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A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF SUBJECT INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING IN INTERNATIONAL INDEX TO MUSIC PERIODICALS, RILM ABSTRACTS OF MUSIC LITERATURE, AND THE MUSIC INDEX ONLINE.



There are now three major online databases dedicated to current indexing of the literature of music: The Music Index (hereafter In the future.

The term hereafter is always used to indicate a future time—to the exclusion of both the past and present—in legal documents, statutes, and other similar papers.
 MI); RILM RILM Repertoire International de Litterature Musicale (International Repertory of Musical Literature)  Abstracts of Music Literature (RILM); and International Index to Music Periodicals (IIMP IIMP Integrated Information Management Protocol
IIMP Integrated Information Management Program
). [1] The online version of MI provides citations, but not abstracts, for periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily.  literature in music going back to 1979, and is available both on CD-ROM and via the Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
. It is produced by Harmonie HARMONIE Humanitarian Assistance Response Monitoring and Operations Network--Internet Enterprise  Park Press, which has published the print version of MI since 1949. The Web version was used in the present study. Chadwyck-Healey, after briefly marketing an earlier CD-ROM version of MI, launched its own music database, IIMP, in 1996. Now owned by Bell & Howell How´ell

n. 1. The upper stage of a porcelian furnace.
 Information and Learning, IIMP, provides indexing and abstracts for music periodical literature since 1996 and is steadily adding citations (without abstracts) for pre-1996 literature. IIMP is available on CD-ROM and in two Web versions: a basic product with traditional citations and abstracts, and IIMP Full Text, which add s access to the full text of articles from over forty journals. Trial access to IIMP, Full Text was used for the present study, though no use was made of the full-text options.

RILM is a joint project of the International Musicological mu·si·col·o·gy  
n.
The historical and scientific study of music.



musi·co·log
 Society and the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, and Documentation Centers. Since 1967, it has published abstracts of the whole range of scholarly literature in music, going beyond journal articles to include books, dissertations, catalogs, Festschriften, conference proceedings, and other formats. RILM exists in two electronic versions: it is available on CD-ROM and via the Web from National Information Services See Information Systems.  Corporation (NISC NISC National Institute of Senior Centers
NISC National Information Services Corporation
NISC National Information Solutions Cooperative
NISC NGO (Non-Governmental Organisation) Information and Support Centre
 USA), and Web access is also provided through OCLC FirstSearch. The OCLC product was the primary means of access for the present study, though trial access to the NISC product was arranged for comparison of a few points.

These three databases differ greatly in the ways in which they index the literature. The present study identifies a group of articles that have been treated by all three databases and compares those treatments in both quantitative and qualitative terms. [2]

The quantitative section involved randomly selecting a large group of articles and comparing the number of subjects assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

2.
, total words in the subjects, and unique words in the subjects in each of the three databases, and the number of words in the abstracts in RILM and IIMP. The qualitative aspect required looking more closely at a smaller number of items to compare the appropriateness of subjects chosen for indexing, the content and style of abstracts (for IIMP and RILM), and the accessibility of vocabulary in both.

A search of the library literature found no studies comparing both indexing and abstracting of the same articles by different databases. Though many articles can be found comparing various utilities' coverage of particular topics or journals, very few actually examine subject access at the individual record level. MaryEllen C. Sievert sie·vert
n.
Abbr. Sv A unit of ionizing radiation absorbed dose equivalent in the International System of Units, obtained as a product of the absorbed dose measure in grays and a dimensionless factor, stipulated by the International
 and Alison Alison

betrays old husband amusingly with her lodger, Nicholas. [Br. Lit.: Canterbury Tales, “Miller’s Tale”]

See : Adultery
 F. Verbeck [3] come closest with a document-level comparison of subject indexing Subject indexing is the act of describing a document by index terms to indicate what the document is about or to summarize its content. The index terms are often selected from some form of controlled vocabulary.  of the literature of online searching in Library and Information Science Abstracts and the education database ERIC, but their study did not include comparison of abstracts.

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Quantitative Analysis

A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.

Notes:
 

In order to carry out the comparisons envisioned for this study, it was necessary to generate a group of articles for which full treatment could be found in all three databases. This study was meant to be descriptive rather than predictive, and care was taken to make the sample generation process as objective as possible. The sample was limited to articles from 1996 in order to eliminate pre-1996 citation-only records in IIMP and post-1996 brief records added to RILM as part of its current citations project. A list was created of ninety-eight journals which each of the three databases claimed to index comprehensively. [4] Twenty-nine titles for which 1996 coverage could not be found in at least one of the three databases were dropped from this list, and the remaining sixty-nine journals were then divided into four classes: musicology musicology, systematized study of music and musical style, particularly in the realm of historical research. The scholarly study of music of different historical periods was not practiced until the 18th cent., and few published efforts were rigorously researched. ; performance; theory/composition; and music education. In order to examine specific trends in the treatment of non-English material, non-English journals were isolated into a se parate class. [5]

Using only titles from each database's comprehensive list resulted in very small groups for performance and music education. Therefore, seventeen journals that are covered comprehensively by MI and IIMP and selectively by RILM were added to these classes. [6] The final list consisted of eighty-six journals: thirty-nine in the musicology class; eight in theory/composition; ten in performance; seven in music education; and twenty-seven in the non-English class.

Each journal tide was searched for articles dated 1996 in RILM (using OCLC FirstSearch), yielding lists of 391 articles in the musicology class, 110 in theory/composition, 172 in performance, 119 in music education, and 399 in the non-English class. Articles were chosen randomly from these lists until thirty in each class were found for which there was coverage in all three databases. [7]

For each database record, the number of subjects and the total number of words in the subjects were counted. [8] Also, as a way of approximating how many distinct concepts were conveyed by the subjects, the number of unique words in the subjects was counted. For records from RILM and IIMP, the number of words in the abstract was counted by cutting and pasting paste 1  
n.
1. A soft, smooth, thick mixture or material, as:
a. A smooth viscous mixture, as of flour and water or of starch and water, that is used as an adhesive for joining light materials, such as paper and cloth.
 each abstract into a word-processing program and using the word count feature. (MI does not include abstracts.)

RESULTS

Patterns of strength and weakness emerged for each of the three databases as illustrated in table 1. Among the three, IIMP tended to have the most subjects per entry in all classes except music education, where MI had the highest average. Looking at the number of unique words in the subject fields, RILM had the highest averages in all classes except music education, which was again led by MI. The music education class showed the widest spread in the average number of subjects, with MI averaging 6.83 per entry and RILM only 2.63. The widest spread in the number of unique words came in the performance class, from RILM's 14.60 words per entry to 8.17 words per entry in MI.

Comparing length of abstracts, RILM devoted significantly greater length to articles in the musicology class than IIMP. On the other hand, while articles in the performance class had the shortest average abstract within IIMP, this average was still over twice that in RILM. The theory/composition and music education classes were more evenly covered, with the averages differing by just over one word between the databases.

Looking at the databases individually, IIMP (table 2) showed the most internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. , both across the journal classes as shown by the narrow ranges among all of the averages (just over six words in the abstract and less than three words per subject) and within the classes as reflected by the relatively small standard deviations compared to the other databases. Journals in the performance class had the highest average in each of the subject categories but the shortest average abstract. The longest average abstract was found in the music education class.

In RILM (table 3), the musicology class had the highest averages in all categories. Music education had the lowest averages in all the subject categories but the second longest average abstract. The shortest average abstract was found in the performance class. The large standard deviations show that many individual entries diverged widely from the averages. Across the whole sample, abstracts ranged from as many as 180 to as few as five words. A number of cases could be found where the number of words in the subjects was greater than the number in the abstract.

The standard deviations in the MI sample (table 4) show that individual records were widely distributed Adj. 1. widely distributed - growing or occurring in many parts of the world; "a cosmopolitan herb"; "cosmopolitan in distribution"
cosmopolitan

bionomics, environmental science, ecology - the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms
 across their range, which in the case of total words in the subject field ran from one to 107. Music education seemed to be MI's strong suit, the journals in this class having the highest averages in each category by a relatively wide margin. Performance journals, on the other hand, consistently had the lowest averages, also by a wide margin.

Table 5 shows the averages for the non-English class compared with the combined averages for the four topical classes. Looking at the three subject field categories across the databases, the patterns are similar, with IIMP having the highest average number of subjects and RILM the most total words and unique words, but the margins by which RILM led those categories was much greater in the non-English class. In the topical classes, MI had slightly higher combined averages than IIMP in total words and unique words, but in the non-English class MI had the lowest average in all three categories by a wide margin. Comparing averages for English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is  versus non-English articles, RILM had higher averages in all the subject categories but a slightly shorter average abstract for the non-English class. This pattern was exactly reversed in IIMP, and in fact the average abstract for a non-English item in IIMP was over nine words longer than that in RILM

Some general impressions emerge from these numbers which are worth noting before reviewing the comparison of individual records. The first regards treatment of subject access. IIMP's high numbers of subjects but lower numbers of words suggest a highly browsable scheme with each significant concept providing a direct point of access. The patterns in MI suggest a similar approach, although generally with fewer access points than IIMP. The numbers in RILM are just the opposite, the average record having only a handful of subjects but containing many words suggesting the use of lengthy headings encompassing several concepts, less suited to browsing See browse.  but highly descriptive.

Second, certain topical classes emerge as areas of relative strength for each of the three databases. As already noted, MI was particularly strong in music education. The journals in this class not only led all categories within MI, but MI also had higher averages in this class than the other two databases for number of subjects and number of unique words. As might be expected from a service begun by musicologists A musicologist is someone who studies musicology. An ethnomusicologist is someone who studies ethnomusicology; a zoomusicologist is someone who studies zoomusicology. , RILM was strongest in musicology, leading the other databases in all data categories for this class, and this class leading all topical classes within RILM. The clearest advantage for IIMP appeared in the performance class, where it outperformed the low averages in the subject categories in MI and the short abstracts in RILM.

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Qualitative Analysis

Securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on nonquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations.
 

