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1936: The 'Nazi Olympics': Adolf Hitler tried to turn the Berlin games into a showcase for 'Aryan superiority.' but a black American track-and-field star spoiled his party.

To go or not to go? That was the dilemma facing the United States in 1936, when German Chancellor Adolf Hitler hosted the Olympic Games in Berlin.

There were plenty of reasons to stay home. Hitler's theories about the genetic superiority of blue-eyed, blond-haired "Aryans" were well known. German Jews were being persecuted in nearly every aspect of German life, and had, in effect, been banned from competing at the Games.

In short, Hitler's racist rhetoric and anti-Semitic policies flew in the face of the spirit of the Games. Would participating implicitly condone those ideas?

Reasoning that the Games should first and foremost be about athletics, the U.S. decided to attend--even though it was clear that Hitler's agenda had little to do with sports.

Hitler wanted to prove his theories of Aryan supremacy to the world. But by turning the Olympics into a two-week propaganda spectacle, he set the stage for one of the most famous moments in Olympic history: the brilliant performance of black track-and-field star Jesse Owens, who became the first American to win four gold medals in a single Olympiad--and shattered Hitler's Aryan dreams for the Games in the process.

Seventy-five years later, the "Nazi Olympics" are remembered for Owens's remarkable feat against the backdrop of the racial and political tension surrounding the Games, just three years before Germany invaded Poland to start World War II. The 1936 Games are also considered the start of the politicization of the modern Olympics.

"From the standpoint of the Games as a propaganda venue, it starts big-time in 1936," says Olympic historian John Hoberman.

Hitler's Rise

Germany had been selected to host the 1936 Olympics in 1931. At the time, it had a democratic government known as the Weimar (VY-mahr) Republic, which had been in power since Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918.

But when Hitler, the charismatic and anti-Semitic leader of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party, came to power, he turned Germany into a police state. Hitler had built his political movement from the ground up, starting in the 1920s. Germany and its economy were in ruins after the war, and Hitler, a persuasive speaker, promised a return to the powerful, militaristic Germany of the past, blaming the nation's ills, especially its ailing economy, on the Jews.

Through careful maneuvering, Hitler was appointed chancellor (similar to prime minister) in January 1933. Two months later, he forced through legislation that effectively made him dictator.

Once in power, Hitler wasted no time in remilitarizing Germany and carrying out his anti-Semitic program. In April 1933, the Nazis called for a boycott of Jewish businesses. Less than a week later, the Reichstag (parliament) passed a law requiring the removal of Jews and other non-Aryans from government jobs.

In 1935, the Nuremberg Race Laws stripped German Jews of their citizenship and prohibited them from marrying non-Jews. Hundreds of similar laws were passed, all with the goal of excluding Jews from German society.

Fearing that Jewish athletes would not be treated fairly in Berlin, the International Olympic Committee (I.O.C.) considered moving the 1936 Games to Rome or Tokyo. But committee members were persuaded by Additional reporting by Patricia Smith. German promises of fair competition for all athletes.

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In the U.S., President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was up for re-election in 1936, never weighed in on the issue. After much debate, the American Olympic Committee and the Amateur Athletic Union voted to go to Berlin.

The Games themselves became "the greatest publicity stunt in history," in the words of one New York Times reporter. Hitler spared no expense to impress the 150,000 foreign visitors who attended. He ordered all anti-Semitic signs--like those proclaiming Juden sind hier unerwunscht ("Jews are unwanted here")--to be removed during the Games.

Kept Off the Team

His efforts were, by most accounts, successful. Visitors left with the impression that Germany was prosperous, well run, and hospitable. But in a report to Washington, the American ambassador to Germany wrote that Germany's Jews awaited the end of the Olympics with "fear and trembling."

As always, the Games started with the fighting of the Olympic Flame. And for the first time, in what has since become an Olympic tradition, the flame was lit in Olympia, Greece, and carried to the site of the Games by torch.

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True to their promise, the German team had allowed Jewish athletes to try out, but only one--Helene Mayer, a half-Jewish fencer with blond hair--actually competed. Others were kept off the team on technicalities.

The biggest star of the Games turned out to be Owens, the son of a sharecropper and the grandson of a slave. He was born in Alabama in 1913; when he was 9, his family moved to Cleveland, Ohio.

