"Christ-killer"--the long shadow of a blood libel.
After centuries of prejudice and hostility, culminating in the murder of European Jewry, the prospect has tantalizingly tan·ta·lize
tr.v. tan·ta·lized, tan·ta·liz·ing, tan·ta·liz·es
To excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach. appeared of a day when anti-Semitism will no longer hold a place in Christian hearts.... [T]he arrival of that day depends not only on repentance ... but, ultimately, on an honest reckoning with the past.
--Robert Wistrich (1999)
In the wake of Vatican II, people of decency everywhere began to hope for an end to the surreal era when Jewish children in school or at play were targeted with the incredible taunt of" Christ-killer." These hopes have been diminished by Mel Gibson's soon-to-be released The Passion of Jesus the Christ, using graphic violence to portray Jews of Jesus's day as responsible for the crucifixion. (1)
From the traditional Christian perspective, the story of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection is about the triumph of love. Unfortunately, that's only part of the story. A generation of efforts to promote interreligious understanding has so far failed to defuse the power, manifested over the course of many hundreds of years, of dramatizations of the Passion to incite and-Jewish hatred and violence. (2)
Jules Isaac, a French historian whose family died in the Holocaust, advised Augustin Cardinal Bea of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in the years leading up to the Second Vatican Council's adoption of Nostra Aetate (1965) declaring that, henceforth, "the Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if that followed from Holy Scriptures." (3) In his 1964 book, The Teaching of Contempt: Christian Roots of Anti-Semitism, Isaac had argued that the deicide De´i`cide
n. 1. The act of killing a being of a divine nature; particularly, the putting to death of Jesus Christ.
Earth profaned, yet blessed, with deicide.
2. accusation--demonizing all Jews for all time as guilty of killing Jesus- was the lethal core of antisemitic ideology and the continuous thread running through two millennia of vilification, persecutions, forced conversions, ghettoization, expulsions, and pogroms. (4)
As the 21st century begins, there are troubling signs that the deicide accusation and blood libel stubbornly persist in popular culture and political discourse, and have even made new global inroads. In the 1960s, at the height of Christian and Jewish cooperation in the moral crusade for civil rights, the sociologists Charles Y. Glock and Rodney Stark "were entirely unprepared to find the religious roots of antisemitism so widespread in modern society." (5) Not much had changed by 2002 when a Gallup poll concluded that "the Christ-killer charge remains pervasive" on the basis of finding that 37 percent of American young adults still hold Jews responsible for Jesus's death. (6)
In Europe and the Middle East, a British cartoonist wins an award for picturing Israeli Prime Minister Sharon devouring a crucified Palestinian infant, while images of Jews (and sometimes the U.S. government) crucifying Palestinians (and Iraqis) have become media commonplaces throughout the Muslim world. (7) A website of the government of Qatar complains that Jews have "gotten the Vatican to drop the Catholic belief that the Jews were the Christ's killers!" Under pressure from Arab Christians, the Anglican Church is increasingly influenced by "replacement theology" claiming that Jews have been superseded in God's favor because of the mistreatment mis·treat
tr.v. mis·treat·ed, mis·treat·ing, mis·treats
To treat roughly or wrongly. See Synonyms at abuse.
mis·treat of Palestinians, while fashionable "liberation theologians" are breathing "new life into old defamations" of Judaism and Jews. In Montpelier, a French priest distributes at a Christmas midnight mass a hymn reading: "He was born in Bethlehem, Palestine. He was born in Bethlehem, poor and innocent. Sharon shot him down." A Palestinian website announces: "Jews Used Romans To Kill Jesus=Jews Use The US To Kill Arafat!" (8)
Looking to the future, it may be a cliche, but still has the ring of truth, that those who ignore history are condemned to repeat it. This is true of the history of the libel that Jews are "a deicide people."
