band students rated the excerpts as more familiar, more likeable, more interesting, and better in quality than did nonband students. Groups differed in responses to high-energy and low energy excerpts and to familiar and unfamiliar excerpts. IIMP subjects MI subjects band music bands wind band (performing ensembles) wind music ensembles high school students evaluation students attitudes emotions music appreciation
Abstract published in thejournal
The purpose of this study was to compare band and nonband students' reactions to eight wind band excerpts. The study asked students to rate (a) their familiarity with the excerpts, (b) their liking of the excerpts, (c) how interesting they found the excerpts, and (d) their views on how "good" the excerpts were. Also, students were asked to indicate the aspects of the music on which they focused most while listening to each excerpt ex·cerpt
A passage or segment taken from a longer work, such as a literary or musical composition, a document, or a film.
tr.v. ex·cerpt·ed, ex·cerpt·ing, ex·cerpts
Subjects for the study were 179 high school students enrolled in hand (n = 115) and nonband (n = 64) classes. Four excerpts were selected because they were believed to be familiar to most band students. The other four excerpts were selected because they were believed to be unfamiliar to most students. In addition, each "unfamiliar" and "familiar" piece was categorized as reflecting either high energy (stimulative) or low energy (sedative sedative, any of a variety of drugs that relieve anxiety. Most sedatives act as mild depressants of the nervous system, lessening general nervous activity or reducing the irritability or activity of a specific organ. ) characteristics.
Generally, band students rated the excerpts as more familiar, more likable, more interesting, and "better in quality" than did nonband students. Groups differed in responses to high energy and low energy excerpts and to familiar and unfamiliar excerpts.
Ex. 3. Abstracts and subjects for Peter Jeffery, "Liturgical Chant Bibliography V," Plainsong and Medieval Music 5, no. 2 (1996): 201-10 IIMP abstract Discusses and lists recent published writings in the categories of medieval hymnodists, tradition and transmission, neumatic notation, manuscript facsimiles, regional chant traditions, medieval music theory, collective publications and Festschriften, and chant today and tomorrow. IIMP subjects RILM subjects bibliographies by topic 1992-1996 chants chant Christian (Western) liturgical music medieval music music theory musical notation research IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited) Discusses and lists recent A continuation of RILM 94-1165 and published writings in the 93-705, including selected items published categories of medieval between 1992 and 1996. hymnodists, tradition and transmission, neumatic notation, manuscript facsimiles, regional chant traditions, medieval music theory, collective publications and Festschriften, and chant today and tomorrow. IIMP subjects MI subjects bibliographies chants chant liturgical music medieval music music theory theory musical notation research facsimile editions festschriften hymns neumes oral tradition Ex. 4. Abstracts and subjects for Brigitte Robindore, "Eskhate Ereuna: Extending the Limits of Musical Thought--Comments on and by Iannis Xenakis," Computer Music Journal 20, no.4 (1996): 11-16 IIMP abstract Presents condensed remarks by Iannis Xenakis on his recent reflections and perspectives on his theoretical and musical evolution. Includes discussion of granular synthesis, deterministic versus stochastic chaos, the development of the computer program Gendy which is designed to produce musical works wherein the calculus of probabilities permeates all levels of compositional activity, using the Gendy algorithm to explore stochastic timbre in composition. IIMP subjects RILM subjects Xenakis, lannis Xenakis, Iannis Interviews composers compositional techniques computer music mathematics stochastic compositions IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited) Presents condensed remarks Includes comments from previously by Iannis Xenakis on his unpublished interviews and recent reflections and perspectives discussions that took place between on his theoretical and musical 1994 and 1996. evolution. Includes discussion of granular synthesis, deterministic versus stochastic chaos, the development of the computer program Gendy which is designed to produce musical works wherein the calculus of probabilities permeates all levels of compositional activity, using the Gendy algorithm to explore stochastic timbre in composition. IIMP subjects MI subjects Xenakis, lannis Xenakis, Iannis composers compositional techniques computer music mathematics stochastic compositions Ex 5. Abstracts and subjects for Horacio Vaggione, "Articulating Microtime," Computer Music Journal 20, no. 2 (1996): 33-38 IIMP abstract Surveys some of the musically significant consequences