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A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF SUBJECT INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING IN INTERNATIONAL INDEX TO MUSIC PERIODICALS, RILM ABSTRACTS OF MUSIC LITERATURE, AND THE MUSIC INDEX ONLINE.

There are now three major online databases dedicated to current indexing of the literature of music: The Music Index (hereafter MI); RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (RILM); and International Index to Music Periodicals (IIMP). [1] The online version of MI provides citations, but not abstracts, for periodical literature in music going back to 1979, and is available both on CD-ROM and via the Internet. It is produced by Harmonie Park Press, which has published the print version of MI since 1949. The Web version was used in the present study. Chadwyck-Healey, after briefly marketing an earlier CD-ROM version of MI, launched its own music database, IIMP, in 1996. Now owned by Bell & Howell Information and Learning, IIMP, provides indexing and abstracts for music periodical literature since 1996 and is steadily adding citations (without abstracts) for pre-1996 literature. IIMP is available on CD-ROM and in two Web versions: a basic product with traditional citations and abstracts, and IIMP Full Text, which add s access to the full text of articles from over forty journals. Trial access to IIMP, Full Text was used for the present study, though no use was made of the full-text options.

RILM is a joint project of the International Musicological Society and the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, and Documentation Centers. Since 1967, it has published abstracts of the whole range of scholarly literature in music, going beyond journal articles to include books, dissertations, catalogs, Festschriften, conference proceedings, and other formats. RILM exists in two electronic versions: it is available on CD-ROM and via the Web from National Information Services Corporation (NISC USA), and Web access is also provided through OCLC FirstSearch. The OCLC product was the primary means of access for the present study, though trial access to the NISC product was arranged for comparison of a few points.

These three databases differ greatly in the ways in which they index the literature. The present study identifies a group of articles that have been treated by all three databases and compares those treatments in both quantitative and qualitative terms. [2]

The quantitative section involved randomly selecting a large group of articles and comparing the number of subjects assigned, total words in the subjects, and unique words in the subjects in each of the three databases, and the number of words in the abstracts in RILM and IIMP. The qualitative aspect required looking more closely at a smaller number of items to compare the appropriateness of subjects chosen for indexing, the content and style of abstracts (for IIMP and RILM), and the accessibility of vocabulary in both.

A search of the library literature found no studies comparing both indexing and abstracting of the same articles by different databases. Though many articles can be found comparing various utilities' coverage of particular topics or journals, very few actually examine subject access at the individual record level. MaryEllen C. Sievert and Alison F. Verbeck [3] come closest with a document-level comparison of subject indexing of the literature of online searching in Library and Information Science Abstracts and the education database ERIC, but their study did not include comparison of abstracts.

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

In order to carry out the comparisons envisioned for this study, it was necessary to generate a group of articles for which full treatment could be found in all three databases. This study was meant to be descriptive rather than predictive, and care was taken to make the sample generation process as objective as possible. The sample was limited to articles from 1996 in order to eliminate pre-1996 citation-only records in IIMP and post-1996 brief records added to RILM as part of its current citations project. A list was created of ninety-eight journals which each of the three databases claimed to index comprehensively. [4] Twenty-nine titles for which 1996 coverage could not be found in at least one of the three databases were dropped from this list, and the remaining sixty-nine journals were then divided into four classes: musicology; performance; theory/composition; and music education. In order to examine specific trends in the treatment of non-English material, non-English journals were isolated into a se parate class. [5]

Using only titles from each database's comprehensive list resulted in very small groups for performance and music education. Therefore, seventeen journals that are covered comprehensively by MI and IIMP and selectively by RILM were added to these classes. [6] The final list consisted of eighty-six journals: thirty-nine in the musicology class; eight in theory/composition; ten in performance; seven in music education; and twenty-seven in the non-English class.

Each journal tide was searched for articles dated 1996 in RILM (using OCLC FirstSearch), yielding lists of 391 articles in the musicology class, 110 in theory/composition, 172 in performance, 119 in music education, and 399 in the non-English class. Articles were chosen randomly from these lists until thirty in each class were found for which there was coverage in all three databases. [7]

For each database record, the number of subjects and the total number of words in the subjects were counted. [8] Also, as a way of approximating how many distinct concepts were conveyed by the subjects, the number of unique words in the subjects was counted. For records from RILM and IIMP, the number of words in the abstract was counted by cutting and pasting each abstract into a word-processing program and using the word count feature. (MI does not include abstracts.)

RESULTS

Patterns of strength and weakness emerged for each of the three databases as illustrated in table 1. Among the three, IIMP tended to have the most subjects per entry in all classes except music education, where MI had the highest average. Looking at the number of unique words in the subject fields, RILM had the highest averages in all classes except music education, which was again led by MI. The music education class showed the widest spread in the average number of subjects, with MI averaging 6.83 per entry and RILM only 2.63. The widest spread in the number of unique words came in the performance class, from RILM's 14.60 words per entry to 8.17 words per entry in MI.

Comparing length of abstracts, RILM devoted significantly greater length to articles in the musicology class than IIMP. On the other hand, while articles in the performance class had the shortest average abstract within IIMP, this average was still over twice that in RILM. The theory/composition and music education classes were more evenly covered, with the averages differing by just over one word between the databases.

Looking at the databases individually, IIMP (table 2) showed the most internal consistency, both across the journal classes as shown by the narrow ranges among all of the averages (just over six words in the abstract and less than three words per subject) and within the classes as reflected by the relatively small standard deviations compared to the other databases. Journals in the performance class had the highest average in each of the subject categories but the shortest average abstract. The longest average abstract was found in the music education class.

In RILM (table 3), the musicology class had the highest averages in all categories. Music education had the lowest averages in all the subject categories but the second longest average abstract. The shortest average abstract was found in the performance class. The large standard deviations show that many individual entries diverged widely from the averages. Across the whole sample, abstracts ranged from as many as 180 to as few as five words. A number of cases could be found where the number of words in the subjects was greater than the number in the abstract.

The standard deviations in the MI sample (table 4) show that individual records were widely distributed across their range, which in the case of total words in the subject field ran from one to 107. Music education seemed to be MI's strong suit, the journals in this class having the highest averages in each category by a relatively wide margin. Performance journals, on the other hand, consistently had the lowest averages, also by a wide margin.

Table 5 shows the averages for the non-English class compared with the combined averages for the four topical classes. Looking at the three subject field categories across the databases, the patterns are similar, with IIMP having the highest average number of subjects and RILM the most total words and unique words, but the margins by which RILM led those categories was much greater in the non-English class. In the topical classes, MI had slightly higher combined averages than IIMP in total words and unique words, but in the non-English class MI had the lowest average in all three categories by a wide margin. Comparing averages for English versus non-English articles, RILM had higher averages in all the subject categories but a slightly shorter average abstract for the non-English class. This pattern was exactly reversed in IIMP, and in fact the average abstract for a non-English item in IIMP was over nine words longer than that in RILM

Some general impressions emerge from these numbers which are worth noting before reviewing the comparison of individual records. The first regards treatment of subject access. IIMP's high numbers of subjects but lower numbers of words suggest a highly browsable scheme with each significant concept providing a direct point of access. The patterns in MI suggest a similar approach, although generally with fewer access points than IIMP. The numbers in RILM are just the opposite, the average record having only a handful of subjects but containing many words suggesting the use of lengthy headings encompassing several concepts, less suited to browsing but highly descriptive.

Second, certain topical classes emerge as areas of relative strength for each of the three databases. As already noted, MI was particularly strong in music education. The journals in this class not only led all categories within MI, but MI also had higher averages in this class than the other two databases for number of subjects and number of unique words. As might be expected from a service begun by musicologists, RILM was strongest in musicology, leading the other databases in all data categories for this class, and this class leading all topical classes within RILM. The clearest advantage for IIMP appeared in the performance class, where it outperformed the low averages in the subject categories in MI and the short abstracts in RILM.