By the time Owens graduated from East Technical High School in Cleveland, he had tied the world record in the 100-yard dash. As a sophomore at Ohio State University, he tied that record again and broke three more--the broad jump, the 220-yard dash, and the 220-yard low hurdles--on the same day.

The first day the 22-year-old Owens competed in Berlin, he won the 100-meter sprint. The next day, he picked up the gold medal in the long jump--after getting advice on how to improve his jump from Carl Ludwig "Luz" Long, a German athlete who ended up placing second to Owens. The day after that, Owens won the gold in the 200-meter dash. A few days later, Owens won his fourth gold, in the 400-meter relay.

The crowd greeted each of his four gold-medal wins with thunderous applause, and Owens's victories discredited Hitler's belief that Aryans would triumph in competition against "inferior" races.

For Owens, the trip to Germany was not his first experience with racism. Because of segregation in the U.S., he later wrote in his autobiography, Owens couldn't always sleep in the same hotels as his Ohio State teammates during road trips. And as for his reception at the Olympics, he wrote: "I wasn't invited to shake hands with Hitler, but I wasn't invited to the White House to shake hands with the president either."

The Berlin Olympics were "widely considered to have been a foreign policy success," says Hoberman, the Olympic historian. "I think that they did fool a lot of people into thinking the Nazis were less interested in war-making in Europe than they actually were."

During the closing ceremonies in Berlin, Count Henri de Baillet-Latour, president of the I.O.C., invited everyone to reassemble in Tokyo, Japan, four years later--but the 1940 Olympics never took place.

Nazi rule became increasingly harsh: "Undesirables"--including Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals--were sent to concentration camps, where millions would perish. In September 1939, World War II began with Germany's invasion of Poland. Two years later, Japan attacked the United States, bringing America into the war.

The Beijing Games

Taking place 40 years after the birth of the modern Games, the 1936 Olympics marked the first major collision of athletics and politics at the Games. But it was hardly the last (see timeline, above).

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For the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, the Chinese government spent a record $40 billion to showcase the country's meteoric economic rise and emergence as a world power.

While there was criticism of the I.O.C. for awarding the Olympic Games to an authoritarian state like China, human rights advocates saw the Olympics as a chance to focus the world's attention on China's human rights abuses, including its occupation of Tibet and its restrictions on freedom of expression.

"The line from the I.O.C. on China was that giving the Olympics to Beijing was a form of constructive engagement that would help open the country up politically," Hoberman says. He notes that it hasn't worked out that way, with China even more politically repressive today.

'Inherently Political'

Derrick Hulme, author of The Political Olympics, says that in selecting China for 2008--and Brazil as the host of the 2016 Games--the I.O.C. is indeed making a statement, but of a slightly different sort: It's simply recognizing both nations as emerging global powers.

In fact, Hulme says, the Olympics in their modern form were intended to be political.

"The 1936 Games were simply a particularly dramatic moment in which the world recognized the incredibly close relationship between politics and sports," he says.

"The Games don't allow individuals to participate," Hulme adds. "Athletes participate on behalf of a country, so in that sense the Olympics are inherently political."

TIMELINE

Politics & the Olympics

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ANCIENT OLYMPICS

Alexander the Great

Alexander uses the 324 B.C. Olympics, held in Olympia, to announce that political exiles could return to their native cities in Greece.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

1936

BERLIN

Owens & Hitler

Black track-and-field star Jesse Owens wins four gold medals for the U.S. in Germany, where Nazi ideology proclaims the racial superiority of non-Jewish white "Aryans."

1948

LONDON

Cold War Games

Three years after the end of World War II, Japan and Germany are excluded. A woman from Communist Czechoslovakia defects from her country during the Games.

1956

MELBOURNE

China vs. Taiwan

China boycotts the Games because Taiwan, which it considers part of China, is allowed to compete independently.

1964 TOKYO

Apartheid

South Africa is banned from the Games because of apartheid, its system of racial segregation. It's not invited back until 1991, when apartheid ends.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

1968

MEXICO CITY

Black Power Two black sprinters on the U.S. team, gold and bronze winners in the 200-meter race, give the "black power" salute during the playing of "The Star-Spangled Banner."