of the introduction of digital tools in the field of sound processing, focusing on surface versus internal processing, new representations of sound, and multi-scale approaches. Includes 62 references. IIMP subjects RILM subjects compositional techniques computer applications computer music composition computer music microtime sound processing technological influences technological trends IIMP abstract RILM abstract (author) Surveys some of the musically The intersection of music and significant consequences of the computers has created myriad introduction of digital tools in the possibilities for research and field of sound processing, focusing on production. Some of the surface versus internal processing, new musically significant representations of sound, and consequences of the multi-scale approaches. Includes 62 introduction of digital tools references. to the field of sound processing are surveyed. IIMP subjects MI subjects compositional techniques electronic music composition computer music computer produced music microtime sound processing technological influences technological trends Ex. 6. Abstracts and Subjects for Kathryn Bailey, "Symmetry as Nemesis: Webern and the First Movement of the Concerto, Opus 24," Journal of Music Theory 40 (fall 1996): 245-310 IIMP abstract Exhaustive analysis of the first movement of Anton Webern's Concerto for nine instruments, Op. 24 of 1931-1934 states the premise that the twelve-tone row selected by the composer as its basis has long been regarded as one of the most ingenious in this compositional genre and continues the directions taken in his Symphony, Op. 21 of 1921. Notes the influence of a Latin palindrome which also inspired the tone row. The author intends to present the many sketches for this movement and put them in chronological order. Numerous musical examples and tables are given for illustration. IIMP subjects RILM subjects Webern, Anton Webern, Anton works Concertos, op. 24 first movt. symmetry serialism source studies creative process analysis composers compositional techniques harmony musicology IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor Pier Paolo Polzonetti) Exhaustive analysis of the first In the first movement of op. 24, movement Webern of Anton Webern's Concerto for tried to establish a perfect nine symmetry instruments, Op. 24 of 1931-1934 between the structure of the row states and the the premise that the twelve-tone Latin acrostic sator arepo tenet row opera selected by the composer as its rotas. Once the sketches to this basis has work long been regarded as one of the are set in chronological order, most Webern's ingenious in this compositional process of composition can be genre followed. and continues the directions taken The sketches clearly show his in struggles his Symphony, Op. 21 of 1921. to balance structural coherence Notes the and influence of a Latin palindrome expression, identity, and variety. which also They inspired the tone row. The author portray Webern as a human and intends realistic to present the many sketches for artist, as more than a mere this machine. movement and put them in chronological order. Numerous musical examples and tables are given for illustration. IIMP subjects MI subjects Webern, Anton Webern, Anton von works symmetry in music twelve-tone scale autographs analysis analysis palindrome composers compositional techniques harmony musicology Ex. 7. Abstracts and subjects for Phil Ellis, "Layered Analysis: A Video-Based Qualitative Research Tool to Support the Development of a New Approach for Children with Special Needs," Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education 130 (fall 1996): 65-74 IIMP abstract Presents a paper which was delivered at the Qualitative Methodologies in Music Education Research Conference II spon- sored by the Council for Research in Music Education in which the author discusses his development of sound therapy for children with learning disabilities and the resulting qualitative research methodology of layered analysis. Describes how a video camera records sound therapy sessions and details the stages of processing data. Includes 31 references. IIMP subjects RILM subjects music education pedagogy special education general learning disabilities special education disabilities learning disabled music therapy analysis therapy conference proceedings research research methods video recordings IIMP abstract RILM abstract (author) Presents a paper which was Describes a new approach for delivered at the children who Qualitative Methodologies in Music have severe (SLD) or profound and multiple Education Research Conference II learning difficulties (PMLD). spon- Sound sored by the Council for Research therapy uses music technology to in Music create an Education in which the author environment within which an discusses his individual development of sound therapy for can explore and express in sound children whatever with learning disabilities and the he or she chooses. A