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

The second phase of the investigation was to examine closely a smaller group of records and compare the content of the abstracts and subject headings in each database. This is by nature a more subjective operation than simply counting words and headings, but maximum possible objectivity was maintained by again using a random number generator to select the examples, five articles from each of the five journal classes. For purposes of space and readability, only three of those examples from each class are discussed here. It is recognized that this is far too small a sample from which to reach any predictive conclusions, but such an examination does allow one to begin to develop possible explanations for the trends seen in the statistical phase of the study.

Abstracts from RILM and IIMP were compared by extracting keywords and arranging them into parallel columns, connecting similar or identical terms, and highlighting those unique to one abstract. In the examples below, the abstracts as published will be presented in parallel columns, with connections and divergences pointed out in the commentary. [9]

Subjects were similarly arrayed into three parallel columns for comparison, and were then reordered to reflect representation of similar concepts. Because subjects in IIMP and MI display in alphabetical order, the relevance-based order of subjects in RILM was used as the basis for the reordering in the examples. Because the focus is on distinct concepts, subdivisions that are repeated in RILM are not repeated in the tables that follow. Subdivisions are indented below main entries.

Before beginning the individual comparisons, it is appropriate to note some general observations about each database's abstracting and subject indexing practices. The RILM and MI Web sites advertise the use of a thesaurus to guide their subject indexing. [10] IIMP makes no similar claim on its Web page, but editor Sarah Brechner referred to the use of a thesaurus in her response to an e-mail query. [11] Subjects in IIMP and MI are mostly one or two words and generally employ common language. IIMP subjects are not subdivided. MI uses a few standard subdivisions, such as "study and teaching" and "general works." RILM subjects are single words or brief phrases in scholarly language, and each can have several subdivisions. Subjects are frequently repeated in rotated form so important concepts contained in subdivisions also become main entries. For personal names used in subjects, both IIMP and RILM establish forms similar to those in common use, though neither agrees completely with the Library of Congress Name Authority File. MI consistently establishes the fullest possible form for each name, even if the form is not commonly used, for example, "Mozart, Johann Chrysostom Wolfgang Amadeus."

A fundamental difference in philosophy between IIMP and RILM is found when examining the abstracts. Abstracts in IIMP are indicative, using active voice sentences that tend to begin with a verb (implying a subject of "the author" or "the article") to describe the topic of the article. These abstracts are written by in-house staff, though abstracts published with an article may be used as the basis for the IIMP abstract with "sentences in the published abstract ... modified by IIMP's editors to conform to IIMP's stylistic and length guidelines." [12]

Authors of abstracts for RILM, on the other hand, are instructed to attempt to summarize the conclusions of the article in a declarative style rather than simply convey the topic. [13] Abstracts appearing with articles are edited for style and published with attribution. In the United States, RILM actively encourages authors to contribute abstracts for their own publications; when author-contributed abstracts are not available, abstracts are written by volunteers who are themselves music scholars or librarians. [14] In France and Germany, most abstracts are written by RILM office staff in each country.

Another difference between the two services appears in their treatment of some documentary and generic publications. IIMP provides a full abstract for each record, regardless of the nature of the article. RILM provides only brief descriptions for most documentary publications such as bibliographies and catalogs, and also for generic pieces such as obituaries. [15] Examples of both will be seen below. IIMP abstracts often include sentences describing special features of the article, such as the presence of music examples or illustrations. RILM includes such information in a separate field.

MUSICOLOGY CLASS

The first group of records for in-depth comparison was drawn from the musicology class, beginning with "Thomas de Hartmann: A Life," which was published in Notes (ex. 1). The abstracts created for this article illustrate the difference between the summary approach of RILM and the descriptive philosophy of IIMP The IIMP abstract summarizes events in Hartmann's life reported in the article, and mentions a particular work, La fleurette rouge, not mentioned by RILM. But while the IIMP abstract mentions connections with Kandinsky and Gurdjieff, it is the RILM abstract that more clearly conveys the influence these affiliations had on Hartmann's career. These connections are further amplified by RILM's subjects, which include the entries "Kandinsky, Wassily-aesthetics--relation to Hartmann," "Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch-aesthetics--influence on Hartmann," and "Sakharoff, Alexandre-works, choreography--collaborations with Hartmann." MI includes subject entries for Gurdjieff and Kandinsky, but includes no subdivis ions to point out the connections. IIMP ignores these other persons in the subject entries, providing only the broad terms "biographies," "composers," and "Russian music" in addition to the entry for Hartmann.

The three different treatments of Hartmann's name are worth noting. As a point of comparison, the Library of Congress Name Authority File has established his name as "Hartmann, Thomas de." RJLM has established a form without the "de," while IIMP not only includes "de" but has made the questionable decision to treat it as the initial element of the surname. As mentioned in the general observations above, MI has used the fullest possible form of the name, including a variant name in parentheses. It should be noted that there were three records in MI for this article, two with Hartmann as the only subject, and the third having entries only for Gurdjieff and Kandinsky.

Example 2 shows the abstracts and subjects for an experimental article from the Journal of Band Research, as well as the abstract that was published with the article. Both RILM and IIMP condense the original abstract to some degree, but RILM retains more information about the design of the experiment. RILM also retains more of the language and syntax of the original abstract, while IIMP adapts these to conform to its chosen indicative style. Even the one sentence taken nearly verbatim by IIMP from the journal's abstract has the phrase "Concludes that..." appended to its beginning.

Through the use of subdivisions, the two subjects each in MI and RILM convey a better idea about the content of the article than the six subject terms in IIMP. The latter's "band music" and "high school students" do correspond closely with subject elements in the other two databases, but the interaction between those concepts is not elucidated. Of the other terms in the IIMP record, two are near-synonyms for the type of group performing the excerpts, and the others ("emotions" and "music appreciation") are broad terms that include concepts studied in the article but that are better described by RILM's narrower terms. Nil's "students-attitudes" and "wind band music-evaluation" give a somewhat better idea of the nature of the investigation, though the age group information ("high school") provided by RILM and IIMP is lacking. But it is clearly the subjects with multiple subdivisions in RILM that best describe what the article is about and how the concepts are interrelated.

The final item in the musicology class is an example of a documentary publication, specifically a bibliography (ex. 3). RILM simply makes a connection to previous entries in the series, noting the dates of material covered by the new installment. IIMP on the other hand gives a full description of the content of the bibliography, listing all of the categories of material included. Similarly, IIMP's subject treatment includes useful related terms in addition to "chants," with only the term "research" seeming overly broad. MI includes headings not only for topics in the bibliography ("hymns," "neumes," "oral tradition") but also for formats of material cataloged ("facsimile editions," "Festschriften"). RILM focuses more narrowly on "Christian chant," and is the only one of the three databases to note the range of publication dates of the material cataloged.

THEORY/COMPOSITION CLASS

The first item from this class illustrates that interviews are another genre of article for which RILM provides only minimal treatment (ex. 4). In fact, in this case even MI provides as much information as RILM, since the former includes a note field stating the same data as the RILM abstract. IIMP on the other hand, provides a lengthy abstract that lists the concepts Xenakis touches on in the interview, though without indicating what he says about them. The subject treatment is similarly more complete in IIMP, adding four topical terms (plus the broad "composers") to the name entry found in all three databases.

