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 NOVO NORDISK PLANT PROTECTION DIVISION
 Novo Nordisk Entotech
 Biological pesticides help mankind overcome a formidable challenge: to produce enough food and fiber to meet the needs of a growing global population while protecting the quantity and quality of the Earth's natural resources. The Novo Nordisk Plant Protection Division of Denmark-based Novo Nordisk A/S currently offers the world's largest and most diverse range of such environmentally-friendly "biopesticides."
 Established in 1988, the Novo Nordisk Plant Protection Division currently markets some 15 different biopesticide products in more than 25 countries. The U.S. commercial office is located in Danbury, Conn.
 And there is more to come not only from the laboratories in Denmark but also from Davis, California where in 1990, the company opened Novo Nordisk Entotech. This state-of-the-art facility is dedicated to the research and development of proprietary new biopesticides and in less than two years has made a number of significant discoveries.
 The Demand For 'Greener' Agriculture
 Traditional petroleum-based chemical pesticides dominate the worldwide pesticide market with biological pesticides accounting for less than 1 percent share. But the market dynamics are changing. Governments and consumers are demanding pesticides that are safer to people and an increasingly fragile planet. Many pests have developed resistance to chemical pesticides used continuously over the years. And companies like Novo Nordisk are developing new biological pesticides that are superior to their predecessors. As biopesticides take on a much bigger role in integrated pest-management programs, sales are projected to grow significantly faster over the next few years than sales of chemical pesticides.
 The active ingredients in biopesticides are naturally-occurring microbes which produce by-products that are toxic to certain insects and plant diseases but non-toxic to non-target pests, people and the environment. The company currently markets several biological insecticides derived from a naturally occurring microorganism called Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). They are effective in controlling the larvae of certain species of caterpillars, beetles and mosquitoes. And yet they are non-toxic to the environment, have low potential for the development of resistance, and are highly pest-specific, so they are harmless to non-target insects, wildlife and people.
 In the United States, the company's most important products include:
 -- Novodor: The newest product in PPD's lineup, Novodor is based on
B.t. var. tenebrionsis. A significant step forward in the efficacy of


B.t.-based products, Novodor averages 95.2 percent control in university-supervised field trials versus 74.2 percent for the best- performing B.t. competitor. It is extremely effective in controlling the Colorado potato beetle, a pest that has developed resistance to chemical pesticides and now threatens the very livelihoods of potato growers in many parts of the United States.
 -- Foray: Foray is a B.t. var. kurstaki insecticide that is aerially applied to trees in low doses to control leaf-eating caterpillars such as the gypsy moth and spruce budworm. Foray is the product of choice among North American foresters faced each year with armies of caterpillars capable of defoliating acres of trees. A similar but more concentrated product, Futura, is marketed to foresters in some parts of Canada.
 -- Biobit: Also based on the B.t. var. kurstaki, Biobit controls caterpillars that attack high-value crops like leafy vegetables, table and wine grapes, fruit trees and cotton. Biobit has a dominant share of the B.t. market in California, one of the largest pesticide markets in the U.S. Products like Biobit are becoming increasingly valuable to farmers and food companies as older chemical pesticides continue to be scrutinized by regulators for potential "food safety" problems.
 -- Bactimos: Public health officials rely on Bactimos for control of mosquitoes. Based on B.t. var. israelensis, Bactimos is applied to ponds, wetlands, and other potential breeding sites for control of larvae without harm to fish, wildlife, or people.
 -- Florbac: Based on B.t. var. aizawai, Florbac has strengthened Novo's position in the Southeast Asian agricultural market by controlling diamondback moth, which has developed resistance to conventional pesticides.
 Future Discoveries
 Pioneering the research and development of new biopesticides, Novo Nordisk Entotech, based in Davis, Calif., employs some 40 scientists specializing in such fields as entomology, microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, fermentation and formulation.
 All naturally occurring microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes -- produce by-products, some of which are highly toxic to specific insects. Each year, Novo Nordisk Entotech researchers screen thousands of microorganisms to isolate these by-products and evaluate their usefulness as pest-control agents.
 Initially, Novo Nordisk Entotech will focus on the search for new B.t. varieties that control a broader spectrum of pests or pests for which there currently are no microbial control options. It will also focus on improving the manufacturing productivity and field performance of existing B.t.s through process and formulation development. And, it will conduct research to better understand the mode of action and molecular biology of toxic proteins, in part so these proteins can be "manufactured" at the least-possible cost.
 Novo Nordisk Entotech is also directing efforts at discovering other organisms including viruses and fungi, that are capable of controlling insects, nematodes and other pests.
 These efforts are paying off. Though less than two years old, the company already has made several significant discoveries, including promising new potential product candidates for difficult-to-control insects like armyworm, mites, aphids, and budworms.
 Integration
 Novo Nordisk Entotech is part of the larger Novo Nordisk research community. It works in close partnership with the Plant Protection Division's central research-and-development unit in Denmark, where microbiologists are developing biofungicides to control plant diseases such as grey mold, downy mildew and powdery mildew. And, it is collaborating with the Bioindustrial Group's Industrial Biotechnology Division, which employs more than 400 scientists in pursuit of new and better industrial enzymes and improved production techniques.
 Novo Nordisk's research effort also stretches beyond its own capabilities to include cooperative partnerships with universities and industry. The strategic location of Novo Nordisk Entotech in the Central Valley of California, where some 300 different crops are grown, allows the company to collaborate with premier agricultural institutions like the University of California at Davis.
 The company's success in developing biopesticides is based not only on superior science but also on listening to customers. Bringing specialists in such areas as entomology, plant pathology and molecular biology into close interaction with customers at all levels helps keep science focused on solving customer problems and on meeting real needs. Novo Nordisk's customer focus also helps it deliver not only new products but also entire stewardship systems to ensure that these products are transported, handled, applied and disposed of properly for maximum effectiveness and safety to people, wildlife and the environment.
 About The Parent Company
 Novo Nordisk A/S is the world's largest producer of industrial enzymes. Worldwide, it markets 40 different enzyme products for applications in the detergent, starch, textile, paper and pulp, brewing and baking industries, among others. Novo Nordisk is also the world leader in the development and production of insulin and diabetes-care products, as well as other protein-based pharmaceuticals, monitoring devices and administration systems. Headquartered in Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Novo Nordisk employs more than 10,000 people and markets products in more than 130 countries.
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Date:Aug 24, 1992
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