key feature resulting is the qualitative research methodology internal motivation of the of layered individual, an analysis. Describes how a video aesthetic resonation with sound. camera records sound therapy sessions and details the stages of processing data. Includes 31 references. IIMP subjects MI subjects music education education study and teaching special education children learning disabilities disabilities music therapy analysis therapy, music conference proceedings research research methods video recordings tape, video educational applications electronic music synthesizers intelligence learning process influences methodology technology influence Ex. 8. Abstracts and subjects for Christopher M. Johnson, "Musicians' and Nonmusicians' Assessment of Perceived Rubato in Musical Performance," Journal of Research in Music Education 44 (spring 1996): 84-96 IIMP abstract Features an analysis of a study involving rubato and its assessment by groups of musicians and nonmusicians (all either under-graduate or graduate students) in musical performances. Describes each group's ability to analyze and interpret rubato performances by various artists, as well as including brief comments on how this ability to interpret rubato is developed through substantial education in the musical arts. IIMP subjects RILM subjects interpretation interpretation by performer or topic rubato rubato influence on perceived tension Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus works concertos, horn, K.412, first movt. perception rubato relation to musical tension analysis music appreciation music students performing styles IIMP abstract RILM abstract (author) Features an analysis of a study Investigates musicians' and involving rubato and its assessment by nonmusicians' assessments of groups of musicians and nonmusicians (all perceived rubato in musical either under-graduate or graduate performance. Musicians and students) in musical performances. Describes nonmusicians listened to four each group's ability to analyze and different soloists' performances interpret rubato performances by various of the development section from artists, the as well as including brief first movement of Mozart's comments on concerto how this ability to interpret for horn, K.412. Subjects rubato is evaluated developed through substantial the degree of appropriateness of education in the musical arts. each soloist's use of rubato. Results indicated musicians agreed with expert assessments, while nonmusicians' scores appeared haphazard. Musicians were separated into two groups based on musical skill level; more proficient musicians strongly agreed with expert assessments, while less proficient musicians' scores disagreed substantially with those of experts. Conclusions suggest that a relationship exists between musicianship and the use of rubato. HMP subjects MI subjects interpretation expression rubato rubato perception analysis music appreciation college students music students evaluation performing styles education research musicians musicianship tone Ex. 9. Abstracts and subjects for William David Stufft, "Assessing Your Emotional IQ" Teaching Music 4, no. 1 (1996): 42-43 IIMP abstract Offers a brief guide to assessing one's own emotional IQ with some suggestions to modify behaviors which reflect low emotional IQ and therefore to raise one's emotional intelligence. Refers to "Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel Goleman (Bantam Press, 1995) and "Fundamental Questions about Emotions," edited by Paul Ekmon and Richard Davidson (Oxford University Press, 1994). IIMP subjects RILM subjects pedagogy general methodology influenced by student temperament psychology emotional IQ emotions temperament relation to pedagogy music teachers teacher education IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited) Offers a brief guide to assessing one's Discusses emotional own emotional IQ with some suggestions temperament and its to modify behaviors which reflect low influence on music students. emotional IQ and therefore to raise Because emotional literacy one's emotional intelligence. Refers to is essential to success in "Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel life, it is a subject worth Goleman (Bantam Press, 1995) and learning and passing on to "Fundamental Questions about Emotions," students. edited by Paul Ekmon and Richard Davidson (Oxford University Press, 1994). IIMP subjects MI subjects teacher-student relationship influences emotional IQ emotion music teachers educators attitudes teacher education Ex. 10. Abstracts and subjects for Colin Cooper, "Rally Driving and Villa-Lobos: Timo Korhonen Talks with Colin Cooper," Classical Guitar 14, no. 6 (1996): 11-12, 14 IIMP abstract Provides an interview with Finnish classical guitarist Timo Korhonen, who discusses his early music education and influences in Finland, his attitude toward contemporary guitar music, his recording of the entire Villa-Lobos guitar works, the role of