Example 5 is the treatment of "Articulating Microtime," which appeared in Computer Music Journal. The abstracts are almost exactly the same length, and the first half of the IIMP abstract is nearly identical to the last sentence of the RILM abstract. But even though the RILM abstract was contributed by the author of the article, it is the IIMP abstract that conveys more detail by listing specific areas of sound processing affected by the introduction of computers. There is a difference in emphasis in the subject treatment as well. Although both abstracts refer to the field of "sound processing," RILM's subjects are focused on composition, while IIMP includes both "compositional techniques" and "sound processing" as subjects. MI's headings place the emphasis somewhere between the two, but seem to lean toward the centrality of composition as a topic for the article. While neither RILM nor MI includes an entry for any temporal concept, IIMP includes an entry for "microtime." This is not at all a common term, an d in fact as of this writing the present example is the only article assigned this subject term in IIMP.[26] Application of a broader temporal concept would have made the article more retrievable.

The final example from the theory/composition class provides a telling comparison between the descriptive abstract style of IIMP and the summary style of RILM (ex. 6). IIMP's first two sentences, though quite lengthy, really only tell us that Webern's row for this concerto is regarded as highly ingenious, and that it is somehow related to a Latin palindrome. The abstractor for RILM tells us more in fewer words by stating directly what Webern was attempting to accomplish. Similarly, considering the issue of the sketches, the IIMP abstract says only that "The author intends to ... put [them] in chronological order." The RILM abstract states that the author actually has put the sketches in chronological order and what that information means to the researcher. So although the IIMP abstract is longer by nineteen words, it is the RILM abstract that more directly conveys the author's viewpoint. [17]

Similarly, comparable numbers of subject terms among the three databases do not translate into comparable quality of subject access. Webern's name is the only subject term shared by all three, and of these only RILM adds a subdivision for the particular work under consideration. MI and RILM both include subjects dealing with serialism (though MI's term is "twelve-tone scale"), symmetry (though only as a subdivision in RILM) and the sketches (RILM: "source studies"; MI: "autographs").

IIMP, which had readily used the term "microtime" in example 5 above, amazingly does not use any subject term for the much more common concept of "serialism," providing only the broader terms "compositional techniques" and "harmony." The remaining IIMP, subject terms, "composers, "analysis" (also used by MI) and "musicology," are so broad as to offer little insight into the nature of the article.

MUSIC EDUCATION CLASS

The first example in this class comes from an issue of the Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education devoted to papers from a conference on qualitative methodology in music education research (ex. 7).

Each of the three databases deals with the conference aspect differently. IIMP actually includes it in the article record twice, including a separate "publication note" field as well as giving the full conference title in the body of the abstract. MI provides access to the conference by including it at the beginning of the article tide field. RILM creates a separate record for the full conference proceedings, with references to the records for the individual papers; however, there is no reciprocal reference from the individual paper to the collective record and no mention of the conference anywhere in the record.

There is remarkably little overlap in terminology between the IIMP abstract and the author-contributed abstract in RILM. "Children" and "sound therapy" are the only significant words that appear in both abstracts, along with the concept of "learning disabilities," expressed in more clinical language in RILM. Neither abstract really explains what "layered analysis" or "sound therapy" is, but the RILM abstract does state what it attempts to do, making it more useful to the curious researcher.

The subject terms chosen for the concepts of music education and music therapy provide good examples of each database's approach to subject vocabulary. IIMP uses the most common forms, likely to be the way most undergraduates would express these concepts. MI's editors have decided that being a database of music literature, the word "music" can be safely dropped ("education-research") or rotated out of first position ("therapy, music") for many common concepts. RILM also drops "music" where it is not required, and its tendency toward scholarly vocabulary is seen in the use of "pedagogy" rather than "education." In the choice of concepts to index, most remarkable is MI's failure to include any heading pertaining to special education or learning disabilities, both of which are addressed by the two abstract services in similar terms. Apart from this omission, MI's nine subjects describe more discrete concepts than IIMP's ten because IIMP includes two pairs of broader and narrower terms for similar concepts ("dis abilities" and "learning disabilities"; "research" and "research methods") and the generic heading "conference proceedings." Another IIMP subject term used here is "analysis." In earlier examples, we have seen this term applied to articles analyzing musical works; its use here illustrates one of the drawbacks of not using a subdivided structure to clarify the relationship between terms, and also raises the question of what "analysis" means in IIMP's subject field.

This troublesome heading appears in IIMP's subject for the next example as well (ex. 8), where it apparently refers to the experimental subjects' ability to "analyze ... rubato performances." The author, in the RILM abstract, uses the term "assessment," and it is the element being assessed, rubato, that is the most central concept to include in the subjects. All three databases have subject elements for this term (in RILM as a subdivision) along with the more general concept of interpretation (rendered in MI as "expression"). MI and RILM both include the psychological concept "perception," excluded by IIMP. IIMP and MT both account to some extent for the participants in the experiment ("music students" and "college students" respectively), while only RILM makes a heading for the musical work used in the experiment.

Comparison of the abstracts continues the trend we have seen in most of the previous examples, with the author-contributed RILM abstract providing more detail about the experiment and summarizing the findings. The only significant information unique to the IIMP abstract is the age group of the participants ("undergraduate or graduate students").

Example 9 comes from a journal that RILM covers selectively rather than comprehensively: only articles deemed scholarly receive full treatment from RILM. This article is practical in nature, and so receives a very brief abstract in RILM compared to that in IIMP. The RILM abstract does say a bit more about possible application of the ideas in the article, but does not provide the connection to the books found in the IIMP abstract.

Both MI and RILM assign subjects to account not just for the emotions of teachers, but also for the influence of students on those emotions. IIMP on the other hand assigns only subject terms related to teachers. In some previous examples we have noted a tendency in IIMP toward overly broad headings. Here the opposite occurs; the term "emotional IQ" is taken from the article and applied as a subject to the exclusion of any other terms relating to psychology or emotion. As of this writing, this remains the only IIMP record to carry this subject term. [18]

PERFORMANCE CLASS

All of the examples in this class come from journals covered selectively by RILM. Example 10 is an interview with guitarist Timo Korhonen. RILM does a good job of explaining the reference to rally driving in the title, but the IIMP abstract gives a much better idea about the content of the interview. Surprisingly, it does not mention the discography which both MI and RILM note in the special features field. MI's subject treatment is disappointingly minimal, lacking entries for the interviewee's medium of performance and the principal composer discussed. RILM provides both of these while IIMP goes further by including terms relating to the performer's nationality and his educational and musical influences, though again the relationship is less than clear because these are presented as discrete terms rather than being connected via subdivision.

Example 11 is a tribute to violinist Josef Gingold. RILM treats this as an obituary and provides no abstract. An eight-page article would seem to qualify as more than a mere obituary, and thus warrants the full abstract in IIMP. IIMP's subject terms also seem appropriate, although the absence of "violinists" is surprising. RILM addresses this gap, but perhaps a heading for "pedagogy" might have been added alongside "pedagogues," especially given the presence of music examples noted in the special features field. Again MI disappoints with only a heading for the subject of the tribute.

Michael Kennedy's Opera article on Britten receives abstracts of comparable length but slightly different emphasis (ex. 12). IIMP notes that the article discusses the popularity of Britten's works since his death, whereas RILM states that the public response "has intensified" in that time. The IIMP abstract focuses on the reviews of a number of opera performances, while RILM highlights two particular works that have been "revalued and rehabilitated" since 1976, and only RILM mentions Britten's influence on later composers. With the exception of the concept of Britten's influence, subject terms in both RILM and IIMP are mostly parallel. The major difference in vocabulary is IIMP's use of "popularity" while RILM uses the more scholarly (and less weighted) "reception." Once again MI'S only subject entry is the composer's name, subdivided for "works - operas."

NON-ENGLISH CLASS

All of the examples in the non-English journal class happen to be in German, reflecting the preponderance of German articles in the larger sample. The first is a two-page item on ways computers can be used in music (ex. 13). The primary uses noted in the brief RILM summary, "storing and synthesizing music" and "writing scores," are not much expanded upon by IIMP's eighty-word abstract, though it is helpful to note that particular software packages are described. MI and RILM each assign a single subject relating to computers without attempting to account for the uses made of them. IIMP uses three computer subject terms, including one for the particular protocol "MIDI," along with a number of broad terms relating to uses of the machine.