The Gospels--"Let His Blood Be On Us"
Utilized to make a public statement, the terrible fate of crucifixion was a Roman punishment for political criminals, employed in both individual and mass executions. In 4 BCE BCE
1. Bachelor of Chemical Engineering
2. Bachelor of Civil Engineering
Abbreviation for before the Common Era. , the probable year of Jesus's birth, the Roman governor of Syria, Quintilus Varus Varus (Publius Quinctilius Varus) (vâr`əs), d. A.D. 9, Roman general. In 13 B.C. he was consul with Tiberius Claudius Nero (later emperor as Tiberius) and later was governor of Syria. , ordered 2,000 Jewish protesters against foreign nile crucified. In 66 CE, the Roman governor of Judea, Gessius Florus, outdid out·did
Past tense of outdo. him by crucifying 3,600 Jews--men, women, and children of all social ranks--as enemies of Rome. Then during the final siege of Jerusalem A number of sieges have the name Siege of Jerusalem:
For details of the method of execution, see Crucifixion. of Nazareth under a wooden sign reading "King of the Jews." (9)
The accounts of the four Gospels conflict about whether Jesus was tried before the Sanhedrin and, if so, what the charges and verdict may have been. Yet we do know that if the Sanhedrin did indeed try Jesus for a capital crime, the various proceedings described in the Gospels violated virtually all the jurisprudential rules--e.g., no trials to be held at night or on the eve On the Eve (Накануне in Russian) is the third novel by famous Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, best known for his short stories and the novel Fathers and Sons. or day of a festival like Passover, unanimous agreement by witnesses, protection against self-incrimination, no charge of blasphemy except for pronouncing the divine name, stoning rather crucifixion as a punishment in the event of a conviction-later codified in Jewish law. (10)
If the Sanhedrin tried and found Jesus guilty, why didn't it execute him? The Gospel of John's answer is that, under the Romans, the Jewish courts were denied capital jurisdiction. (Jn. 18:31) Historians still hotly debate this issue. However, the strong probability is that, if a Jewish court had sentenced Jesus to death, the punishment would have been execution by stoning--not crucifixion. (11)
Most likely, the High Priest Caiaphas feared that Jesus, who entered the city in a triumphal procession (Jn. 12:1, 12-16) and caused some sort of disturbance at the Temple (Jn. 2:12-25), would ignite rioting during the volatile Passover holiday that would bring down Rome's wrath on Jerusalem. Jesus was turned over to the Roman Governor who reached his own judgment that this alleged would-be messiah should be publicly executed, but was not so dangerous to make it necessary to round up and kill his followers, which is what the Romans subsequently did in suppressing the popular protest movements led by Theudas and the Jewish rabble-rouser known as "the Egyptian." (12)
Caiaphas was a Roman appointee whose vestments were even kept in the custody of Pontius Pilate. (13) In the Gospels, some Pharisees are shown disagreeing with Jesus (Jn. 9:13-34), while others warn him of impending dangers (Luke 13:31), but none figure prominently in the Passion narratives. The crowd pictured as shouting, "Crucify him! ... Let his blood be on us and our children" (Math 27:23-25), is counterbalanced by crowds hailing him as messiah (Mark 11:18; Matt. 21:1-11) and mourning his execution. (Luke 23:28) Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, pious, prominent Jews, saw to Jesus's burial. (Matt. 27:57-60; Jn. 19:39-42) (14)
Most readers of the Gospels come away with an impression of Pontius Pilate as a well-meaning but weak ruler who declares Jesus innocent but--succumbing to pressure from the Temple authorities and the Jerusalem crowd--orders his execution. Pilate's washing of his hands to disclaim responsibility for Jesus's death is a Jewish, not a Roman, gesture, making Pilate almost look like a pious Chasid. According to Paul Winter, "the stem Pilate grows more mellow from Gospel to Gospel." Ultimately, Pilate was canonized as a saint by the Ethiopian Christian Church! (15)
In contrast, the philosopher Philo described Pilate's character and conduct in terms of "corruption, violence, depredations, ill treatment, offenses, numerous illegal executions, and incessant, unbearable cruelty." A careful reading of the Gospels brings Pilate's image more in line with the negative picture in other sources. For example, the Gospel of Luke suggests Pilate's rash and violent nature in describing how he sent his troops to mow down some Galileans "whose blood mingled with their sacrifices." (Luke 13:1) (16)
Probably committed to writing 40 to 70 years after the crucifixion, the Gospels not only tended to exculpate To clear or excuse from guilt.
An individual who uses the excuse of justification to explain the lawful reason for his or her action might be exculpated from a criminal charge. Exculpatory evidence is evidence that works to clear an individual from fault. and appease the Roman persecutors of nascent Christianity of guilt for Jesus's death, but to inculpate To accuse; to involve in blame or guilt.
When an individual who has committed a crime imputes guilt upon another individual, he or she is thereby inculpating such individual.
