2006, BMC Ecology: Clouded leopards, the secretive top carnivore of South-East Asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia.
dehydration of plants to the point where the leaves lose their turgor and hang limply. Can happen in living plants which later return to normal, or to cut plants before they are fed out. Thought to be a factor in increasing toxicity. A., F. Fischer, S. Abu Bakar, and K.E. Linsenmair, 2006, Clouded leopards, the secretive top carnivore carnivore (kär`nəvôr'), term commonly applied to any animal whose diet consists wholly or largely of animal matter. In animal systematics it refers to members of the mammalian order Carnivora (see Chordata). of South-East Asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia. BMC (BMC Software, Inc., Houston, TX, www.bmc.com) A leading supplier of software that supports and improves the availability, performance, and recovery of applications in complex computing environments. Ecology 6: 16.
BACKGROUND: The continued depletion of tropical rainforests and fragmentation of natural habitats has led to significant ecological changes which place most top carnivores under heavy pressure. Various methods have been used to determine the status of top carnivore populations in rain forest habitats, most of which are costly in terms of equipment and time. In this study we utilized, for the first time, a rigorous track classification method to estimate population size and density of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa Neofelis nebulosa
see clouded leopard. ) in Tabin Wildlife Reserve Tabin Wildlife Refuge is a nature preserve in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It was created in 1984 to preserve Sabah’s disappearing wild animals. Occupying a large part of the peninsula forming the northern arm of Darvel Bay, it is located 48 kilometers in northeastern Borneo (Sabah). Additionally, we extrapolated our local-scale results to the regional landscape level to estimate clouded leopard population size and density in all of Sabah's reserves, taking into account the reserves' conservation status (totally protected or commercial forest reserves), their size and presence or absence of clouded leopards. RESULTS: The population size in the 56 sq. km. research area was estimated to be five individuals, based on a capture-recapture analysis of four confirmed animals differentiated by their tracks. Extrapolation (mathematics, algorithm) extrapolation - A mathematical procedure which estimates values of a function for certain desired inputs given values for known inputs.
If the desired input is outside the range of the known values this is called extrapolation, if it is inside then of these results led to density estimates of nine per 100 sq. km. in Tabin Wildlife Reserve. The true density most likely lies between our approximately 95% confidence interval confidence interval,
n a statistical device used to determine the range within which an acceptable datum would fall. Confidence intervals are usually expressed in percentages, typically 95% or 99%. of eight to 17 individuals per 100 sq. km. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that previous density estimates of 25 animals/100 sq. km. most likely overestimated the true density. Applying the 95% confidence interval we calculated in total a very rough number of 1500-3200 clouded leopards to be present in Sabah. However, only 275-585 of these animals inhabit the four totally protected reserves that are large enough to hold a long-term viable population of >50 individuals.