The abstracts for example 14 differ in style but mention most of the same concepts: iconography, painting, still life, musical instruments, and Baschenis (with dates). RILM is more geographically specific regarding Baschenis's circle ("Bergamo school" rather than "school of Italian Renaissance painter.. .") and provides the museum name and catalog number for the work being studied. On the other hand, the IIMP abstract includes the idea of "symbolic elements" not found in the RILM abstract, though it appears in the subjects in RILM. The difference in length of the two abstracts is mostly accounted for by the final two sentences in IIMP indicating the presence of the illustrations, bibliography, and notes. While most of this information is captured by RILM in the special features field, it is beneficial to have the presence of a reproduction of the painting explicitly stated.

IIMP's subject terms are inadequate, providing no access to the artist or his school and even lacking a term for the proper field of study, iconography. "Symbolism" is a useful term here, but "musicology" is simply too broad to be significant. MI provides two useful entries, but none for symbolism or musical instruments. RILM's subjects describe the content well, although rotation of a couple of the important concepts (symbolism, musical instruments) to initial positions would have facilitated browsing.

The final example is remarkable because although the abstracts are almost exactly the same length and share many keywords, the differences in how those words are framed considerably alter the apparent emphasis of the article (ex. 15). At the very outset, RILM says that instrumental works of mourning are "numerous, while IIMP describes the same repertory as "relatively limited." Later the two abstracts seem to reverse the relative importance of "tribute works" and those that depict stages of the grief process. RILM seems to dismiss the former with a brief clause ("Besides . . . tribute compositions") while focusing on the latter, whereas IIMP gives more emphasis to the former ("Discusses tribute compositions"), making the latter seem more of an afterthought ("... but also ...").

IIMP's subject terms include "Requiems," a genre mentioned in the abstract only in the context of distinguishing what the article is not about. To IIMP's credit, it is the only one of the three databases to add a subject term for "instrumental music," which is a distinguishing part of the article's topic.

CONCLUSIONS

In their application of subjects to the fifteen items sampled, the three databases under consideration may be seen to lie along a continuum of specificity and structure. The approach of each database also reflects its origins in some way.

That subjects in RJLM began as a separate index to a printed collection of abstracts may be seen in its very focused terms and extensive employment of relational and hierarchical subdivisions. More than just retrieval points, RJLM subjects help convey the "aboutness" of the item. This is amplified online by the relevance-based order of display in the individual record. Drawbacks to RILM's approach to subject access are that the highly subdivided structure does not lend itself easily to online browsing (this is true using either the OCLC or the NISC interface), and the preference for scholarly over common language can be an obstacle for inexperienced users.

Subjects in MI were created as a tool for collocating similar entries in a printed index. As such, the tendency is to use rather broader terms than RILM, and to apply more subjects to each item. Though MI subjects were initially modeled on Library of Congress Subject Headings, its Subject Heading List has evolved independently, and MI uses subdivisions much more sparingly. In the examples, MI subjects were generally well-focused on the main topics of the articles. This makes the alphabetical arrangement in the online display less of a drawback than it might be. Though the shorter headings and minimal use of subdivisions make relationships between concepts less clear than in RILM, the greater number of entry points makes MI much more browsable. There are some constructions used in MI subjects that could pose problems for the novice user ("wind band," "tape, video"), but an online "cross-reference browser" provides the necessary connections from more familiar terminology.

IIMP is a product of the computer age, and its application of subject terms seems to reflect the awareness that most users will begin by performing keyword searches. IIMP subject terms are single words or short phrases generally couched in common language, and no subdivisions are employed. Placing all concepts on the same level makes for very high browsability, and the use of accessible language eases retrieval for novice users. Looking at the subject terms applied to individual records and then thinking backwards about how they might be retrieved, however, exposes some drawbacks to the keyword-driven approach to subject access. In the sample, this was seen in the application of terms for concepts receiving only passing mention in the article, of terms whose meaning seems to shift ("analysis"), and of some terms so broad as to be of little assistance ("musicology," "composers"). Many records contain both broad and narrow terms relating to the same concept ("disabilities" and "learning disabilities"). Convers ely, examples were found where unique terms ("microtime," "emotional IQ") were applied to the exclusion of related broader terms that would have eased retrieval. (According to editor Sarah Brechner, II VIP endeavored during the summer of 2000 to address thesaurus issues such as "tightening up terms, establishing relationships, deleting redundant or inappropriate terms," though of course without updating older records, the infelicities above will remain in the database. [19]) The decision not to employ any subdivisions renders relationships between concepts unclear, and the display of subject terms in alphabetical order makes it difficult to differentiate between topics that are the focus of the article and those more tangentially related.

Abstracts in an online database serve two purposes: to provide a pool of keywords for access and retrieval; and to convey an idea of what the article says so that its potential usefulness to the reader can be estimated. [20] Based on the fifteen examples above, both RILM and IIMP abstracts fulfill the first function well; however, RILM's summary style abstracts were in general more informative about what the articles actually say than were the descriptive abstracts in IIMP. The latter's practice of giving full treatment to all items made its abstracts preferable for some articles in the performance class and for interviews, obituaries, and documentary items for which RILM admittedly provides minimal treatment.

Of course, the findings of this study cannot be considered predictive because of the small sample sizes, and firm recommendations of one database over another cannot be made without considering other issues such as journals covered, currency, and search interface. Nevertheless, a number of observations can be made that will be useful to both scholars and librarians as they use these tools or teach patrons about them.

IIMP browsability and common language make it quite approachable for undergraduates, but users will have to read the abstracts carefully to determine if articles retrieved actually focus on the topics they are seeking. The depth of indexing in IIMP did not vary greatly among the various fields of music, but comparison with the other two databases suggests that IIMP might be the better place to start for users seeking performance-related information.

Although lack of abstracts is a handicap for MI, the precision of its subject indexing helps ensure that articles retrieved are focused on the topic sought. As noted above, though some of the subject vocabulary is arcane, the "cross-reference browser" feature leads inexperienced users to the proper terms. It is hoped that eventually the duplicate records can be merged, eliminating a major source of misleading search results. MI will serve most undergraduates well, especially those doing research in music education.

The use of very precise, scholarly indexing language suggests that RILM will best be used by scholars and advanced students, especially in musicology. The lack of cross-references means that librarians will want to encourage less experienced users to consider their terminology carefully. Such users might be well served by beginning with a keyword search of the abstracts, and then noting useful subject terms in relevant records for further searches. Users should also keep in mind that RILM extends its coverage beyond journals to include the whole range of scholarly publishing, and that its summary abstracts generally convey more about the conclusions of a work than the descriptive abstracts in IIMP.

It is hoped that these observations, coupled with the findings of the other studies referred to above, will help librarians and researchers in their approaches to using and teaching about these three databases. Database producers will want to be guided by these studies as they continue to develop their products.

Martin D. Jenkins is music and humanities librarian at Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. The author wishes to thank Alan Green for his invaluable encouragement and assistance in the development and presentation of this study.

(1.) Music Index (http://www.harmonieparkpress.com/musicindex.html), accessed 14 January 2001; RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (http://www.rilm.org), accessed 14 January 2001; International Index to Music Periodicals (http://iimpft.chadwyck.com), accessed 14 January 2001.

(2.) Concurrent with this project, other investigators compared these three databases for comprehensiveness of journal coverage (Leslie Troutman); currency of indexing, language coverage, and subject area coverage (Alan Green); and functionality of subject searching (Jerry McBride). Troutman and Green presented their findings at the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, anti Documentation Centers conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, August 2000, and all three will be reporting their results in other publications.