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

1972

MUNICH

Terrorism

Eleven Israeli athletes are taken hostage and murdered by Palestinian terrorists in the Olympic Village during Germany's first time hosting the Games since World War II and the Holocaust.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

1980

MOSCOW

U.S. Boycott

President Jimmy Carter announces a U.S. boycott of the Moscow Games in response to the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviets then boycott the Los Angeles Games in 1984.

1988 SEOUL

Regime Change

In June 1987, South Koreans stage massive pro-democracy protests against their government. After threats to move the Games if calm isn't restored, the regime makes concessions that later lead to democratization.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

2008

BEIJING

Power & Protest

China showcases its economic rise through elaborate pageantry, as thousands of people worldwide protest its human rights abuses.

LESSON PLAN 4

CRITICAL THINKING

When Germany hosted the Summer Olympics in 1936, countries and athletes were faced with deciding whether or not to compete. Ultimately, more countries participated than in any previous Olympic Games.

[right arrow] Why do you think so many countries competed even though Hitler's anti-Semitic policies were by then well-known?

[right arrow] What are the pros and cons of sending athletes to an Olympics hosted by a country with a poor human rights record?

WRITING PROMPT

Compare and contrast the laws imposed on Jews in Nazi Germany and the Jim Crow laws in the South.

DEBATE

Should the U.S. have sent athletes to Berlin in 1936? to Beijing in 2008?

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

How did the German government use the Games as propaganda? What was Hitler trying to convey to the rest of the world? How successful was he?

What rights did Hitler take away from Jews before the Olympics? How did he attempt to mask his anti-Semitic policies during the Games?

What was significant about the wins that Jesse Owens--a black American competing in Nazi Germany--earned? What irony involving his Olympic triumph did Owens later write about?

What did author David Hulme mean when he said the Olympics are "inherently political."

How might hosting the Olympics affect a country politically, economically, and socially?

Why did so many people protest China hosting the 2008 Summer Games?

FAST FACT

The American team was the second largest in the 1936 Berlin Games, with 312 athletes. Germany's team was the largest, with 348.

WEB WATCH

ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/olympics

An online exhibition about Germany before, during, and after the 1936 Summer Olympics, from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

QUIZ 3--TIMES PAST

(1) Germany's hosting of the 1936 Olympics posed a dilemma for many countries because of

a the loss of many athletes in World War II.

b Hitler's anti-Semitic rhetoric and policies.

c rising anti-Communist sentiments worldwide.

d rising fuel costs that made it expensive to send teams to Berlin.

(2) Germany was selected to host the 1936 Games

a several years earlier, when it had a democratic government.

b without the consent of the international. Olympic Committee.

c to showcase the booming economy under the Nazi regime.

d after Tokyo turned down a bid to host.

(3) To leave a good impression on foreign visitors, Hitter

a featured many Jewish athletes on the German team.

b shook hands with every winning athlete.

c reinstated the right of Jews to own businesses.

d ordered all anti-Semitic signs removed for the Games.

(4) Ironically, the star of the Berlin Olympics was African-American -- star Jesse Owens.

a track-and-field

b swimming

c soccer

d baseball

(5) The 2008 Olympics in China were controversial because of China's

a failing economy.

b failure to file all the official paperwork with the International Olympic Committee.

c criticism of the United States and other Western nations.

d human rights abuses.

IN-DEPTH OUESTIONS

(1) Why do you think President Franklin Delano Roosevelt never publicly weighed in on whether the U.S, should participate in the 1936 Olympics?

(2) What is propaganda? What forms can it take? Why was the use of propaganda so important for the Nazi regime?

(3) Why do sports often become entangled with politics? Is it possible to separate international, sports from politics? Explain.

ANSWER KEY

QUIZ 3 PAGE TE 6

(1) [b] Hitler's anti-Semitic rhetoric and policies.

(2) [a] several years earlier, when it had a democratic government.

(3) [d] ordered that all anti-Semitic signs be removed during the Games.

(4) [a] track-and-field

(5) [d] human-rights abuses.
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Title Annotation:TIME PAST
Author:Potts, Courtney
Publication:New York Times Upfront
Geographic Code:4EUGE
Date:May 9, 2011
Words:2330
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