classical guitar music, and his teaching at Sibelius Academy in Helsinki. IIMP subjects RILM subjects Korhonen, Timo Korhonen, Timo interviews Villa-Lobos, Heitor works guitar music viewed by Korhonen classical musicians performers guitarists guitar educational influences Finland music attitudes music recording musical influences IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited) Provides an interview with Finnish Timo Korhonen wanted to be a classical guitarist Timo Korhonen, who rally driver before he discusses his early music education and turned his attention to influences in Finland, his attitude guitar. He has an affinity toward contemporary guitar music, his for Latin American guitar recording of the entire Villa-Lobos music, particularly guitar works, the role of classical Villa-Lobos. guitar music, and his teaching at Sibelius Academy in Helsinki. IIMP subject MI subjects Korhonen, Timo Korhonen, Timo classical musicians guitarists educational influences Finland music attitudes music recording musical influences Ex. 11. Abstracts and subjects for Bertram Greenspan, "Josef Gingold: Memories of an Artist, Pedagogue, and Friend," Journal of the Violin Society of America 14, no. 3 (1996): 197-204 IMP abstract Provides a tribute by a former student to the late music educator Josef Gingold. Discusses Gingold's methods of teaching especially his focus on teaching proper practice exercises. Notes that Gingold was also a performer and concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra and played in the NBC Symphony under Toscanini. IIMP subjects RILM subjects Gingold, Josef Gingold, Josef tributes tributes obituary performers violin obituaries music teachers pedagogues practicing/exercising IMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredite) Provides a tribute by a former An obituary for the student to the late music educator violinist. Josef Gingold. Discusses Gingold's methods of teaching especially his focus on teaching proper practice exercises. Notes that Gingold was also a performer and concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra and played in the NBC Symphony under Toscanini. IIMP subjects MI subjects Gingold, Josef Gingold, Josef tributes music teachers practicing/exercising Ex. 12. Abstracts and subjects for Michael Kennedy, "Britten's Operas: 20 Years On," Opera 47 (September 1996): 1004-11 IIMP abstract Extensive discussion of Britten's operas and the popularity of his works since his death 20 years ago. Includes reviews of perfor- mances of "Billy Budd," "Peter Grimes," "Albert Herring," and "Paul Bunyan," as well as other works and their presentations since his death. IIMP subjects RILM subjects Britten, Benjamin Britten, Benjamin reception operas England 1976 to present popularity reception United Kingdom United Kingdom England musical life opera opera by composer by place influenced by Britten composers IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor Elizabeth L. Wollman) Extensive discussion of Britten's operas and In England, the public the popularity of his works since his death response to Britten has 20 years ago. Includes reviews of perfor- intensified mances of "Billy Budd," "Peter Grimes," since his death. "Albert Herring," and "Paul Bunyan," as His operas and his well as other works and their presentations influence on later since his death. composers are discussed. Focus is placed on Gloriana and Paul Bunyan, two Britten operas that failed in his lifetime and have been revalued and rehabilitated since his death. IIMP subjects MI subjects Britten, Benjamin Britten, Lord Benjamin (Edward Benjamin) works operas popularity United Kingdom opera composers Ex. 13. Absracts and subjects for Andreas Richter, "Musik and Elektronik: Was der Computer alles kann," Das Orchester: Zeitschrift fur Orchesterkultur und Rundfunk-Chorwesen 44, no. 5 (1996): 21-22 IIMP abstract Provides an analysis of the possible uses of the computer in the composition and reproduction of music. Discusses how a musical score printed by a computer can ease or eliminate mistakes made during the copying or transcribing of scores by the conductor. Also describes how the computer can store bits and pieces of music, via the use of MIDI technology, for subsequent processing into complete works. Also briefly describes a few computer software programs which can assist in musical notation. IIMP subjects RILM subjects computers computer applications computer software survey composing MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) musical scores orchestral music technological influences transcription IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited) Provides an analysis of the possible uses The uses and limitations of of the computer in the composition and computers--from storing and reproduction of music. Discusses how a synthesizing sound to writing musical score printed by a computer can scores--are briefly reviewed. ease or eliminate mistakes made during the