(3.) MaryEllen C. Sievert and Alison F. Verbeck, "The Indexing of the Literature of Online Searching: A Comparison of ERIC and LISA," Online Review 11, no. 2 (1987): 95-104.

(4.) This list was developed by Alan Green as part of the preparation for Isis paper mentioned in n. 2.

(5.) Bilingual journals were placed in both the non-English class and the appropriate subject class, with individual articles being placed according to language at the time populations were generated.

(6.) For a description of selective v. core coverage in RILM, and a list of journals in these categories, see RILM, "RILM's Primary Journal Titles" (http://www.rilm.org/prime-jt.html), accessed 14 January 2001. Lists of journals indexed by MI and IIMP may be found at Harmonic Park Press, "The Music Index Periodical List (1979-99)" (http://www.harmonieparkpress.com/periodical.html), accessed 14 January 2001, and IIMP, "Title Lists" (http://iimpft.chadwyck.com), accessed 14 January 2001.

(7.) Because the goal was to identify articles covered by all three databases, the eighty-six journal title searches were not repeated in MI and IIMP. Any articles found there but not in RILM would have been discarded anyway. Similarly, articles randomly chosen from the RILM list for which coverage was not found in one of the other databases were also withdrawn from the sample.

(8.) In MI there are multiple records for some articles. For the present study, subjects from all relevant records were counted. McBride found that "the presence of duplicate citations [in MI] appears to have been the result of the conversion from print to the electronic index. In the print index, the same citation appears tinder every applicable subject heading. Most of the subject headings for each citation were merged on to a single record in the online index, but some still survive in the database as separate records with a single subject heading." Jerry L. McBride, "comparison of searching in Three Online Indexes of Literature on Music" (unpublished draft, November 2000),8.

(9.) All IIMP abstracts [C]Bell & Howell Information and Learning; all RILM abstracts [C]RILM International. All abstracts reprinted with permission.

(10.) MI, "Welcome to the Music Index: A Subject Author Guide to Music Periodical Literature!" (http://www.hppmusicindex.com/). accessed 15 January 2001, states "Topics ... are carefully categorized and organized according to the framework of an internal Subject Heading List." RILM, "About RILM" (http://www.rilm.org/about.html), accessed l5 January 2001, states "A thesaurus is available as a guide to headwords and indexing policies."

(11.) E-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner, associate editor, Humanities Department, Bell & Howell Information and Learning, dated 28 June 2000.

(12.) IIMP policy quoted in e-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner dated 13 October 2000. Another e-mail message from Brechner dated the same day states that policy in place in 1996 allowed editors to use published abstracts as written with attribution, but all abstracts found in this investigation conformed to the current policy.

(13.) This aim is stated explicitly in sections 4 and 5 of RILM, "How to Write a RILM Abstract" (http://www.rilm.org/abstinfo.html), accessed 14 January 2001.

(14.) The author is a volunteer contributor of abstracts to RILM.

(15.) See "How to write a RILM Abstract," section 3.

(16.) Based on a search for "microtime" in IIMP on 2 November 2000.

(17.) The IIMP abstract includes a statement about the presence of examples and tables, which was included in the word count.

(18.) Based on a search for "emotional IQ" in IIMP on 2 November 2000.

(19.) E-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner dated 28 June 2000.

(20.) F. W. Lancaster, Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice (Urbana: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1991), 89-91.
Table 1. Averages for Each Database in Each Journal Group
 Subjects Total Words
Journal Class RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP MI
Musicology 4.10 6.80 5.67 28.30 11.53 13.07
Theory 3.63 6.07 4.27 23.27 11.07 10.93
Music Education 2.63 6.40 6.83 18.33 12.03 16.50
Performance 3.37 7.10 3.17 22.67 12.87 9.10
 Unique Words Words in Abstract
Journal Class RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP
Musicology 16.57 10.30 11.77 70.80 57.30
Theory 13.00 10.20 9.87 55.63 54.57
Music Education 11.83 10.00 14.43 61.60 60.37
Performance 14.60 11.47 8.17 26.07 52.63
Table 2. IIMP Averages and Standard Deviations
Journal Class Subjects Total Words Unique Words Abstract
Musicology avg. 6.80 11.53 10.30 57.30
 s.d. 2.94 5.98 4.86 13.53
Theory avg. 6.07 11.07 10.20 54.57
 s.d. 1.81 3.54 3.45 23.27
Music Education avg. 6.40 12.03 10.00 60.37
 s.d. 2.35 5.60 3.97 13.12
Performance avg. 7.10 12.87 11.47 52.63
 s.d. 2.45 6.09 4.77 16.32
Non-English avg. 5.97 9.80 9.07 60.63
 s.d. 2.96 5.17 4.52 21.65
Table 3. RILM Averages and Standard Deviations
Journal Class Subjects Total Words Unique Words Abstract
Musicology avg. 4.10 28.30 16.57 70.80
 s.d. 1.85 20.33 10.29 41.89
Theory avg. 3.63 23.27 13.00 55.63
 s.d. 2.80 22.75 9.07 45.64
Music Education avg. 2.63 18.33 11.83 61.60
 s.d. 1.49 18.44 7.43 42.92
Performance avg. 3.37 22.67 14.60 26.07
 s.d. 1.78 13.89 7.80 20.97
Non-English avg. 3.70 29.10 16.33 51.33
 s.d. 2.04 19.35 8.68 33.88
Table 4. Music Index Averages and Standard Deviations
Journal Class Subjects Total Words Unique Words
Musicology avg. 5.67 13.07 11.77
 s.d. 3.57 8.82 7.57
Theory avg. 4.27 10.93 9.87
 s.d. 3.03 8.88 7.83
Music Education avg. 6.83 16.50 14.43
 s.d. 3.52 7.54 6.25
Performance avg. 3.17 9.10 8.17
 s.d. 3.02 8.55 7.52
Non-English avg. 2.37 6.40 5.73
 s.d. 2.06 6.36 5.32
Table 5. Averages for English and Non-English Articles
 Subjects Total Words
 RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP MI
Non-English 3.70 5.97 2.37 29.10 9.80 6.40
English 3.43 6.59 4.98 23.14 11.88 12.40
 Unique Words Abstracts
 RILM IIMP MI RILM IIMP
Non-English 16.33 9.07 5.73 51.33 60.63
English 14.00 10.49 11.06 53.53 56.22
Ex. 1. Abstracts and subjects for John Mangan, "Thomas de Hartmann:
A Life," Notes 53, no. 1 (September 1996): 18-29
IIMP abstract
Researches the life and music of
Russian composer Thomas Alexandrovich
de Hartmann (1885-1956). Details his
musical training, his early successes
including the ballet "La Fleurette
rouge," his friendship with painter
Wassily Kandinsky, his affiliation
with mystic spiritualist Georgi
Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, and his career
struggles as he moved throughout
Europe, eventually settling in New
York City in 1950.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
de Hartmann, Thomas Hartmann, Thomas
biographies life
 Kandinsky, Wassily
 aesthetics
 relation to Hartmann
 creative process
 Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch
 influence on Hartmann
 Sakharoff, Alexandre
 works, choreography
 collaborations with H.
 choreographers
 dance music
composers
Russian music
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor Janet
 Brewer)
Researches the life and music of In his search for new
Russian composer Thomas Alexandrovich compositional techniques, Thomas
de Hartmann (1885-1956). Details his Hartmann (1885-1956) was inspired
musical training, his early successes by several prominent artists and
including the ballet "La Fleurette thinkers of the early 20th c.
rouge," his friendship with painter Hartmann believed firmly in the
Wassily Kandinsky, his affiliation interrelations among the arts;
with mystic spiritualist Georgi his search for new compositional
Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, and his career techniques was analogous to
struggles as he moved throughout Kandinsky's quest for the
Europe, eventually settling in New abstract in the visual arts.
York City in 1950. Hartmann's work with the
 choreographer Alexandre Sakharoff
 sparked much discussion around
 Munich in 1910. The Georgian
 mystic Georges Gurdjieff
 profoundly affected Hartmann's
 spiritual life.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
de Hartmann, Thomas Hartmann, Thomas
biographies Alexandrovich de
 Kandinsky, Vasily
 Gurdjieff, George Ivanovitch
composers
Russian music
Ex. 2. Abstracts and subjects for David J. Boyle, Nicholas J. DeCarbo,
and Douglas M. Jordan, "A Comparison of High School Band and Nonband
Students' Reactions to Selected Wind Band Excerpts," Journal of Band
Research 31, no. 2 (1996): 35-51
IIMP abstract
Compares affective responses of high
school band and nonband students to eight
wind band excerpts that varied in
familiarity and stimulative or sedative
characteristics. Concludes that band
students rated excerpts as more familiar
more likable, more interesting, and
better in quality than did nonband
students. Energy and familiarity of
excerpts produced differences in
responding.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
band music bands band music
(performing ensembles) wind
ensembles
high school students reception high school
 students preferences
 perception influenced by
 familiarity
emotions music appreciation
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (based on
 journal's abstract)
Compares affective responses of High school students enrolled in
high
school bandand nonband students to band (n=115) and nonband (n=64)
eight
wind band excerpts that varied in classes listened to eight
 excerpts;
familiarity and stimulative or four were believed to be familiar
sedative
characteristics. Concludes that to most band students, and the
band
students rated excerpts as more other four unfamiliar. In addition,
familiar
more likable, more interesting, each excerpt was categorized as
and
better in quality than did nonband reflecting either high energy
students. Energy and familiarity (stimulative) or low energy
of
excerpts produced differences in (sedative) characteristics.
responding. Generally, band students rated the
 excerpts as more familiar, more
 likeable, more interesting, and
 better in quality than did nonband
 students. Groups differed in
 responses to high-energy and low
 energy excerpts and to familiar
 and
 unfamiliar excerpts.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
band music bands wind band
(performing ensembles) wind music
ensembles
high school students evaluation
 students
 attitudes
emotions music appreciation