The second phase of the investigation was to examine closely a smaller group of records and compare the content of the abstracts and subject headings in each database. This is by nature a more subjective operation than simply counting words and headings, but maximum possible objectivity was maintained by again using a random number generator A program routine that produces a random number. Random numbers are created easily in a computer, since there are many random events that take place such as the duration between keystrokes.  to select the examples, five articles from each of the five journal classes. For purposes of space and readability, only three of those examples from each class are discussed here. It is recognized that this is far too small a sample from which to reach any predictive conclusions, but such an examination does allow one to begin to develop possible explanations for the trends seen in the statistical phase of the study.

Abstracts from RILM and IIMP were compared by extracting keywords and arranging them into parallel columns, connecting similar or identical terms, and highlighting those unique to one abstract. In the examples below, the abstracts as published will be presented in parallel columns, with connections and divergences pointed out in the commentary. [9]

Subjects were similarly arrayed into three parallel columns for comparison, and were then reordered to reflect representation of similar concepts. Because subjects in IIMP and MI display in alphabetical order, the relevance-based order of subjects in RILM was used as the basis for the reordering re·or·der  
v. re·or·dered, re·or·der·ing, re·or·ders

v.tr.
1. To order (the same goods) again.

2. To straighten out or put in order again.

3. To rearrange.

v.
 in the examples. Because the focus is on distinct concepts, subdivisions that are repeated in RILM are not repeated in the tables that follow. Subdivisions are indented in·dent 1  
v. in·dent·ed, in·dent·ing, in·dents

v.tr.
1. To set (the first line of a paragraph, for example) in from the margin.

2.
a.
 below main entries.

Before beginning the individual comparisons, it is appropriate to note some general observations about each database's abstracting and subject indexing practices. The RILM and MI Web sites advertise the use of a thesaurus to guide their subject indexing. [10] IIMP makes no similar claim on its Web page, but editor Sarah Brechner referred to the use of a thesaurus in her response to an e-mail query. [11] Subjects in IIMP and MI are mostly one or two words and generally employ common language. IIMP subjects are not subdivided. MI uses a few standard subdivisions, such as "study and teaching" and "general works." RILM subjects are single words or brief phrases in scholarly language, and each can have several subdivisions. Subjects are frequently repeated in rotated rotated

turned around; pivoted.


rotated tibia
see rotated tibia.
 form so important concepts contained in subdivisions also become main entries. For personal names used in subjects, both IIMP and RILM establish forms similar to those in common use, though neither agrees completely with the Library of Congress Name Authority File. MI consistently establishes the fullest possible form for each name, even if the form is not commonly used, for example, "Mozart An earlier screen scraper from Mozart Systems Corporation, Burlingame, CA, that was used to turn a character-based mainframe screen into a Windows or DOS front end via 3270 emulation. Originally named Enter 3270, it was noted for being able to easily combine multiple terminal screens into one. , Johann Chrysostom Chrysostom: see John Chrysostom, Saint.  Wolfgang Wolfgang may refer to:
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Wolfgang Pauli
  • Wolfgang Borchert
  • Wolfgang Ketterle
  • Wolfgang Langewiesche
  • Wolfgang of Regensburg
  • Dr.
 Amadeus Amadeus, 1845–90, king of Spain (1870–73), duke of Aosta, son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. After the expulsion (1868) of Queen Isabella II, Juan Prim urged the Cortes to elect Amadeus as king. He accepted the crown reluctantly. ."

A fundamental difference in philosophy between IIMP and RILM is found when examining the abstracts. Abstracts in IIMP are indicative, using active voice sentences that tend to begin with a verb verb, part of speech typically used to indicate an action. English verbs are inflected for person, number, tense and partially for mood; compound verbs formed with auxiliaries (e.g., be, can, have, do, will) provide a distinction of voice.  (implying a subject of "the author" or "the article") to describe the topic of the article. These abstracts are written by in-house staff, though abstracts published with an article may be used as the basis for the IIMP abstract with "sentences in the published abstract ... modified by IIMP's editors to conform to Verb 1. conform to - satisfy a condition or restriction; "Does this paper meet the requirements for the degree?"
fit, meet

coordinate - be co-ordinated; "These activities coordinate well"
 IIMP's stylistic sty·lis·tic  
adj.
Of or relating to style, especially literary style.



sty·listi·cal·ly adv.
 and length guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
." [12]

Authors of abstracts for RILM, on the other hand, are instructed to attempt to summarize sum·ma·rize  
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.



sum
 the conclusions of the article in a declarative de·clar·a·tive  
adj.
1. Serving to declare or state.

2. Of, relating to, or being an element or construction used to make a statement: a declarative sentence.

n.
 style rather than simply convey the topic. [13] Abstracts appearing with articles are edited for style and published with attribution at·tri·bu·tion  
n.
1. The act of attributing, especially the act of establishing a particular person as the creator of a work of art.

2.
. In the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , RILM actively encourages authors to contribute abstracts for their own publications; when author-contributed abstracts are not available, abstracts are written by volunteers who are themselves music scholars or librarians This is a list of people who have practised as a librarian and are well-known, either for their contributions to the library profession or primarily in some other field. . [14] In France and Germany Germany (jûr`mənē), Ger. Deutschland, officially Federal Republic of Germany, republic (2005 est. pop. 82,431,000), 137,699 sq mi (356,733 sq km). , most abstracts are written by RILM office staff in each country.

Another difference between the two services appears in their treatment of some documentary and generic publications. IIMP provides a full abstract for each record, regardless of the nature of the article. RILM provides only brief descriptions for most documentary publications such as bibliographies and catalogs, and also for generic pieces such as obituaries. [15] Examples of both will be seen below. IIMP abstracts often include sentences describing special features of the article, such as the presence of music examples or illustrations. RILM includes such information in a separate field.

MUSICOLOGY CLASS

The first group of records for in-depth comparison was drawn from the musicology class, beginning with "Thomas de Hartmann Hartmann is a surname and may refer to:
  • Hartmann von Aue
  • Eduard Von Hartmann
  • Erich Hartmann, German fighter ace (1922-1993)
  • Felix Cardinal von Hartmann
  • Heinz Hartmann, Viennese psychoanalyst, developer of Ego Psychology (1894-1970)
: A Life," which was published in Notes (ex. 1). The abstracts created for this article illustrate the difference between the summary approach of RILM and the descriptive philosophy of IIMP The IIMP abstract summarizes events in Hartmann's life reported in the article, and mentions a particular work, La fleurette fleurette /fleur·ette/ (floor-et´) [Fr.] a type of cell found in clusters in retinoblastomas and retinocytomas, representing differentiation of tumor cells into photoreceptors.  rouge Rouge, river, United States
Rouge (rzh), river, c.30 mi (50 km) long, rising in S Michigan and winding S and SE to the Detroit River at the city of River Rouge.
, not mentioned by RILM. But while the IIMP abstract mentions connections with Kandinsky Kan·din·sky or Kan·din·ski   , Wassily 1866-1944.

Russian abstract painter who considered form and color capable of expression. A founder of Blau Reiter, a German group of abstract expressionists, he also taught at the Bauhaus School
 and Gurdjieff Gur·djieff   , George Ivanovich Originally George S. Georgiades. 1874?-1949.

Armenian-born spiritual leader. Following a period of extensive travel in the Middle East and Asia, he founded (1919) the Institute for the Harmonious Development of
, it is the RILM abstract that more clearly conveys the influence these affiliations had on Hartmann's career. These connections are further amplified by RILM's subjects, which include the entries "Kandinsky, Wassily-aesthetics--relation to Hartmann," "Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch-aesthetics--influence on Hartmann," and "Sakharoff, Alexandre-works, choreography--collaborations with Hartmann." MI includes subject entries for Gurdjieff and Kandinsky, but includes no subdivis ions to point out the connections. IIMP ignores these other persons in the subject entries, providing only the broad terms "biographies," "composers," and "Russian music" in addition to the entry for Hartmann.

The three different treatments of Hartmann's name are worth noting. As a point of comparison, the Library of Congress Name Authority File has established his name as "Hartmann, Thomas de." RJLM has established a form without the "de," while IIMP not only includes "de" but has made the questionable decision to treat it as the initial element of the surname SURNAME. A name which is added to the christian name, and which, in modern times, have become family names.
     2. They are called surnames, because originally they were written over the name in judicial writings and contracts.
. As mentioned in the general observations above, MI has used the fullest possible form of the name, including a variant variant /var·i·ant/ (var´e-ant)
1. something that differs in some characteristic from the class to which it belongs.

2. exhibiting such variation.


var·i·ant
adj.
 name in parentheses. It should be noted that there were three records in MI for this article, two with Hartmann as the only subject, and the third having entries only for Gurdjieff and Kandinsky.

Example 2 shows the abstracts and subjects for an experimental article from the Journal of Band Research, as well as the abstract that was published with the article. Both RILM and IIMP condense con·dense  
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es

v.tr.
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.

2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.

3. Physics
a.
 the original abstract to some degree, but RILM retains more information about the design of the experiment. RILM also retains more of the language and syntax syntax: see grammar.
syntax

Arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts.
 of the original abstract, while IIMP adapts these to conform to its chosen indicative style. Even the one sentence taken nearly verbatim ver·ba·tim  
adj.
Using exactly the same words; corresponding word for word: a verbatim report of the conversation.

adv.
 by IIMP from the journal's abstract has the phrase "Concludes that..." appended to its beginning.

Through the use of subdivisions, the two subjects each in MI and RILM convey a better idea about the content of the article than the six subject terms in IIMP. The latter's "band music" and "high school students" do correspond closely with subject elements in the other two databases, but the interaction between those concepts is not elucidated. Of the other terms in the IIMP record, two are near-synonyms for the type of group performing the excerpts, and the others ("emotions" and "music appreciation") are broad terms that include concepts studied in the article but that are better described by RILM's narrower terms. Nil's "students-attitudes" and "wind band music-evaluation" give a somewhat better idea of the nature of the investigation, though the age group information ("high school") provided by RILM and IIMP is lacking. But it is clearly the subjects with multiple subdivisions in RILM that best describe what the article is about and how the concepts are interrelated in·ter·re·late  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.



in
.

