"Inert" and active ingredients: Seralini responds.
Surgan raises interesting points in his analysis. This interest has been confirmed by reactions of agriculture authorities all over the world after publication of the article by Richard et al. (2005).
Indeed, scientific problems do exist in the registration of pesticides today, when chronic toxicity chronic toxicity Toxicology A condition caused by repeated or long-term exposure to low doses of a toxic substance tests are conducted with the active ingredient alone--which is generally the case. First of all, chemists from companies may work hard for several years to find the right formulation that best amplifies the effects of the active ingredient, his formulation will allow penetration and stability and/or bioaccumulation bi·o·ac·cu·mu·la·tion
The increase in the concentration of a substance, especially a contaminant, in an organism or in the food chain over time. of the active ingredient within plant, fungi, or insect cells, for instance, to reach the best toxicity. If there are any side effects Side effects
Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm. in other animal or human cells, these will be also amplified by adjuvants, and thus not measured in chronic toxicity tests with the active ingredient alone. The active compound absorption by skin is generally calculated in the presence of formulated adjuvants, but this is clearly a short-term study and not sufficient to detect, for example, endocrine disruption or carcinogenesis car·ci·no·gen·e·sis
The production of cancer.
production of cancer.
viruses and some parasites are capable of initiating neoplasia. , possibly promoted in vivo in vivo /in vi·vo/ (ve´vo) [L.] within the living body.
Within a living organism.
in vivo adv. by the described synergy. This should even necessitate further care in case of the use of formulated products such as glyphosate-based herbicides on tolerant, edible plants.
As a matter of fact, most genetically modified crops have been modified and selected only to tolerate high-formulated herbicide herbicide (hr`bəsīd'), chemical compound that kills plants or inhibits their normal growth. A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective. absorption, but the plants are not submitted for registration requiring chronic toxicity studies involving long-term feeding of animals. Moreover, in the case of environmental pollution, active pesticide ingredients may encounter detergents or other lipohilic xenobiotics with comparable effects other than those of their own adjuvants, for instance, forming microvesides to penetrate the cells. These combined effects should also be taken into account in authorized thresholds of pollution in order to avoid effects on wildlife or humans.
The author declares he has no competing financial interests.
Richard S, Moslemi S, Sipahutar H, Benachour N, Seralini G-E, 2005. Differential effects of glyphosate glyphosate
herbicide and desiccant for grains. Heavy doses to birds cause soft shells on their eggs. and Roundup on human placental cells. Environ Health Perspect 113:716-720.
Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire
Universite de Caen