TO INCULPATE. To accuse one of a crime or misdemeanor. and vilify the Jews whose synagogues frustrated Christian hopes for mass Jewish conversion. The result was the demonization of Jews as being of "your father, the devil" (Jn. 8:44) and the attribution to them of the self-curse: "Let his blood be upon us and our children." (Matt. 27:25) Gibson circulated two "rough cuts of his film, one of which included this verse, spoken by the High Priest Caiaphas rather than an anti-Jesus crowd. (17)
Jesus's crucifixion was an incident in the century-long campaign--Jack Miles, author of Christ: A Crisis in the Life of God (2001), calls it "the Roman Shoah"--to terrorize ter·ror·ize
tr.v. ter·ror·ized, ter·ror·iz·ing, ter·ror·iz·es
1. To fill or overpower with terror; terrify.
2. To coerce by intimidation or fear. See Synonyms at frighten. Jewish Palestine into submission to Imperial Rome. is The Gospel writers as well as the Apostle Paul almost certainly did not foresee or fully intend the consequences, yet they minimized Roman guilt and created a myth of perpetual Jewish blood guilt for the crucifixion that echoed down the centuries. (19)
The Church Fathers and Anti-Judaism
The term "deicide" (theoktonian in Greek) was coined by St. John Chrysostom Noun 1. St. John Chrysostom - (Roman Catholic Church) a Church Father who was a great preacher and bishop of Constantinople; a saint and Doctor of the Church (347-407)
John Chrysostom in the fourth century. (20) Two hundred years earlier, it had already produced its poet laureate, St. Melito of Sardis Saint Melito of Sardis (died c.180) was the bishop of Sardis, near Smyrna in Asia Minor, and a great authority: Jerome, speaking of the Old Testament canon established by Melito, quotes Tertullian to the effect that he was esteemed a prophet by many of the faithful. , whose Homilies on the Passion, Peri Pasha, read:
He who hung the earth is hanging; he who fixed the heaven has been fixed; he who fastened the universe has been fastened to a tree; the Sovereign has been insulted; the God has been murdered; the King of Israel has been put to death by an Israelite right hand. (21)
Personal rapport with individual Jews was no match for theological contempt in the minds of the Church Fathers. St. Jerome (third century) is said to have studied Hebrew under a prominent rabbi, yet declared: "If it is requisite to despise individuals, and the nation, so do I abhor the Jews with an inexpressible hate." (22)
The crescendo of patristic anti-Judaism came in the fourth century. The Roman Empire converted to Christianity under Constantine, who called the Council of Nicea (convened in 325) that for the first time formally affirmed the divinity of Jesus. Their alleged responsibility for killing Christ made Jews, as Rosemary Ruether put it, "guilty of cosmic regicide REGICIDE. The killing of a king, and, by extension, of a queen. Theorie des Lois Criminelles, vol. 1, p. 300. " against God and the Emperor, "the vicar of Christ" on earth. (23)
St. Isadore cited Jeremiah 13:23--"Can the Ethiopian change his color or the leopard his spots?"--not to disparage Africans, but to argue that the evil nature of the Jew cannot be changed. St. John Chrysostom (canonized in 1909; his name translates from the Greek as "St. John the Golden-Mouthed") wrote of the Jews that, because of their "odious assassination of Christ ... no expiation ex·pi·a·tion
1. The act of expiating; atonement.
2. A means of expiating.
ex possible, no indulgence, no pardon, and for which they will always be a people without a nation, enduring a servitude without end.... God hates them, and so also should good Christians." (24)
According to St. Augustine, the Jews were filled with bitterness and gall like that they gave Jesus on the cross. He agreed that their guilt was an inherited trait because of "Christ, whom you, in your ancestors, led to death." (25)
The Hebrew Bible and pre-Christian Jewish history were appropriated by the Church Fathers on the grounds that the Jews had forfeited God's election of Israel by killing their own prophets. The Fathers incorporated libels against Jews as debauched, depraved, and violent haters of mankind from pagan philosophers such as Apion who told a tale about the Jewish priests annually kidnapping (and fattening up) a gentile to make a human sacrifice in the Temple. (26) Here is part of Chrysostom's defense of the burning down of synagogues:
You did slay Christ, you did lift violent hands against the Master, you did spill his precious blood.... In the old days your reckless deeds were aimed against his servants, against Moses, Isaiah, and Jeremiah.... But now you have put all the sins of your fathers into the shade.... The Jews sacrifice their children to Satan.... they are worse than wild beasts. The synagogue is a brothel, a den of scoundrels, the temple of demons devoted to idolatrous cults, a criminal assembly of Jews, a place of meeting for the assassins of Christ, a house of ill fame, a dwelling of iniquity, a gulf and abyss of perdition.... I hate the Jews because they violate the Law..... It is the duty of all Christians to hate the Jews. (27)
The "Adversus Judeos" tradition of hateful anti-Jewish polemics was qualified by Augustine's "witness theory." "Like Cain," the Jews also "bore a sign." They should not be killed because they had a role to play as a testimony to Christian prophetic truth: "Let them live among us, but let them suffer and be continually humiliated." (28)