The final item in the musicology class is an example of a documentary publication, specifically a bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books.  (ex. 3). RILM simply makes a connection to previous entries in the series, noting the dates of material covered by the new installment. IIMP on the other hand gives a full description of the content of the bibliography, listing all of the categories of material included. Similarly, IIMP's subject treatment includes useful related terms in addition to "chants," with only the term "research" seeming overly broad. MI includes headings not only for topics in the bibliography ("hymns," "neumes," "oral tradition") but also for formats of material cataloged ("facsimile editions," "Festschriften"). RILM focuses more narrowly on "Christian Christian

flees the City of Destruction. [Br. Lit.: Pilgrim’s Progress]

See : Escape


Christian

travels to Celestial City with cumbrous burden on back. [Br. Lit.
 chant chant, general name for one-voiced, unaccompanied, liturgical music. Usually it refers to the liturgical melodies of the Byzantine, Russian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican churches and is analogous to cantillation in Jewish liturgical music, Qur'anic chanting ," and is the only one of the three databases to note the range of publication dates of the material cataloged.

THEORY/COMPOSITION CLASS

The first item from this class illustrates that interviews are another genre of article for which RILM provides only minimal treatment (ex. 4). In fact, in this case even MI provides as much information as RILM, since the former includes a note field stating the same data as the RILM abstract. IIMP on the other hand, provides a lengthy abstract that lists the concepts Xenakis touches on in the interview, though without indicating what he says about them. The subject treatment is similarly more complete in IIMP, adding four topical terms (plus the broad "composers") to the name entry found in all three databases.

Example 5 is the treatment of "Articulating Microtime," which appeared in Computer Music Journal. The abstracts are almost exactly the same length, and the first half of the IIMP abstract is nearly identical to the last sentence of the RILM abstract. But even though the RILM abstract was contributed by the author of the article, it is the IIMP abstract that conveys more detail by listing specific areas of sound processing affected by the introduction of computers. There is a difference in emphasis in the subject treatment as well. Although both abstracts refer to the field of "sound processing," RILM's subjects are focused on composition, while IIMP includes both "compositional techniques" and "sound processing" as subjects. MI's headings place the emphasis somewhere between the two, but seem to lean toward the centrality of composition as a topic for the article. While neither RILM nor MI includes an entry for any temporal Having to do with time. Contrast with "spatial," which deals with space.  concept, IIMP includes an entry for "microtime." This is not at all a common term, an d in fact as of this writing the present example is the only article assigned this subject term in IIMP.[26] Application of a broader temporal concept would have made the article more retrievable.

The final example from the theory/composition class provides a telling comparison between the descriptive abstract style of IIMP and the summary style of RILM (ex. 6). IIMP's first two sentences, though quite lengthy, really only tell us that Webern's row for this concerto concerto (kənchâr`tō), musical composition usually for an orchestra and a soloist or a group of soloists. In the 16th cent. concertare and concertato implied an ensemble, either vocal or instrumental.  is regarded as highly ingenious in·gen·ious  
adj.
1. Marked by inventive skill and imagination.

2. Having or arising from an inventive or cunning mind; clever: an ingenious scheme. See Synonyms at clever.

3.
, and that it is somehow related to a Latin Lat·in  
n.
1.
a. The Indo-European language of the ancient Latins and Romans and the most important cultural language of western Europe until the end of the 17th century.

b.
 palindrome palindrome: see anagram. . The abstractor for RILM tells us more in fewer words by stating directly what Webern was attempting to accomplish. Similarly, considering the issue of the sketches, the IIMP abstract says only that "The author intends to ... put [them] in chronological chron·o·log·i·cal   also chron·o·log·ic
adj.
1. Arranged in order of time of occurrence.

2. Relating to or in accordance with chronology.
 order." The RILM abstract states that the author actually has put the sketches in chronological order and what that information means to the researcher. So although the IIMP abstract is longer by nineteen words, it is the RILM abstract that more directly conveys the author's viewpoint. [17]

Similarly, comparable numbers of subject terms among the three databases do not translate into comparable quality of subject access. Webern's name is the only subject term shared by all three, and of these only RILM adds a subdivision for the particular work under consideration. MI and RILM both include subjects dealing with serialism serialism

Use of an ordered set of pitches as the basis of a musical composition. The terms 12-tone music and serialism, though not entirely synonymous, are often used interchangeably.
 (though MI's term is "twelve-tone twelve-tone
adj. Music
Relating to, consisting of, or based on an arrangement of the 12 chromatic tones.


twelve-tone
Adjective
 scale"), symmetry symmetry, generally speaking, a balance or correspondence between various parts of an object; the term symmetry is used both in the arts and in the sciences.  (though only as a subdivision in RILM) and the sketches (RILM: "source studies"; MI: "autographs").

IIMP, which had readily used the term "microtime" in example 5 above, amazingly Adv. 1. amazingly - in an amazing manner; to everyone's surprise; "amazingly, he finished medical school in three years"
astonishingly, surprisingly

amazingly advextraordinariamente 
 does not use any subject term for the much more common concept of "serialism," providing only the broader terms "compositional techniques" and "harmony." The remaining IIMP, subject terms, "composers, "analysis" (also used by MI) and "musicology," are so broad as to offer little insight into the nature of the article.

MUSIC EDUCATION CLASS

The first example in this class comes from an issue of the Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education devoted to papers from a conference on qualitative methodology in music education research (ex. 7).

Each of the three databases deals with the conference aspect differently. IIMP actually includes it in the article record twice, including a separate "publication note" field as well as giving the full conference title in the body of the abstract. MI provides access to the conference by including it at the beginning of the article tide field. RILM creates a separate record for the full conference proceedings, with references to the records for the individual papers; however, there is no reciprocal Bilateral; two-sided; mutual; interchanged.

Reciprocal obligations are duties owed by one individual to another and vice versa. A reciprocal contract is one in which the parties enter into mutual agreements.
 reference from the individual paper to the collective record and no mention of the conference anywhere in the record.

There is remarkably little overlap o·ver·lap
n.
1. A part or portion of a structure that extends or projects over another.

2. The suturing of one layer of tissue above or under another layer to provide additional strength, often used in dental surgery.

v.
 in terminology between the IIMP abstract and the author-contributed abstract in RILM. "Children" and "sound therapy" are the only significant words that appear in both abstracts, along with the concept of "learning disabilities," expressed in more clinical language in RILM. Neither abstract really explains what "layered analysis" or "sound therapy" is, but the RILM abstract does state what it attempts to do, making it more useful to the curious researcher.

The subject terms chosen for the concepts of music education and music therapy provide good examples of each database's approach to subject vocabulary. IIMP uses the most common forms, likely to be the way most undergraduates would express these concepts. MI's editors have decided that being a database of music literature, the word "music" can be safely dropped ("education-research") or rotated out of first position ("therapy, music") for many common concepts. RILM also drops "music" where it is not required, and its tendency toward scholarly vocabulary is seen in the use of "pedagogy" rather than "education." In the choice of concepts to index, most remarkable is MI's failure to include any heading pertaining per·tain  
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.

2.
 to special education or learning disabilities, both of which are addressed by the two abstract services in similar terms. Apart from this omission omission n. 1) failure to perform an act agreed to, where there is a duty to an individual or the public to act (including omitting to take care) or is required by law. Such an omission may give rise to a lawsuit in the same way as a negligent or improper act. , MI's nine subjects describe more discrete concepts than IIMP's ten because IIMP includes two pairs of broader and narrower terms for similar concepts ("dis abilities" and "learning disabilities"; "research" and "research methods") and the generic heading "conference proceedings." Another IIMP subject term used here is "analysis." In earlier examples, we have seen this term applied to articles analyzing musical works; its use here illustrates one of the drawbacks of not using a subdivided structure to clarify the relationship between terms, and also raises the question of what "analysis" means in IIMP's subject field.

This troublesome heading appears in IIMP's subject for the next example as well (ex. 8), where it apparently refers to the experimental subjects' ability to "analyze ... rubato ru·ba·to   Music
n. pl. ru·ba·tos
Rhythmic flexibility within a phrase or measure; a relaxation of strict time.

adj.
Containing or characterized by rubato.
 performances." The author, in the RILM abstract, uses the term "assessment," and it is the element being assessed, rubato, that is the most central concept to include in the subjects. All three databases have subject elements for this term (in RILM as a subdivision) along with the more general concept of interpretation (rendered in MI as "expression"). MI and RILM both include the psychological concept "perception," excluded by IIMP. IIMP and MT both account to some extent for the participants in the experiment ("music students" and "college students" respectively), while only RILM makes a heading for the musical work used in the experiment.

Comparison of the abstracts continues the trend we have seen in most of the previous examples, with the author-contributed RILM abstract providing more detail about the experiment and summarizing the findings. The only significant information unique to the IIMP abstract is the age group of the participants ("undergraduate or graduate students").

Example 9 comes from a journal that RILM covers selectively rather than comprehensively: only articles deemed scholarly receive full treatment from RILM. This article is practical in nature, and so receives a very brief abstract in RILM compared to that in IIMP. The RILM abstract does say a bit more about possible application of the ideas in the article, but does not provide the connection to the books found in the IIMP abstract.

Both MI and RILM assign subjects to account not just for the emotions of teachers, but also for the influence of students on those emotions. IIMP on the other hand assigns Individuals to whom property is, will, or may be transferred by conveyance, will, Descent and Distribution, or statute; assignees.

The term assigns is often found in deeds; for example, "heirs, administrators, and assigns to denote the assignable nature of
 only subject terms related to teachers. In some previous examples we have noted a tendency in IIMP toward overly broad headings. Here the opposite occurs; the term "emotional IQ" is taken from the article and applied as a subject to the exclusion of any other terms relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 psychology or emotion. As of this writing, this remains the only IIMP record to carry this subject term. [18]

PERFORMANCE CLASS

All of the examples in this class come from journals covered selectively by RILM. Example 10 is an interview with guitarist Timo Korhonen Korhonen is a Finnish surname and may refer to the following people:
  • Ahti Korhonen (b. 1921), Finnish architect
  • Aku Korhonen (1892–1960), Finnish actor
  • Anna-Liisa Korhonen, Finnish ambassador
  • Antti Samuli Korhonen (b.
. RILM does a good job of explaining the reference to rally driving in the title, but the IIMP abstract gives a much better idea about the content of the interview. Surprisingly, it does not mention the discography dis·cog·ra·phy
n.
Examination of the intervertebral disk space using x-rays after injection of contrast media into the disk.
 which both MI and RILM note in the special features field. MI's subject treatment is disappointingly minimal, lacking entries for the interviewee's medium of performance and the principal composer discussed. RILM provides both of these while IIMP goes further by including terms relating to the performer's nationality nationality, in political theory, the quality of belonging to a nation, in the sense of a group united by various strong ties. Among the usual ties are membership in the same general community, common customs, culture, tradition, history, and language.  and his educational and musical influences, though again the relationship is less than clear because these are presented as discrete terms rather than being connected via subdivision.