Abstract published in thejournal

The purpose of this study was to compare band and nonband students' reactions to eight wind band excerpts. The study asked students to rate (a) their familiarity with the excerpts, (b) their liking of the excerpts, (c) how interesting they found the excerpts, and (d) their views on how "good" the excerpts were. Also, students were asked to indicate the aspects of the music on which they focused most while listening to each excerpt.

Subjects for the study were 179 high school students enrolled in hand (n = 115) and nonband (n = 64) classes. Four excerpts were selected because they were believed to be familiar to most band students. The other four excerpts were selected because they were believed to be unfamiliar to most students. In addition, each "unfamiliar" and "familiar" piece was categorized as reflecting either high energy (stimulative) or low energy (sedative) characteristics.

Generally, band students rated the excerpts as more familiar, more likable, more interesting, and "better in quality" than did nonband students. Groups differed in responses to high energy and low energy excerpts and to familiar and unfamiliar excerpts.
Ex. 3. Abstracts and subjects for Peter Jeffery, "Liturgical Chant
Bibliography V," Plainsong and Medieval Music 5, no. 2 (1996): 201-10
IIMP abstract
Discusses and lists recent
published writings in the
categories of medieval
hymnodists, tradition and
transmission, neumatic notation,
manuscript facsimiles, regional
chant traditions, medieval
music theory, collective
publications and Festschriften,
and chant today and tomorrow.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
 bibliographies
 by topic
 1992-1996
chants chant
 Christian (Western)
liturgical music
medieval music
music theory
musical notation
research
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited)
Discusses and lists recent A continuation of RILM 94-1165 and
published writings in the 93-705, including selected items
 published
categories of medieval between 1992 and 1996.
hymnodists, tradition and
transmission, neumatic notation,
manuscript facsimiles, regional
chant traditions, medieval
music theory, collective
publications and Festschriften,
and chant today and tomorrow.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
 bibliographies
chants chant
liturgical music
medieval music
music theory theory
musical notation
research
 facsimile editions
 festschriften
 hymns
 neumes
 oral tradition
Ex. 4. Abstracts and subjects for Brigitte Robindore, "Eskhate Ereuna:
Extending the Limits of Musical Thought--Comments on and by Iannis
Xenakis," Computer Music Journal 20, no.4 (1996): 11-16
IIMP abstract
Presents condensed remarks
by Iannis Xenakis on his
recent reflections and perspectives
on his theoretical and musical
evolution. Includes discussion of
granular synthesis, deterministic
versus stochastic chaos, the
development of the computer program
Gendy which is designed to produce
musical works wherein the calculus
of probabilities permeates all
levels of compositional activity,
using the Gendy algorithm to
explore stochastic timbre in
composition.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
Xenakis, lannis Xenakis, Iannis
 Interviews
composers
compositional techniques
computer music
mathematics
stochastic compositions
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited)
Presents condensed remarks Includes comments from previously
by Iannis Xenakis on his unpublished interviews and
recent reflections and perspectives discussions that took place between
on his theoretical and musical 1994 and 1996.
evolution. Includes discussion of
granular synthesis, deterministic
versus stochastic chaos, the
development of the computer program
Gendy which is designed to produce
musical works wherein the calculus
of probabilities permeates all
levels of compositional activity,
using the Gendy algorithm to
explore stochastic timbre in
composition.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
Xenakis, lannis Xenakis, Iannis
composers
compositional techniques
computer music
mathematics
stochastic compositions
Ex 5. Abstracts and subjects for Horacio Vaggione, "Articulating
Microtime," Computer Music Journal 20, no. 2 (1996): 33-38
IIMP abstract
Surveys some of the musically
significant consequences of the
introduction of digital tools in the
field of sound processing, focusing on
surface versus internal processing, new
representations of sound, and
multi-scale approaches. Includes 62
references.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
compositional techniques computer applications
computer music composition computer
 music
microtime
sound processing
technological influences
technological trends
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (author)
Surveys some of the musically The intersection of music and
significant consequences of the computers has created myriad
introduction of digital tools in the possibilities for research and
field of sound processing, focusing on production. Some of the
surface versus internal processing, new musically significant
representations of sound, and consequences of the
multi-scale approaches. Includes 62 introduction of digital tools
references. to the field of sound
 processing are surveyed.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
compositional techniques electronic music composition
computer music computer produced music
microtime
sound processing
technological influences
technological trends
Ex. 6. Abstracts and Subjects for Kathryn Bailey, "Symmetry as Nemesis:
Webern and the First Movement of the Concerto, Opus 24," Journal of
Music Theory 40 (fall 1996): 245-310
IIMP abstract
Exhaustive analysis of the first movement
of Anton Webern's Concerto for nine
instruments, Op. 24 of 1931-1934 states
the premise that the twelve-tone row
selected by the composer as its basis has
long been regarded as one of the most
ingenious in this compositional genre
and continues the directions taken in
his Symphony, Op. 21 of 1921. Notes the
influence of a Latin palindrome which also
inspired the tone row. The author intends
to present the many sketches for this
movement and put them in chronological
order. Numerous musical examples and
tables are given for illustration.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
Webern, Anton Webern, Anton
 works
 Concertos, op. 24
 first movt.
 symmetry
 serialism
 source studies
 creative process
analysis
composers
compositional techniques
harmony
musicology
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor Pier
 Paolo
 Polzonetti)
Exhaustive analysis of the first In the first movement of op. 24,
movement Webern
of Anton Webern's Concerto for tried to establish a perfect
nine symmetry
instruments, Op. 24 of 1931-1934 between the structure of the row
states and the
the premise that the twelve-tone Latin acrostic sator arepo tenet
row opera
selected by the composer as its rotas. Once the sketches to this
basis has work
long been regarded as one of the are set in chronological order,
most Webern's
ingenious in this compositional process of composition can be
genre followed.
and continues the directions taken The sketches clearly show his
in struggles
his Symphony, Op. 21 of 1921. to balance structural coherence
Notes the and
influence of a Latin palindrome expression, identity, and variety.
which also They
inspired the tone row. The author portray Webern as a human and
intends realistic
to present the many sketches for artist, as more than a mere
this machine.
movement and put them in
chronological
order. Numerous musical examples
and
tables are given for illustration.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
Webern, Anton Webern, Anton von
 works
 symmetry in music
 twelve-tone scale
 autographs
analysis analysis
 palindrome
composers
compositional techniques
harmony
musicology
Ex. 7. Abstracts and subjects for Phil Ellis, "Layered Analysis: A
Video-Based Qualitative Research Tool to Support the Development of
a New Approach for Children with Special Needs," Bulletin of the
Council for Research in Music Education 130 (fall 1996): 65-74
IIMP abstract
Presents a paper which was delivered at the
Qualitative Methodologies in Music
Education Research Conference II spon-
sored by the Council for Research in Music
Education in which the author discusses his
development of sound therapy for children
with learning disabilities and the resulting