copying or transcribing of scores by the conductor. Also describes how the computer can store bits and pieces of music, via the use of MIDI technology, for subsequent processing into complete works. Also briefly describes a few computer software programs which can assist in musical notation. IIMP subjects MI subjects computers computers computer software composing MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) musical scores orchestral music technological influences transcription Ex. 14. Abstracts and subjects for Karsten Erik Ose, "Musikinstrument als Ziechen: Vanitas vanitatum et omniam vanitas--Ein Stilleben mit Musikinstrumenten aus dem Umkreis von Evaristo Baschnis," Concerto: Das Magazin fur Musik 13, no. 118 (1996): 12-15 IIMP abstract Scholarly examination of a still life from the school of Italian Renaissance painter Evaristo Baschenis (1617-1677). Lengthy consideration is given to the symbolic elements present in the depiction of various musical instruments and their place in the iconography of paintings of this genre. The picture itself is reproduced, together with several smaller illustrations. A substantial bibliography and a full page of footnotes accompany the article. IIMP subjects RILM subjects iconography instruments Baschenis, Evaristo (school) works, art Vanitas vanitatum et... symbolism instrument symbolism libraries, museums, collections Germany koln Wallraf-Richartz-Museum musicology IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor Carl Scholarly examination of a still Skoggard) The iconographic signi- life from the school of Italian ficance of the painting, preserved Renaissance painter Evaristo in the wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Baschenis (1617-1677). Lengthy consideration Cologne (WRM 2614), is elucidated. is given to the symbolic elements The work stem from the Bergamo school present in the depiction of surrounding Evaristo Baschenis various musical instruments and their (1617-77), a group whose still place in the iconography of paintings lifes featuring musical of this genre. The picture itself instruments were very Widely is reproduced, together with appreciated. several smaller illustrations. A substantial bibliography and a full page of footnotes accompany the article. IIMP subjects MI subjects iconography Baschenis, Evaristo symbolism musicology Ex. 15. Abstrafts and subjects for Michael Frank, "Versuch uber Musiken der Trauer und des Todes," Tibia: Magazin fur Holzblaser 21, no. 4 (1996): 252-61 IIMP abstract Author examines the relatively limited literature of instrumental funeral, mourning, and death music as compared with the large base of text-related pieces such as requiems. Examines various patterns of dealing with grief that are reflected in instrumental works of mourning, with a particular focus on 20th-century music. Discuss tribute works such as canons, but also explores works featuring several stages of the grieving process. Includes 26 references. IIMP subjects RILM subjects death and dying death and dying symbolism symbolism death 20th century music 20th-c. music psychology emotions mourning depicted in music funeral music requiems tributes history instrumental music IIMP abstract RILM abstract (based on journal's abstract) Author examines the relatively Among the numerous instrumental limited literature of instrumental works of mourning composed in the funeral, mourning, and death music as 20th c., there are different compared with the large base of approaches to dealing with grief. text-related pieces such as requiems. Examines Besides representative or tribute various patterns of dealing with compostitions, which are usually grief that are reflected in instrumental very short (e.g., canons), works works of mourning, with a particular can be found that subjectively focus on 20th-century music. Discuss express grief. A few works pass tribute works such as canons, but also through all stages of gried to explores works featuring several stages of transcendence, and thus represent the a grieving process. Includes 26 kind of "process of grieving" on references. the part of the composer. IIMP subjects MI subjects death and dying death 20th century music funeral music requiems tributes funeral music history instrumental music lament Abstract published in journal Contrary to the word-related music of mourning and death there is so far hardly any literature of purely instrumental funeral music. Starting from how human beings cope with grief, it can be established that within the numerous instrumental works ofmourning--particulary in the 20th century -- there are different kinds of dealing with grif: Beside representative or rather tribute compositions which are partly very short as e.g., canons, works can be found which subjectively express grief and--although more seldom--also works which pass through all stages of grief up to transcendency and thus for the composer represent also a kind of "process of greiving." (English by S. Seidel)