Example 11 is a tribute to violinist Josef Gingold Josef Gingold (1909-1995) was born in Brest-Litovsk, Russian Empire and emigrated to the United States in 1920 where he studied violin with Vladimir Graffman in New York City and then moved to Belgium for several years to study with master violinist Eugène Ysaÿe. . RILM treats this as an obituary and provides no abstract. An eight-page article would seem to qualify as more than a mere obituary, and thus warrants the full abstract in IIMP. IIMP's subject terms also seem appropriate, although the absence of "violinists This is a list of notable violinists. Baroque era

  • Tomaso Albinoni (1671–1751)
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
  • Thomas Baltzar (1631–1663)
  • Heinrich Biber (1644–1704)
  • Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713)
" is surprising. RILM addresses this gap, but perhaps a heading for "pedagogy" might have been added alongside "pedagogues," especially given the presence of music examples noted in the special features field. Again MI disappoints with only a heading for the subject of the tribute.

Michael Michael, archangel
Michael (mī`kəl) [Heb.,=who is like God?], archangel prominent in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions. In the Bible and early Jewish literature, Michael is one of the angels of God's presence.
 Kennedy's Opera article on Britten Brit·ten   , (Edward) Benjamin 1913-1976.

British composer known for his song cycles, such as Les Illuminations (1939), and operas, including Peter Grimes (1945) and Death in Venice (1973).

Noun 1.
 receives abstracts of comparable length but slightly different emphasis (ex. 12). IIMP notes that the article discusses the popularity of Britten's works since his death, whereas RILM states that the public response "has intensified in·ten·si·fy  
v. in·ten·si·fied, in·ten·si·fy·ing, in·ten·si·fies

v.tr.
1. To make intense or more intense:
" in that time. The IIMP abstract focuses on the reviews of a number of opera performances, while RILM highlights two particular works that have been "revalued and rehabilitated" since 1976, and only RILM mentions Britten's influence on later composers. With the exception of the concept of Britten's influence, subject terms in both RILM and IIMP are mostly parallel. The major difference in vocabulary is IIMP's use of "popularity" while RILM uses the more scholarly (and less weighted) "reception." Once again MI'S only subject entry is the composer's name, subdivided for "works - operas."

NON-ENGLISH CLASS

All of the examples in the non-English journal class happen to be in German, reflecting the preponderance pre·pon·der·ance   also pre·pon·der·an·cy
n.
Superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence.

Noun 1. preponderance
 of German articles in the larger sample. The first is a two-page item on ways computers can be used in music (ex. 13). The primary uses noted in the brief RILM summary, "storing and synthesizing music" and "writing scores," are not much expanded upon by IIMP's eighty-word abstract, though it is helpful to note that particular software packages are described. MI and RILM each assign a single subject relating to computers without attempting to account for the uses made of them. IIMP uses three computer subject terms, including one for the particular protocol "MIDI MIDI
 in full Musical Instrument Digital Interface

Protocol for transmission of musical data between digital components, such as synthesizers and a computer's sound card. MIDI uses 8-bit asynchronous serial transmission with a data rate of 31.
," along with a number of broad terms relating to uses of the machine.

The abstracts for example 14 differ in style but mention most of the same concepts: iconography iconography (ī'kŏnŏg`rəfē) [Gr.,=image-drawing] or iconology [Gr.,=image-study], in art history, the study and interpretation of figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secular; , painting, still life, musical instruments, and Baschenis (with dates). RILM is more geographically specific regarding Baschenis's circle ("Bergamo Bergamo (bĕr`gämō), city (1991 pop. 114,936), capital of Bergamo prov., in Lombardy, N Italy, in the foothills of the Alps. It is an industrial center and an agricultural market. Manufactures include machinery, textiles, and cement.  school" rather than "school of Italian Renaissance painter.. .") and provides the museum name and catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C.  number for the work being studied. On the other hand, the IIMP abstract includes the idea of "symbolic elements" not found in the RILM abstract, though it appears in the subjects in RILM. The difference in length of the two abstracts is mostly accounted for by the final two sentences in IIMP indicating the presence of the illustrations, bibliography, and notes. While most of this information is captured by RILM in the special features field, it is beneficial to have the presence of a reproduction of the painting explicitly stated.

IIMP's subject terms are inadequate, providing no access to the artist or his school and even lacking a term for the proper field of study, iconography. "Symbolism Symbolism

In art, a loosely organized movement that flourished in the 1880s and '90s and was closely related to the Symbolist movement in literature. In reaction against both Realism and Impressionism, Symbolist painters stressed art's subjective, symbolic, and decorative
" is a useful term here, but "musicology" is simply too broad to be significant. MI provides two useful entries, but none for symbolism or musical instruments. RILM's subjects describe the content well, although rotation of a couple of the important concepts (symbolism, musical instruments) to initial positions would have facilitated browsing.

The final example is remarkable because although the abstracts are almost exactly the same length and share many keywords, the differences in how those words are framed considerably alter the apparent emphasis of the article (ex. 15). At the very outset, RILM says that instrumental works of mourning MOURNING. This word has several significations. 1. It is the apparel worn at funerals, and for a time afterwards, in order to manifest grief for the death of some one, and to honor his memory. 2. The expenses paid for such apparel.
     2.
 are "numerous, while IIMP describes the same repertory REPERTORY. This word is nearly synonymous with inventory, and is so called because its contents are arranged in such order as to be easily found. Clef des Lois Rom. h.t.; Merl. Repertoire, h.t.
     2.
 as "relatively limited." Later the two abstracts seem to reverse the relative importance of "tribute works" and those that depict de·pict  
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.

2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent.
 stages of the grief process. RILM seems to dismiss the former with a brief clause ("Besides . . . tribute compositions") while focusing on the latter, whereas IIMP gives more emphasis to the former ("Discusses tribute compositions"), making the latter seem more of an afterthought af·ter·thought  
n.
An idea, response, or explanation that occurs to one after an event or decision.


afterthought
Noun

1.
 ("... but also ...").

IIMP's subject terms include "Requiems," a genre mentioned in the abstract only in the context of distinguishing what the article is not about. To IIMP's credit, it is the only one of the three databases to add a subject term for "instrumental music," which is a distinguishing part of the article's topic.

CONCLUSIONS

In their application of subjects to the fifteen items sampled, the three databases under consideration may be seen to lie along a continuum Continuum (pl. -tinua or -tinuums) can refer to:
  • Continuum (theory), anything that goes through a gradual transition from one condition, to a different condition, without any abrupt changes or "discontinuities"
 of specificity and structure. The approach of each database also reflects its origins in some way.

That subjects in RJLM began as a separate index to a printed collection of abstracts may be seen in its very focused terms and extensive employment of relational and hierarchical A structure made up of different levels like a company organization chart. The higher levels have control or precedence over the lower levels. Hierarchical structures are a one-to-many relationship; each item having one or more items below it.  subdivisions. More than just retrieval points, RJLM subjects help convey the "aboutness" of the item. This is amplified online by the relevance-based order of display in the individual record. Drawbacks to RILM's approach to subject access are that the highly subdivided structure does not lend itself easily to online browsing (this is true using either the OCLC or the NISC interface), and the preference for scholarly over common language can be an obstacle for inexperienced in·ex·pe·ri·ence  
n.
1. Lack of experience.

2. Lack of the knowledge gained from experience.



in
 users.

Subjects in MI were created as a tool for collocating similar entries in a printed index. As such, the tendency is to use rather broader terms than RILM, and to apply more subjects to each item. Though MI subjects were initially modeled on Library of Congress Subject Headings The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus (in the information technology sense) of subject headings, maintained by the United States Library of Congress, for use in bibliographic records. , its Subject Heading List has evolved independently, and MI uses subdivisions much more sparingly spar·ing  
adj.
1. Given to or marked by prudence and restraint in the use of material resources.

2. Deficient or limited in quantity, fullness, or extent.

3. Forbearing; lenient.
. In the examples, MI subjects were generally well-focused on the main topics of the articles. This makes the alphabetical arrangement in the online display less of a drawback DRAWBACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation.  than it might be. Though the shorter headings and minimal use of subdivisions make relationships between concepts less clear than in RILM, the greater number of entry points makes MI much more browsable. There are some constructions used in MI subjects that could pose problems for the novice user ("wind band," "tape, video"), but an online "cross-reference browser browser

Software that allows a computer user to find and view information on the Internet. The first text-based browser for the World Wide Web became available in 1991; Web use expanded rapidly after the release in 1993 of a browser called Mosaic, which used
" provides the necessary connections from more familiar terminology.

IIMP is a product of the computer age, and its application of subject terms seems to reflect the awareness that most users will begin by performing keyword searches. IIMP subject terms are single words or short phrases generally couched in common language, and no subdivisions are employed. Placing all concepts on the same level makes for very high browsability, and the use of accessible language eases retrieval for novice users. Looking at the subject terms applied to individual records and then thinking backwards about how they might be retrieved, however, exposes some drawbacks to the keyword-driven approach to subject access. In the sample, this was seen in the application of terms for concepts receiving only passing mention in the article, of terms whose meaning seems to shift ("analysis"), and of some terms so broad as to be of little assistance ("musicology," "composers"). Many records contain both broad and narrow terms relating to the same concept ("disabilities" and "learning disabilities"). Convers ely, examples were found where unique terms ("microtime," "emotional IQ") were applied to the exclusion of related broader terms that would have eased retrieval. (According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 editor Sarah Brechner, II VIP endeavored during the summer of 2000 to address thesaurus issues such as "tightening up terms, establishing relationships, deleting redundant or inappropriate terms," though of course without updating older records, the infelicities above will remain in the database. [19]) The decision not to employ any subdivisions renders relationships between concepts unclear, and the display of subject terms in alphabetical order makes it difficult to differentiate between topics that are the focus of the article and those more tangentially tan·gen·tial   also tan·gen·tal
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or moving along or in the direction of a tangent.