qualitative research methodology of layered
analysis. Describes how a video camera
records sound therapy sessions and details
the stages of processing data. Includes 31
references.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
music education pedagogy
special education general
learning disabilities special education
disabilities learning disabled
music therapy
analysis therapy
conference proceedings
research
research methods
video recordings
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (author)
Presents a paper which was Describes a new approach for
delivered at the children who
Qualitative Methodologies in Music have severe (SLD) or profound and
 multiple
Education Research Conference II learning difficulties (PMLD).
spon- Sound
sored by the Council for Research therapy uses music technology to
in Music create an
Education in which the author environment within which an
discusses his individual
development of sound therapy for can explore and express in sound
children whatever
with learning disabilities and the he or she chooses. A key feature
resulting is the
qualitative research methodology internal motivation of the
of layered individual, an
analysis. Describes how a video aesthetic resonation with sound.
camera
records sound therapy sessions and
details
the stages of processing data.
Includes 31
references.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
music education education
 study and teaching
special education children
learning disabilities
disabilities
music therapy
analysis therapy, music
conference proceedings
research
research methods
video recordings
 tape, video
 educational applications
 electronic music
 synthesizers
 intelligence
 learning process
 influences
 methodology
 technology
 influence
Ex. 8. Abstracts and subjects for Christopher M. Johnson, "Musicians'
and Nonmusicians' Assessment of Perceived Rubato in Musical
Performance," Journal of Research in Music Education 44 (spring 1996):
84-96
IIMP abstract
Features an analysis of a study
involving
rubato and its assessment by
groups of
musicians and nonmusicians (all
either
under-graduate or graduate
students) in
musical performances. Describes
each
group's ability to analyze and
interpret
rubato performances by various
artists,
as well as including brief
comments on
how this ability to interpret
rubato is
developed through substantial
education
in the musical arts.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
interpretation interpretation
 by performer or topic
rubato rubato
 influence on perceived tension
 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
 works
 concertos, horn, K.412, first
 movt.
 perception
 rubato
 relation to musical tension
analysis
music appreciation
music students
performing styles
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (author)
Features an analysis of a study Investigates musicians' and
involving
rubato and its assessment by nonmusicians' assessments of
groups of
musicians and nonmusicians (all perceived rubato in musical
either
under-graduate or graduate performance. Musicians and
students) in
musical performances. Describes nonmusicians listened to four
each
group's ability to analyze and different soloists' performances
interpret
rubato performances by various of the development section from
artists, the
as well as including brief first movement of Mozart's
comments on concerto
how this ability to interpret for horn, K.412. Subjects
rubato is evaluated
developed through substantial the degree of appropriateness of
education
in the musical arts. each soloist's use of rubato.
 Results indicated musicians agreed
 with expert assessments, while
 nonmusicians' scores appeared
 haphazard. Musicians were
 separated
 into two groups based on musical
 skill level; more proficient
 musicians strongly agreed with
 expert assessments, while less
 proficient musicians' scores
 disagreed substantially with those
 of experts. Conclusions suggest
 that a relationship exists between
 musicianship and the use of
 rubato.
HMP subjects MI subjects
interpretation expression
rubato rubato
 perception
analysis
music appreciation college students
music students evaluation
performing styles education
 research
 musicians
 musicianship
 tone
Ex. 9. Abstracts and subjects for William David Stufft,
"Assessing Your Emotional IQ" Teaching Music 4, no. 1 (1996):
42-43
IIMP abstract
Offers a brief guide to assessing one's
own emotional IQ with some suggestions
to modify behaviors which reflect low
emotional IQ and therefore to raise
one's emotional intelligence. Refers to
"Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel
Goleman (Bantam Press, 1995) and
"Fundamental Questions about Emotions,"
edited by Paul Ekmon and Richard
Davidson (Oxford University Press,
1994).
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
 pedagogy
 general
 methodology
 influenced by student
 temperament
 psychology
emotional IQ emotions
 temperament
 relation to pedagogy
music teachers
teacher education
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited)
Offers a brief guide to assessing one's Discusses emotional
own emotional IQ with some suggestions temperament and its
to modify behaviors which reflect low influence on music students.
emotional IQ and therefore to raise Because emotional literacy
one's emotional intelligence. Refers to is essential to success in
"Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel life, it is a subject worth
Goleman (Bantam Press, 1995) and learning and passing on to
"Fundamental Questions about Emotions," students.
edited by Paul Ekmon and Richard
Davidson (Oxford University Press,
1994).
IIMP subjects MI subjects
 teacher-student relationship
 influences
emotional IQ emotion
music teachers educators
 attitudes
teacher education
Ex. 10. Abstracts and subjects for Colin Cooper, "Rally Driving
and Villa-Lobos: Timo Korhonen Talks with Colin Cooper,"
Classical Guitar 14, no. 6 (1996): 11-12, 14
IIMP abstract
Provides an interview with Finnish
classical guitarist Timo Korhonen, who
discusses his early music education and
influences in Finland, his attitude
toward contemporary guitar music, his
recording of the entire Villa-Lobos
guitar works, the role of classical
guitar music, and his teaching at
Sibelius Academy in Helsinki.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
Korhonen, Timo Korhonen, Timo
 interviews
 Villa-Lobos, Heitor
 works
 guitar music
 viewed by Korhonen
classical musicians performers
guitarists guitar
educational influences
Finland
music attitudes
music recording
musical influences
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited)
Provides an interview with Finnish Timo Korhonen wanted to be a
classical guitarist Timo Korhonen, who rally driver before he
discusses his early music education and turned his attention to
influences in Finland, his attitude guitar. He has an affinity
toward contemporary guitar music, his for Latin American guitar
recording of the entire Villa-Lobos music, particularly
guitar works, the role of classical Villa-Lobos.
guitar music, and his teaching at
Sibelius Academy in Helsinki.
IIMP subject MI subjects
Korhonen, Timo Korhonen, Timo
classical musicians
guitarists
educational influences
Finland
music attitudes
music recording
musical influences
Ex. 11. Abstracts and subjects for Bertram Greenspan, "Josef Gingold:
Memories of an Artist, Pedagogue, and Friend," Journal of the Violin
Society of America 14, no. 3 (1996): 197-204
IMP abstract
Provides a tribute by a former
student to the late music educator
Josef Gingold. Discusses Gingold's
methods of teaching especially his
focus on teaching proper practice
exercises. Notes that Gingold was
also a performer and concertmaster
of the Cleveland Orchestra and
played in the NBC Symphony under
Toscanini.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
Gingold, Josef Gingold, Josef
tributes tributes
 obituary
 performers
 violin
 obituaries
music teachers pedagogues
practicing/exercising
IMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredite)
Provides a tribute by a former An obituary for the
student to the late music educator violinist.
Josef Gingold. Discusses Gingold's
methods of teaching especially his
focus on teaching proper practice
exercises. Notes that Gingold was
also a performer and concertmaster
of the Cleveland Orchestra and
played in the NBC Symphony under