2. Merely touching or slightly connected.

3.
 related.

Abstracts in an online database serve two purposes: to provide a pool of keywords for access and retrieval; and to convey an idea of what the article says so that its potential usefulness to the reader can be estimated. [20] Based on the fifteen examples above, both RILM and IIMP abstracts fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil  
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.

2.
 the first function well; however, RILM's summary style abstracts were in general more informative about what the articles actually say than were the descriptive abstracts in IIMP. The latter's practice of giving full treatment to all items made its abstracts preferable for some articles in the performance class and for interviews, obituaries, and documentary items for which RILM admittedly provides minimal treatment.

Of course, the findings of this study cannot be considered predictive because of the small sample sizes, and firm recommendations of one database over another cannot be made without considering other issues such as journals covered, currency, and search interface. Nevertheless, a number of observations can be made that will be useful to both scholars and librarians as they use these tools or teach patrons about them.

IIMP browsability and common language make it quite approachable for undergraduates, but users will have to read the abstracts carefully to determine if articles retrieved actually focus on the topics they are seeking. The depth of indexing in IIMP did not vary greatly among the various fields of music, but comparison with the other two databases suggests that IIMP might be the better place to start for users seeking performance-related information.

Although lack of abstracts is a handicap handicap

In sports and games, a method of offsetting the varying abilities or characteristics of competitors in order to equalize their chances of winning. Handicapping takes many, often complicated, forms.
 for MI, the precision of its subject indexing helps ensure that articles retrieved are focused on the topic sought. As noted above, though some of the subject vocabulary is arcane ar·cane  
adj.
Known or understood by only a few: arcane economic theories. See Synonyms at mysterious.



[Latin arc
, the "cross-reference browser" feature leads inexperienced users to the proper terms. It is hoped that eventually the duplicate DUPLICATE. The double of anything.
     2. It is usually applied to agreements, letters, receipts, and the like, when two originals are made of either of them. Each copy has the same effect.
 records can be merged, eliminating a major source of misleading search results. MI will serve most undergraduates well, especially those doing research in music education.

The use of very precise, scholarly indexing language suggests that RILM will best be used by scholars and advanced students, especially in musicology. The lack of cross-references means that librarians will want to encourage less experienced users to consider their terminology carefully. Such users might be well served by beginning with a keyword search of the abstracts, and then noting useful subject terms in relevant records for further searches. Users should also keep in mind that RILM extends its coverage beyond journals to include the whole range of scholarly publishing, and that its summary abstracts generally convey more about the conclusions of a work than the descriptive abstracts in IIMP.

It is hoped that these observations, coupled with the findings of the other studies referred to above, will help librarians and researchers in their approaches to using and teaching about these three databases. Database producers will want to be guided by these studies as they continue to develop their products.

Martin D. Jenkins is music and humanities librarian (1) A person who works in the data library and keeps track of the tapes and disks that are stored and logged out for use. Also known as a "file librarian" or "media librarian." See data library.

(2) See CA-Librarian.
 at Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio Dayton is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States. It is the county seat and largest city of Montgomery County. As of the 2005 census estimate, the population of Dayton was 158,873. . The author wishes to thank Alan Green Alan Green may refer to:
  • Alan Green (broadcaster) (born 1952), British sports commentator on BBC Radio Five Live
  • Alan Green (darts player), an English darts player
  • Alan Green (soccer), a former NASLer
 for his invaluable encouragement and assistance in the development and presentation of this study.

(1.) Music Index (http://www.harmonieparkpress.com/musicindex.html), accessed 14 January January: see month.  2001; RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (http://www.rilm.org See .org.

(networking) org - The top-level domain for organisations or individuals that don't fit any other top-level domain (national, com, edu, or gov). Though many have .org domains, it was never intended to be limited to non-profit organisations.

RFC 1591.
), accessed 14 January 2001; International Index to Music Periodicals (http://iimpft.chadwyck.com), accessed 14 January 2001.

(2.) Concurrent with this project, other investigators compared these three databases for comprehensiveness of journal coverage (Leslie Leslie (Gaelic, derived from a surname meaning 'garden of hollies,'grey fortress, or'garden by the pool')[1] can refer to any of the following: Places
in Scotland:
  • Leslie, Aberdeenshire
  • Leslie, Fife
in the
 Troutman Troutman may refer to:
  • Troutman, North Carolina
Troutman is the surname of:
  • Arenda Troutman (born 1957), American politician
  • Beth Troutman (born 1977), American television personality
  • John Troutman (born 1983), American webcomic artist
); currency of indexing, language coverage, and subject area coverage (Alan Green); and functionality of subject searching (Jerry Jer·ry  
n. pl. Jer·ries Chiefly British Slang
A German, especially a German soldier.



[Alteration of German.
 McBride). Troutman and Green presented their findings at the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, anti Documentation Centers conference in Edinburgh Edinburgh (ĕd`ĭnbərə), city (1991 pop. 433,200) and council area, royal burgh, capital of Scotland, on the Firth of Forth. Leith, part of the city since 1920, is Edinburgh's port. , Scotland, August 2000, and all three will be reporting their results in other publications.

(3.) MaryEllen C. Sievert and Alison F. Verbeck, "The Indexing of the Literature of Online Searching: A Comparison of ERIC and LISA The first personal computer to include integrated software and use a graphical interface. Modeled after the Xerox Star and introduced in 1983 by Apple, it was ahead of its time, but never caught on due to its $10,000 price and slow speed. ," Online Review 11, no. 2 (1987): 95-104.

(4.) This list was developed by Alan Green as part of the preparation for Isis paper mentioned in n. 2.

(5.) Bilingual bi·lin·gual  
adj.
1.
a. Using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency.

b.
 journals were placed in both the non-English class and the appropriate subject class, with individual articles being placed according to language at the time populations were generated.

(6.) For a description of selective v. core coverage in RILM, and a list of journals in these categories, see RILM, "RILM's Primary Journal Titles" (http://www.rilm.org/prime-jt.html), accessed 14 January 2001. Lists of journals indexed by MI and IIMP may be found at Harmonic harmonic.

1 Physical term describing the vibration in segments of a sound-producing body (see sound). A string vibrates simultaneously in its whole length and in segments of halves, thirds, fourths, etc.
 Park Press, "The Music Index Periodical List (1979-99)" (http://www.harmonieparkpress.com/periodical.html), accessed 14 January 2001, and IIMP, "Title Lists" (http://iimpft.chadwyck.com), accessed 14 January 2001.

(7.) Because the goal was to identify articles covered by all three databases, the eighty-six journal title searches were not repeated in MI and IIMP. Any articles found there but not in RILM would have been discarded dis·card  
v. dis·card·ed, dis·card·ing, dis·cards

v.tr.
1. To throw away; reject.

2.
a. To throw out (a playing card) from one's hand.

b.
 anyway. Similarly, articles randomly chosen from the RILM list for which coverage was not found in one of the other databases were also withdrawn from the sample.

(8.) In MI there are multiple records for some articles. For the present study, subjects from all relevant records were counted. McBride found that "the presence of duplicate citations [in MI] appears to have been the result of the conversion from print to the electronic index. In the print index, the same citation Citation

(foaled 1945) U.S. Thoroughbred racehorse. In four seasons he won 32 of 45 races, finished second in ten, and third in two. He won the 1948 Triple Crown, and became the first horse to win $1 million. He set a world record in 1950 by running a mile in 1:33 3/5.
 appears tinder every applicable subject heading. Most of the subject headings for each citation were merged on to a single record in the online index, but some still survive in the database as separate records with a single subject heading." Jerry L. McBride, "comparison of searching in Three Online Indexes of Literature on Music" (unpublished draft, November 2000),8.

(9.) All IIMP abstracts [C]Bell & Howell Information and Learning; all RILM abstracts [C]RILM International. All abstracts reprinted with permission.

(10.) MI, "Welcome to the Music Index: A Subject Author Guide to Music Periodical Literature!" (http://www.hppmusicindex.com/). accessed 15 January 2001, states "Topics ... are carefully categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 and organized according to the framework of an internal Subject Heading List." RILM, "About RILM" (http://www.rilm.org/about.html), accessed l5 January 2001, states "A thesaurus is available as a guide to headwords and indexing policies."

(11.) E-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner, associate editor, Humanities Department, Bell & Howell Information and Learning, dated 28 June 2000.

(12.) IIMP policy quoted in e-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner dated 13 October 2000. Another e-mail message from Brechner dated the same day states that policy in place in 1996 allowed editors to use published abstracts as written with attribution, but all abstracts found in this investigation conformed to the current policy.

(13.) This aim is stated explicitly in sections 4 and 5 of RILM, "How to Write a RILM Abstract" (http://www.rilm.org/abstinfo.html), accessed 14 January 2001.

(14.) The author is a volunteer contributor of abstracts to RILM.

(15.) See "How to write a RILM Abstract," section 3.

(16.) Based on a search for "microtime" in IIMP on 2 November 2000.

(17.) The IIMP abstract includes a statement about the presence of examples and tables, which was included in the word count.

(18.) Based on a search for "emotional IQ" in IIMP on 2 November 2000.

(19.) E-mail correspondence from Sarah Brechner dated 28 June 2000.

(20.) F. W. Lancaster, Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice (Urbana: University of Illinois University of Illinois may refer to:
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (flagship campus)
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
  • University of Illinois at Springfield
  • University of Illinois system
It can also refer to:
 Graduate School of Library and Information Science A School of Library and Information Science (SLIS) is a university-based institution that provides a Master's degree or other advanced degrees associated with Library science, Information Science, or a combination of the two. , 1991), 89-91.
Table 1. Averages for Each Database in Each Journal Group
                 Subjects              Total Words
Journal Class      RILM    IIMP   MI      RILM      IIMP    MI
Musicology         4.10    6.80  5.67     28.30     11.53  13.07
Theory             3.63    6.07  4.27     23.27     11.07  10.93
Music Education    2.63    6.40  6.83     18.33     12.03  16.50
Performance        3.37    7.10  3.17     22.67     12.87   9.10
                 Unique Words                Words in Abstract
Journal Class        RILM      IIMP    MI          RILM         IIMP
Musicology          16.57      10.30  11.77        70.80        57.30
Theory              13.00      10.20   9.87        55.63        54.57
Music Education     11.83      10.00  14.43        61.60        60.37
Performance         14.60      11.47   8.17        26.07        52.63
Table 2. IIMP Averages and Standard Deviations
Journal Class          Subjects  Total Words  Unique Words  Abstract
Musicology       avg.    6.80       11.53        10.30       57.30
                 s.d.    2.94        5.98         4.86       13.53
Theory           avg.    6.07       11.07        10.20       54.57
                 s.d.    1.81        3.54         3.45       23.27
Music Education  avg.    6.40       12.03        10.00       60.37
                 s.d.    2.35        5.60         3.97       13.12
Performance      avg.    7.10       12.87        11.47       52.63
                 s.d.    2.45        6.09         4.77       16.32
Non-English      avg.    5.97        9.80         9.07       60.63
                 s.d.    2.96        5.17         4.52       21.65
Table 3. RILM Averages and Standard Deviations
Journal Class          Subjects  Total Words  Unique Words  Abstract
Musicology       avg.    4.10       28.30        16.57       70.80
                 s.d.    1.85       20.33        10.29       41.89
Theory           avg.    3.63       23.27        13.00       55.63
                 s.d.    2.80       22.75         9.07       45.64
Music Education  avg.    2.63       18.33        11.83       61.60
                 s.d.    1.49       18.44         7.43       42.92
Performance      avg.    3.37       22.67        14.60       26.07
                 s.d.    1.78       13.89         7.80       20.97
Non-English      avg.    3.70       29.10        16.33       51.33
                 s.d.    2.04       19.35         8.68       33.88
Table 4. Music Index Averages and Standard Deviations
Journal Class          Subjects  Total Words  Unique Words
Musicology       avg.    5.67       13.07        11.77
                 s.d.    3.57        8.82         7.57
Theory           avg.    4.27       10.93         9.87
                 s.d.    3.03        8.88         7.83
Music Education  avg.    6.83       16.50        14.43
                 s.d.    3.52        7.54         6.25
Performance      avg.    3.17        9.10         8.17
                 s.d.    3.02        8.55         7.52
Non-English      avg.    2.37        6.40         5.73
                 s.d.    2.06        6.36         5.32
Table 5. Averages for English and Non-English Articles
             Subjects              Total Words
                 RILM  IIMP    MI         RILM   IIMP     MI
Non-English      3.70  5.97  2.37        29.10   9.80   6.40
English          3.43  6.59  4.98        23.14  11.88  12.40
             Unique Words                Abstracts
                     RILM   IIMP     MI       RILM   IIMP
Non-English         16.33   9.07   5.73      51.33  60.63
English             14.00  10.49  11.06      53.53  56.22
Ex. 1. Abstracts and subjects for John Mangan, "Thomas de Hartmann:
A Life," Notes 53, no. 1 (September 1996): 18-29
IIMP abstract
Researches the life and music of
Russian composer Thomas Alexandrovich
de Hartmann (1885-1956). Details his
musical training, his early successes
including the ballet "La Fleurette
rouge," his friendship with painter
Wassily Kandinsky, his affiliation
with mystic spiritualist Georgi
Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, and his career
struggles as he moved throughout
Europe, eventually settling in New
York City in 1950.
IIMP subjects                          RILM subjects
de Hartmann, Thomas                    Hartmann, Thomas
biographies                             life
                                       Kandinsky, Wassily
                                        aesthetics
                                        relation to Hartmann
                                       creative process
                                       Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch
                                        influence on Hartmann
                                       Sakharoff, Alexandre
                                        works, choreography
                                        collaborations with H.
                                       choreographers
                                       dance music
composers
Russian music
IIMP abstract                          RILM abstract (abstractor Janet
                                       Brewer)
Researches the life and music of       In his search for new
Russian composer Thomas Alexandrovich  compositional techniques, Thomas
de Hartmann (1885-1956). Details his   Hartmann (1885-1956) was inspired
musical training, his early successes  by several prominent artists and
including the ballet "La Fleurette     thinkers of the early 20th c.
rouge," his friendship with painter    Hartmann believed firmly in the
Wassily Kandinsky, his affiliation     interrelations among the arts;
with mystic spiritualist Georgi        his search for new compositional
Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, and his career   techniques was analogous to
struggles as he moved throughout       Kandinsky's quest for the
Europe, eventually settling in New     abstract in the visual arts.
York City in 1950.                     Hartmann's work with the
                                       choreographer Alexandre Sakharoff
                                       sparked much discussion around
                                       Munich in 1910. The Georgian
                                       mystic Georges Gurdjieff
                                       profoundly affected Hartmann's
                                       spiritual life.
IIMP subjects                          MI subjects
de Hartmann, Thomas                    Hartmann, Thomas
biographies                             Alexandrovich de
                                       Kandinsky, Vasily
                                       Gurdjieff, George Ivanovitch
composers
Russian music
Ex. 2. Abstracts and subjects for David J. Boyle, Nicholas J. DeCarbo,
and Douglas M. Jordan, "A Comparison of High School Band and Nonband
Students' Reactions to Selected Wind Band Excerpts," Journal of Band
Research 31, no. 2 (1996): 35-51
IIMP abstract
Compares affective responses of high
school band and nonband students to eight
wind band excerpts that varied in
familiarity and stimulative or sedative
characteristics. Concludes that band
students rated excerpts as more familiar
more likable, more interesting, and
better in quality than did nonband
students. Energy and familiarity of
excerpts produced differences in
responding.
IIMP subjects                              RILM subjects
band music bands                           band music
(performing ensembles) wind
ensembles
high school students                       reception high school
                                           students preferences
                                           perception influenced by
                                           familiarity
emotions music appreciation
IIMP abstract                       RILM abstract (based on
                                    journal's abstract)
Compares affective responses of     High school students enrolled in
high
school bandand nonband students to  band (n=115) and nonband (n=64)
eight
wind band excerpts that varied in   classes listened to eight
                                    excerpts;
familiarity and stimulative or      four were believed to be familiar
sedative
characteristics. Concludes that     to most band students, and the
band
students rated excerpts as more     other four unfamiliar. In addition,
familiar
more likable, more interesting,     each excerpt was categorized as
and
better in quality than did nonband  reflecting either high energy
students. Energy and familiarity    (stimulative) or low energy
of
excerpts produced differences in    (sedative) characteristics.
responding.                         Generally, band students rated the
                                    excerpts as more familiar, more
                                    likeable, more interesting, and
                                    better in quality than did nonband
                                    students. Groups differed in
                                    responses to high-energy and low
                                    energy excerpts and to familiar
                                    and
                                    unfamiliar excerpts.
IIMP subjects                       MI subjects
band music bands                    wind band
(performing ensembles) wind         music
ensembles
high school students                 evaluation
                                    students
                                     attitudes
emotions music appreciation


Abstract published in thejournal

The purpose of this study was to compare band and nonband students' reactions to eight wind band excerpts. The study asked students to rate (a) their familiarity with the excerpts, (b) their liking of the excerpts, (c) how interesting they found the excerpts, and (d) their views on how "good" the excerpts were. Also, students were asked to indicate the aspects of the music on which they focused most while listening to each excerpt ex·cerpt  
n.
A passage or segment taken from a longer work, such as a literary or musical composition, a document, or a film.

tr.v. ex·cerpt·ed, ex·cerpt·ing, ex·cerpts
1.
.

Subjects for the study were 179 high school students enrolled in hand (n = 115) and nonband (n = 64) classes. Four excerpts were selected because they were believed to be familiar to most band students. The other four excerpts were selected because they were believed to be unfamiliar to most students. In addition, each "unfamiliar" and "familiar" piece was categorized as reflecting either high energy (stimulative) or low energy (sedative sedative, any of a variety of drugs that relieve anxiety. Most sedatives act as mild depressants of the nervous system, lessening general nervous activity or reducing the irritability or activity of a specific organ. ) characteristics.