Toscanini.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
Gingold, Josef Gingold, Josef
tributes
music teachers
practicing/exercising
Ex. 12. Abstracts and subjects for Michael Kennedy, "Britten's
Operas: 20 Years On," Opera 47 (September 1996): 1004-11
IIMP abstract
Extensive discussion of Britten's operas and
the popularity of his works since his death
20 years ago. Includes reviews of perfor-
mances of "Billy Budd," "Peter Grimes,"
"Albert Herring," and "Paul Bunyan," as
well as other works and their presentations
since his death.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
Britten, Benjamin Britten, Benjamin
 reception
 operas
 England
 1976 to present
popularity reception
United Kingdom United Kingdom
 England
 musical life
opera opera
 by composer
 by place
 influenced by Britten
composers
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor
 Elizabeth L. Wollman)
Extensive discussion of Britten's operas and In England, the public
the popularity of his works since his death response to Britten has
20 years ago. Includes reviews of perfor- intensified
mances of "Billy Budd," "Peter Grimes," since his death.
"Albert Herring," and "Paul Bunyan," as His operas and his
well as other works and their presentations influence on later
since his death. composers are discussed.
 Focus is placed on
 Gloriana and Paul
 Bunyan, two Britten
 operas that failed
 in his lifetime and have
 been revalued and
 rehabilitated since
 his death.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
Britten, Benjamin Britten, Lord Benjamin
 (Edward Benjamin)
 works
 operas
popularity
United Kingdom
opera
composers
Ex. 13. Absracts and subjects for Andreas Richter, "Musik and
Elektronik: Was der Computer alles kann," Das Orchester: Zeitschrift
fur Orchesterkultur und Rundfunk-Chorwesen 44, no. 5 (1996): 21-22
IIMP abstract
Provides an analysis of the possible uses
of the computer in the composition and
reproduction of music. Discusses how a
musical score printed by a computer can
ease or eliminate mistakes made during
the copying or transcribing of scores by
the conductor. Also describes how the
computer can store bits and pieces of
music, via the use of MIDI technology,
for subsequent processing into complete
works. Also briefly describes a few
computer software programs which can
assist in musical notation.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
computers computer applications
computer software survey
composing
MIDI (Musical Instrument
 Digital Interface)
musical scores
orchestral music
technological influences
transcription
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (uncredited)
Provides an analysis of the possible uses The uses and limitations of
of the computer in the composition and computers--from storing and
reproduction of music. Discusses how a synthesizing sound to writing
musical score printed by a computer can scores--are briefly reviewed.
ease or eliminate mistakes made during
the copying or transcribing of scores by
the conductor. Also describes how the
computer can store bits and pieces of
music, via the use of MIDI technology,
for subsequent processing into complete
works. Also briefly describes a few
computer software programs which can
assist in musical notation.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
computers computers
computer software
composing
MIDI (Musical Instrument
 Digital Interface)
musical scores
orchestral music
technological influences
transcription
Ex. 14. Abstracts and subjects for Karsten Erik Ose, "Musikinstrument
als Ziechen: Vanitas vanitatum et omniam vanitas--Ein Stilleben mit
Musikinstrumenten aus dem Umkreis von Evaristo Baschnis," Concerto:
Das Magazin fur Musik 13, no. 118 (1996): 12-15
IIMP abstract
Scholarly examination of a still
life from the school of Italian
Renaissance painter Evaristo Baschenis
(1617-1677). Lengthy consideration
is given to the symbolic elements
present in the depiction of various
musical instruments and their place
in the iconography of paintings
of this genre. The picture itself
is reproduced, together with
several smaller illustrations. A
substantial bibliography and a
full page of footnotes accompany
the article.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
 iconography instruments
 Baschenis, Evaristo (school)
 works, art
 Vanitas vanitatum et...
symbolism instrument symbolism
 libraries, museums, collections
 Germany
 koln
 Wallraf-Richartz-Museum
musicology
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (abstractor Carl
Scholarly examination of a still Skoggard) The iconographic signi-
life from the school of Italian ficance of the painting, preserved
Renaissance painter Evaristo in the wallraf-Richartz-Museum,
Baschenis
(1617-1677). Lengthy consideration Cologne (WRM 2614), is elucidated.
is given to the symbolic elements The work stem from the Bergamo
 school
present in the depiction of surrounding Evaristo Baschenis
various
musical instruments and their (1617-77), a group whose still
place
in the iconography of paintings lifes featuring musical
of this genre. The picture itself instruments were very Widely
is reproduced, together with appreciated.
several smaller illustrations. A
substantial bibliography and a
full page of footnotes accompany
the article.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
 iconography
 Baschenis, Evaristo
symbolism
musicology
Ex. 15. Abstrafts and subjects for Michael Frank, "Versuch uber
Musiken der Trauer und des Todes," Tibia: Magazin fur Holzblaser
21, no. 4 (1996): 252-61
IIMP abstract
Author examines the relatively limited
literature of instrumental funeral,
mourning, and death music as compared
with the large base of text-related
pieces such as requiems. Examines
various patterns of dealing with grief
that are reflected in instrumental works
of mourning, with a particular focus on
20th-century music. Discuss tribute
works such as canons, but also explores
works featuring several stages of the
grieving process. Includes 26
references.
IIMP subjects RILM subjects
death and dying death and dying
 symbolism symbolism
 death
20th century music 20th-c. music psychology
 emotions mourning
 depicted in music
funeral music requiems tributes
history instrumental music
IIMP abstract RILM abstract (based on
 journal's abstract)
Author examines the relatively Among the numerous instrumental
limited
literature of instrumental works of mourning composed in the
funeral,
mourning, and death music as 20th c., there are different
compared
with the large base of approaches to dealing with grief.
text-related
pieces such as requiems. Examines Besides representative or tribute
various patterns of dealing with compostitions, which are usually
grief
that are reflected in instrumental very short (e.g., canons), works
works
of mourning, with a particular can be found that subjectively
focus on
20th-century music. Discuss express grief. A few works pass
tribute
works such as canons, but also through all stages of gried to
explores
works featuring several stages of transcendence, and thus represent
the a
grieving process. Includes 26 kind of "process of grieving" on
references. the part of the composer.
IIMP subjects MI subjects
death and dying death
20th century music
funeral music requiems tributes funeral music
history instrumental music lament
Abstract published in journal
Contrary to the word-related music of mourning and death there is so
far hardly any literature of purely instrumental funeral music. Starting
from how human beings cope with grief, it can be established that within
the numerous instrumental works ofmourning--particulary in the 20th
century -- there are different kinds of dealing with grif: Beside
representative or rather tribute compositions which are partly very
short as e.g., canons, works can be found which subjectively express
grief and--although more seldom--also works which pass through all
stages of grief up to transcendency and thus for the composer represent
also a kind of "process of greiving." (English by S. Seidel)
COPYRIGHT 2001 Music Library Association, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Title Annotation:Muic Index, RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, International Index to Music Periodicals
Author:JENKINS, MARTIN D.
Publication:Notes
Article Type:Product/Service Evaluation
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 1, 2001
Words:11729
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