Generally, band students rated the excerpts as more familiar, more likable, more interesting, and "better in quality" than did nonband students. Groups differed in responses to high energy and low energy excerpts and to familiar and unfamiliar excerpts.
Ex. 3. Abstracts and subjects for Peter Jeffery, "Liturgical Chant
Bibliography V," Plainsong and Medieval Music 5, no. 2 (1996): 201-10
IIMP abstract
Discusses and lists recent
published writings in the
categories of medieval
hymnodists, tradition and
transmission, neumatic notation,
manuscript facsimiles, regional
chant traditions, medieval
music theory, collective
publications and Festschriften,
and chant today and tomorrow.
IIMP subjects                     RILM subjects
                                  bibliographies
                                    by topic
                                    1992-1996
chants                            chant
                                    Christian (Western)
liturgical music
medieval music
music theory
musical notation
research
IIMP abstract                     RILM abstract (uncredited)
Discusses and lists recent        A continuation of RILM 94-1165 and
published writings in the         93-705, including selected items
                                  published
categories of medieval            between 1992 and 1996.
hymnodists, tradition and
transmission, neumatic notation,
manuscript facsimiles, regional
chant traditions, medieval
music theory, collective
publications and Festschriften,
and chant today and tomorrow.
IIMP subjects                     MI subjects
                                  bibliographies
chants                            chant
liturgical music
medieval music
music theory                      theory
musical notation
research
                                  facsimile editions
                                  festschriften
                                  hymns
                                  neumes
                                  oral tradition
Ex. 4. Abstracts and subjects for Brigitte Robindore, "Eskhate Ereuna:
Extending the Limits of Musical Thought--Comments on and by Iannis
Xenakis," Computer Music Journal 20, no.4 (1996): 11-16
IIMP abstract
Presents condensed remarks
by Iannis Xenakis on his
recent reflections and perspectives
on his theoretical and musical
evolution. Includes discussion of
granular synthesis, deterministic
versus stochastic chaos, the
development of the computer program
Gendy which is designed to produce
musical works wherein the calculus
of probabilities permeates all
levels of compositional activity,
using the Gendy algorithm to
explore stochastic timbre in
composition.
IIMP subjects                        RILM subjects
Xenakis, lannis                      Xenakis, Iannis
                                     Interviews
composers
compositional techniques
computer music
mathematics
stochastic compositions
IIMP abstract                        RILM abstract (uncredited)
Presents condensed remarks           Includes comments from previously
by Iannis Xenakis on his             unpublished interviews and
recent reflections and perspectives  discussions that took place between
on his theoretical and musical       1994 and 1996.
evolution. Includes discussion of
granular synthesis, deterministic
versus stochastic chaos, the
development of the computer program
Gendy which is designed to produce
musical works wherein the calculus
of probabilities permeates all
levels of compositional activity,
using the Gendy algorithm to
explore stochastic timbre in
composition.
IIMP subjects                        MI subjects
Xenakis, lannis                      Xenakis, Iannis
composers
compositional techniques
computer music
mathematics
stochastic compositions
Ex 5. Abstracts and subjects for Horacio Vaggione, "Articulating
Microtime," Computer Music Journal 20, no. 2 (1996): 33-38
IIMP abstract
Surveys some of the musically
significant consequences of the
introduction of digital tools in the
field of sound processing, focusing on
surface versus internal processing, new
representations of sound, and
multi-scale approaches. Includes 62
references.
IIMP subjects                            RILM subjects
compositional techniques                 computer applications
computer music                           composition computer
                                         music
microtime
sound processing
technological influences
technological trends
IIMP abstract                            RILM abstract (author)
Surveys some of the musically            The intersection of music and
significant consequences of the          computers has created myriad
introduction of digital tools in the     possibilities for research and
field of sound processing, focusing on   production. Some of the
surface versus internal processing, new  musically significant
representations of sound, and            consequences of the
multi-scale approaches. Includes 62      introduction of digital tools
references.                              to the field of sound
                                         processing are surveyed.
IIMP subjects                            MI subjects
compositional techniques                 electronic music composition
computer music                           computer produced music
microtime
sound processing
technological influences
technological trends
Ex. 6. Abstracts and Subjects for Kathryn Bailey, "Symmetry as Nemesis:
Webern and the First Movement of the Concerto, Opus 24," Journal of
Music Theory 40 (fall 1996): 245-310
IIMP abstract
Exhaustive analysis of the first movement
of Anton Webern's Concerto for nine
instruments, Op. 24 of 1931-1934 states
the premise that the twelve-tone row
selected by the composer as its basis has
long been regarded as one of the most
ingenious in this compositional genre
and continues the directions taken in
his Symphony, Op. 21 of 1921. Notes the
influence of a Latin palindrome which also
inspired the tone row. The author intends
to present the many sketches for this
movement and put them in chronological
order. Numerous musical examples and
tables are given for illustration.
IIMP subjects                               RILM subjects
Webern, Anton                               Webern, Anton
                                             works
                                             Concertos, op. 24
                                             first movt.
                                             symmetry
                                            serialism
                                            source studies
                                            creative process
analysis
composers
compositional techniques
harmony
musicology
IIMP abstract                       RILM abstract (abstractor Pier
                                    Paolo
                                    Polzonetti)
Exhaustive analysis of the first    In the first movement of op. 24,
movement                            Webern
of Anton Webern's Concerto for      tried to establish a perfect
nine                                symmetry
instruments, Op. 24 of 1931-1934    between the structure of the row
states                              and the
the premise that the twelve-tone    Latin acrostic sator arepo tenet
row                                 opera
selected by the composer as its     rotas. Once the sketches to this
basis has                           work
long been regarded as one of the    are set in chronological order,
most                                Webern's
ingenious in this compositional     process of composition can be
genre                               followed.
and continues the directions taken  The sketches clearly show his
in                                  struggles
his Symphony, Op. 21 of 1921.       to balance structural coherence
Notes the                           and
influence of a Latin palindrome     expression, identity, and variety.
which also                          They
inspired the tone row. The author   portray Webern as a human and
intends                             realistic
to present the many sketches for    artist, as more than a mere
this                                machine.
movement and put them in
chronological
order. Numerous musical examples
and
tables are given for illustration.
IIMP subjects                       MI subjects
Webern, Anton                       Webern, Anton von
                                    works
                                    symmetry in music
                                    twelve-tone scale
                                    autographs
analysis                            analysis
                                    palindrome
composers
compositional techniques
harmony
musicology
Ex. 7. Abstracts and subjects for Phil Ellis, "Layered Analysis: A
Video-Based Qualitative Research Tool to Support the Development of
a New Approach for Children with Special Needs," Bulletin of the
Council for Research in Music Education 130 (fall 1996): 65-74
IIMP abstract
Presents a paper which was delivered at the
Qualitative Methodologies in Music
Education Research Conference II spon-
sored by the Council for Research in Music
Education in which the author discusses his
development of sound therapy for children
with learning disabilities and the resulting
qualitative research methodology of layered
analysis. Describes how a video camera
records sound therapy sessions and details
the stages of processing data. Includes 31
references.
IIMP subjects                                 RILM subjects
music education                               pedagogy
special education                             general
learning disabilities                         special education
disabilities                                  learning disabled
music therapy
analysis                                      therapy
conference proceedings
research
research methods
video recordings
IIMP abstract                       RILM abstract (author)
Presents a paper which was          Describes a new approach for
delivered at the                    children who
Qualitative Methodologies in Music  have severe (SLD) or profound and
                                    multiple
Education Research Conference II    learning difficulties (PMLD).
spon-                               Sound
sored by the Council for Research   therapy uses music technology to
in Music                            create an
Education in which the author       environment within which an
discusses his                       individual
development of sound therapy for    can explore and express in sound
children                            whatever
with learning disabilities and the  he or she chooses. A key feature
resulting                           is the
qualitative research methodology    internal motivation of the
of layered                          individual, an
analysis. Describes how a video     aesthetic resonation with sound.
camera
records sound therapy sessions and
details
the stages of processing data.
Includes 31
references.
IIMP subjects                       MI subjects
music education                     education
                                    study and teaching
special education                   children
learning disabilities
disabilities
music therapy
analysis                            therapy, music
conference proceedings
research
research methods
video recordings
                                    tape, video
                                    educational applications
                                    electronic music
                                    synthesizers
                                    intelligence
                                    learning process
                                    influences
                                    methodology
                                    technology
                                    influence
Ex. 8. Abstracts and subjects for Christopher M. Johnson, "Musicians'
and Nonmusicians' Assessment of Perceived Rubato in Musical
Performance," Journal of Research in Music Education 44 (spring 1996):
84-96
IIMP abstract
Features an analysis of a study
involving
rubato and its assessment by
groups of
musicians and nonmusicians (all
either
under-graduate or graduate
students) in
musical performances. Describes
each
group's ability to analyze and
interpret
rubato performances by various
artists,
as well as including brief
comments on
how this ability to interpret
rubato is
developed through substantial
education
in the musical arts.
IIMP subjects                    RILM subjects
interpretation                   interpretation
                                   by performer or topic
rubato                             rubato
                                   influence on perceived tension
                                 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
                                   works
                                   concertos, horn, K.412, first
                                 movt.
                                 perception
                                   rubato
                                   relation to musical tension
analysis
music appreciation
music students
performing styles
IIMP abstract                    RILM abstract (author)
Features an analysis of a study  Investigates musicians' and
involving
rubato and its assessment by     nonmusicians' assessments of
groups of
musicians and nonmusicians (all  perceived rubato in musical
either
under-graduate or graduate       performance. Musicians and
students) in
musical performances. Describes  nonmusicians listened to four
each
group's ability to analyze and   different soloists' performances
interpret
rubato performances by various   of the development section from
artists,                         the
as well as including brief       first movement of Mozart's
comments on                      concerto
how this ability to interpret    for horn, K.412. Subjects
rubato is                        evaluated
developed through substantial    the degree of appropriateness of
education
in the musical arts.             each soloist's use of rubato.
                                 Results indicated musicians agreed
                                 with expert assessments, while
                                 nonmusicians' scores appeared
                                 haphazard. Musicians were
                                 separated
                                 into two groups based on musical
                                 skill level; more proficient
                                 musicians strongly agreed with
                                 expert assessments, while less
                                 proficient musicians' scores
                                 disagreed substantially with those
                                 of experts. Conclusions suggest
                                 that a relationship exists between
                                 musicianship and the use of
                                 rubato.
HMP subjects                     MI subjects
interpretation                   expression
rubato                           rubato
                                 perception
analysis
music appreciation               college students
music students                   evaluation
performing styles                education
                                 research
                                 musicians
                                 musicianship
                                 tone
Ex. 9. Abstracts and subjects for William David Stufft,
"Assessing Your Emotional IQ" Teaching Music 4, no. 1 (1996):
42-43
IIMP abstract
Offers a brief guide to assessing one's
own emotional IQ with some suggestions
to modify behaviors which reflect low
emotional IQ and therefore to raise
one's emotional intelligence. Refers to
"Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel
Goleman (Bantam Press, 1995) and
"Fundamental Questions about Emotions,"
edited by Paul Ekmon and Richard
Davidson (Oxford University Press,
1994).
IIMP subjects                            RILM subjects
                                         pedagogy
                                           general
                                           methodology
                                           influenced by student
                                         temperament
                                         psychology
emotional IQ                               emotions
                                           temperament
                                           relation to pedagogy
music teachers
teacher education
IIMP abstract                            RILM abstract (uncredited)
Offers a brief guide to assessing one's  Discusses emotional
own emotional IQ with some suggestions   temperament and its
to modify behaviors which reflect low    influence on music students.
emotional IQ and therefore to raise      Because emotional literacy
one's emotional intelligence. Refers to  is essential to success in
"Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel       life, it is a subject worth
Goleman (Bantam Press, 1995) and         learning and passing on to
"Fundamental Questions about Emotions,"  students.
edited by Paul Ekmon and Richard
Davidson (Oxford University Press,
1994).
IIMP subjects                            MI subjects
                                         teacher-student relationship
                                           influences
emotional IQ                             emotion
music teachers                           educators
                                           attitudes
teacher education
Ex. 10. Abstracts and subjects for Colin Cooper, "Rally Driving
and Villa-Lobos: Timo Korhonen Talks with Colin Cooper,"
Classical Guitar 14, no. 6 (1996): 11-12, 14
IIMP abstract
Provides an interview with Finnish
classical guitarist Timo Korhonen, who
discusses his early music education and
influences in Finland, his attitude
toward contemporary guitar music, his
recording of the entire Villa-Lobos
guitar works, the role of classical
guitar music, and his teaching at
Sibelius Academy in Helsinki.
IIMP subjects                            RILM subjects
Korhonen, Timo                           Korhonen, Timo
                                           interviews
                                         Villa-Lobos, Heitor
                                           works
                                           guitar music
                                           viewed by Korhonen
classical musicians                      performers
guitarists                                 guitar
educational influences
Finland
music attitudes
music recording
musical influences
IIMP abstract                            RILM abstract (uncredited)
Provides an interview with Finnish       Timo Korhonen wanted to be a
classical guitarist Timo Korhonen, who   rally driver before he
discusses his early music education and  turned his attention to
influences in Finland, his attitude      guitar. He has an affinity
toward contemporary guitar music, his    for Latin American guitar
recording of the entire Villa-Lobos      music, particularly
guitar works, the role of classical      Villa-Lobos.
guitar music, and his teaching at
Sibelius Academy in Helsinki.
IIMP subject                             MI subjects
Korhonen, Timo                           Korhonen, Timo
classical musicians
guitarists
educational influences
Finland
music attitudes
music recording
musical influences
Ex. 11. Abstracts and subjects for Bertram Greenspan, "Josef Gingold:
Memories of an Artist, Pedagogue, and Friend," Journal of the Violin
Society of America 14, no. 3 (1996): 197-204
IMP abstract
Provides a tribute by a former
student to the late music educator
Josef Gingold. Discusses Gingold's
methods of teaching especially his
focus on teaching proper practice
exercises. Notes that Gingold was
also a performer and concertmaster
of the Cleveland Orchestra and
played in the NBC Symphony under
Toscanini.
IIMP subjects                       RILM subjects
Gingold, Josef                      Gingold, Josef
tributes                             tributes
                                     obituary
                                    performers
                                     violin
                                    obituaries
music teachers                      pedagogues
practicing/exercising
IMP abstract                         RILM abstract (uncredite)
Provides a tribute by a former      An obituary for the
student to the late music educator   violinist.
Josef Gingold. Discusses Gingold's
methods of teaching especially his
focus on teaching proper practice
exercises. Notes that Gingold was
also a performer and concertmaster
of the Cleveland Orchestra and
played in the NBC Symphony under
Toscanini.
IIMP subjects                        MI subjects
Gingold, Josef                       Gingold, Josef
tributes
music teachers
practicing/exercising
Ex. 12. Abstracts and subjects for Michael Kennedy, "Britten's
Operas: 20 Years On," Opera 47 (September 1996): 1004-11
IIMP abstract
Extensive discussion of Britten's operas and
the popularity of his works since his death
20 years ago. Includes reviews of perfor-
mances of "Billy Budd," "Peter Grimes,"
"Albert Herring," and "Paul Bunyan," as
well as other works and their presentations
since his death.
IIMP subjects                                 RILM subjects
Britten, Benjamin                             Britten, Benjamin
                                               reception
                                               operas
                                              England
                                              1976 to present
popularity                                    reception
United Kingdom                                United Kingdom
                                               England
                                               musical life
opera                                         opera
                                               by composer
                                               by place
                                                   influenced by Britten
composers
IIMP abstract                                 RILM abstract (abstractor
                                              Elizabeth L. Wollman)
Extensive discussion of Britten's operas and  In England, the public
the popularity of his works since his death   response to Britten has
20 years ago. Includes reviews of perfor-     intensified
mances of "Billy Budd," "Peter Grimes,"       since his death.
"Albert Herring," and "Paul Bunyan," as       His operas and his
well as other works and their presentations   influence on later
since his death.                              composers are discussed.
                                              Focus is placed on
                                              Gloriana and Paul
                                              Bunyan, two Britten
                                              operas that failed
                                              in his lifetime and have
                                              been revalued and
                                              rehabilitated since
                                              his death.
IIMP subjects                                 MI subjects
Britten, Benjamin                             Britten, Lord Benjamin
                                              (Edward Benjamin)
                                              works
                                              operas
popularity
United Kingdom
opera
composers
Ex. 13. Absracts and subjects for Andreas Richter, "Musik and
Elektronik: Was der Computer alles kann," Das Orchester: Zeitschrift
fur Orchesterkultur und Rundfunk-Chorwesen 44, no. 5 (1996): 21-22
IIMP abstract
Provides an analysis of the possible uses
of the computer in the composition and
reproduction of music. Discusses how a
musical score printed by a computer can
ease or eliminate mistakes made during
the copying or transcribing of scores by
the conductor. Also describes how the
computer can store bits and pieces of
music, via the use of MIDI technology,
for subsequent processing into complete
works. Also briefly describes a few
computer software programs which can
assist in musical notation.
IIMP subjects                              RILM subjects
computers                                  computer applications
computer software                            survey
composing
MIDI (Musical Instrument
 Digital Interface)
musical scores
orchestral music
technological influences
transcription
IIMP abstract                              RILM abstract (uncredited)
Provides an analysis of the possible uses  The uses and limitations of
of the computer in the composition and     computers--from storing and
reproduction of music. Discusses how a     synthesizing sound to writing
musical score printed by a computer can    scores--are briefly reviewed.
ease or eliminate mistakes made during
the copying or transcribing of scores by
the conductor. Also describes how the
computer can store bits and pieces of
music, via the use of MIDI technology,
for subsequent processing into complete
works. Also briefly describes a few
computer software programs which can
assist in musical notation.
IIMP subjects                              MI subjects
computers                                  computers
computer software
composing
MIDI (Musical Instrument
 Digital Interface)
musical scores
orchestral music
technological influences
transcription
Ex. 14. Abstracts and subjects for Karsten Erik Ose, "Musikinstrument
als Ziechen: Vanitas vanitatum et omniam vanitas--Ein Stilleben mit
Musikinstrumenten aus dem Umkreis von Evaristo Baschnis," Concerto:
Das Magazin fur Musik 13, no. 118 (1996): 12-15
IIMP abstract
Scholarly examination of a still
life from the school of Italian
Renaissance painter Evaristo Baschenis
(1617-1677). Lengthy consideration
is given to the symbolic elements
present in the depiction of various
musical instruments and their place
in the iconography of paintings
of this genre. The picture itself
is reproduced, together with
several smaller illustrations. A
substantial bibliography and a
full page of footnotes accompany
the article.
IIMP subjects                           RILM subjects
                                        iconography instruments
                                        Baschenis, Evaristo (school)
                                        works, art
                                        Vanitas vanitatum et...
symbolism                               instrument symbolism
                                        libraries, museums, collections
                                        Germany
                                        koln
                                        Wallraf-Richartz-Museum
musicology
IIMP abstract                       RILM abstract (abstractor Carl
Scholarly examination of a still    Skoggard) The iconographic signi-
life from the school of Italian     ficance of the painting, preserved
Renaissance painter Evaristo        in the wallraf-Richartz-Museum,
Baschenis
(1617-1677). Lengthy consideration  Cologne (WRM 2614), is elucidated.
is given to the symbolic elements   The work stem from the Bergamo
                                    school
present in the depiction of         surrounding Evaristo Baschenis
various
musical instruments and their       (1617-77), a group whose still
place
in the iconography of paintings     lifes featuring musical
of this genre. The picture itself   instruments were very Widely
is reproduced, together with        appreciated.
several smaller illustrations. A
substantial bibliography and a
full page of footnotes accompany
the article.
IIMP subjects                       MI subjects
                                    iconography
                                    Baschenis, Evaristo
symbolism
musicology
Ex. 15. Abstrafts and subjects for Michael Frank, "Versuch uber
Musiken der Trauer und des Todes," Tibia: Magazin fur Holzblaser
21, no. 4 (1996): 252-61
IIMP abstract
Author examines the relatively limited
literature of instrumental funeral,
mourning, and death music as compared
with the large base of text-related
pieces such as requiems. Examines
various patterns of dealing with grief
that are reflected in instrumental works
of mourning, with a particular focus on
20th-century music. Discuss tribute
works such as canons, but also explores
works featuring several stages of the
grieving process. Includes 26
references.
IIMP subjects                             RILM subjects
death and dying                           death and dying
                                          symbolism symbolism
                                          death
20th century music                        20th-c. music psychology
                                          emotions mourning
                                          depicted in music
funeral music requiems tributes
history instrumental music
IIMP abstract                       RILM abstract (based on
                                    journal's abstract)
Author examines the relatively      Among the numerous instrumental
limited
literature of instrumental          works of mourning composed in the
funeral,
mourning, and death music as        20th c., there are different
compared
with the large base of              approaches to dealing with grief.
text-related
pieces such as requiems. Examines   Besides representative or tribute
various patterns of dealing with    compostitions, which are usually
grief
that are reflected in instrumental  very short (e.g., canons), works
works
of mourning, with a particular      can be found that subjectively
focus on
20th-century music. Discuss         express grief. A few works pass
tribute
works such as canons, but also      through all stages of gried to
explores
works featuring several stages of   transcendence, and thus represent
the                                 a
grieving process. Includes 26       kind of "process of grieving" on
references.                         the part of the composer.
IIMP subjects                       MI subjects
death and dying                     death
20th century music
funeral music requiems tributes     funeral music
history instrumental music          lament
Abstract published in journal
Contrary to the word-related music of mourning and death there is so
far hardly any literature of purely instrumental funeral music. Starting
from how human beings cope with grief, it can be established that within
the numerous instrumental works ofmourning--particulary in the 20th
century -- there are different kinds of dealing with grif: Beside
representative or rather tribute compositions which are partly very
short as e.g., canons, works can be found which subjectively express
grief and--although more seldom--also works which pass through all
stages of grief up to transcendency and thus for the composer represent
also a kind of "process of greiving." (English by S. Seidel)
COPYRIGHT 2001 Music Library Association, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Title Annotation:Muic Index, RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, International Index to Music Periodicals
Author:JENKINS, MARTIN D.
Publication:Notes
Article Type:Product/Service Evaluation
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 1, 2001
Words:11729
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