Crusades, Crosses, and Passion Plays
Theologically, there was more continuity than change in Christian attitudes toward Jews between late classical and medieval times. Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III (c. 1161 – June 16, 1216), born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was pope from January 8, 1198 until his death. Biography
Early life and election to the Papacy
Lotario de' Conti di Segni was born in Gavignano, near Anagni. issued a declaration in the thirteenth century that could have been written by St. Augustine 900 years before. Yet from the eleventh on, Europe was being transformed and energized. "[T]o kill Christ-killers," as one historian put it, "became an act of faith. The Crusaders, cross in one hand and sword in the other, excelled at this kind of worship." (29) Affixing crosses to their outer garments, Crusaders in 1096 and 1146 started with the internal enemy or infidel INFIDEL, persons, evidence. One who does not believe in the existence of a God, who will reward or punish in this world or that which is to come. Willes' R. 550. This term has been very indefinitely applied. by terrorizing Jewish communities in France and Germany before they ever reached the Muslim East. There, during the First Crusade, they burned down Jerusalem's leading synagogue in which many of the city's Jewish inhabitants had sought refuge. Crusader chief Godfrey de Bouillon Bouillon, town (1991 pop. 5,468), Luxembourg prov., SE Belgium, in the Ardennes on the Semois River, near the French border. It is a small manufacturing and tourist center. promised "to leave no single member of the Jewish race alive." To the Jews of Europe and the Middle East, the Crusaders were "misguided wanderers," armed with swords that were inverted crosses meting out death. (30)
At home, Christian Europe evolved a new religious sensibility. Previously, both written and visual representations of Jesus were in the tradition of "Chrisms Victor" picturing him as a calm, commanding figure who could almost be said to have orchestrated his own crucifixion. The innovative, emotional preaching of the Dominican and Franciscan friars dramatized harrowing details of the crucifixion to popularize pop·u·lar·ize
tr.v. pop·u·lar·ized, pop·u·lar·iz·ing, pop·u·lar·iz·es
1. To make popular: A famous dancer popularized the new hairstyle.
2. a different, more human Christ who suffered greatly on the cross. (31)
The "cult of the cross" became part of a new, meditative spirituality. Looking inward, mystics focused on human sinfulness--not the Jews--as the cause of the crucifixion. (32) But the illiterate masses were affected less by this interiorized spirituality than by the new emotional preaching style of the mendicant orders that went hand-in-hand with anti-Jewish invective. According to one twelfth-century friar, the Jews "curse Christ continually, at least three times each day, at which three times they malign and blaspheme blas·pheme
v. blas·phemed, blas·phem·ing, blas·phemes
1. To speak of (God or a sacred entity) in an irreverent, impious manner.
2. To revile; execrate.
v.intr. him; they also curse the Virgin Mary every day." (33)
The emotionality of the medieval cult of the cross was coterminous with an unprecedented emphasis on the blood of Christ The Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and (b) the Eucharistic wine used at Holy Communion Salvation
The ritual murder accusation remained a fruity until 1144, when in England the body of twelve-year-old William of Norwich William of Norwich (1132? – March 1144) was an English boy whose death was blamed on the Jewish community of Norwich in the first medieval example of blood libel against Jews. was found on Easter Saturday. A few years later, a Jewish convert named Theobold offered the information that "the Jews of Norwich bought a Christian child before Easter and tortured him with all the tortures our Lord was tortured, and on Long Friday hanged him on a rood in hatred of our Lord." Theobold also claimed that a sort of international rabbinic rab·bin·i·cal also rab·bin·ic
Of, relating to, or characteristic of rabbis.
[From obsolete rabbin, rabbi, from French, from Old French rabain, probably from Aramaic conclave conclave
In the Roman Catholic church, the assembly of cardinals gathered to elect a new pope and the system of strict seclusion to which they submit. From 1059 the election became the responsibility of the cardinals. gathered in Spain each year to pick a ritual victim to use in revenging themselves on Jesus whose death had made Jews slaves in exile. Ritual crucifixion of a Christian, according to Theobold, was also expected to hasten the coming of the Jewish messiah. From these wild charges, originated both the paradigm of the worldwide Jewish conspiracy and also the archetype of Jewish ritual murder as a re-enactment of Jesus's death. (35)
Christian mobs typically retaliated for alleged ritual murders with anti-Jewish pogroms, usually on Good Friday. Jews convicted of ritual murder were sometimes hanged upside down between two dogs in a cruel parody of the crucifixion. (36)
The increasing incidence of child abuse and abandonment during a period of social change fueled the rising incidence of ritual murder accusations. In 1492, Jews were executed for crucifying an infant in LaGuardia, Spain, just four months before Columbus's first voyage marked a new age. The charges and trial, masterminded by the Inquisitor INQUISITOR. A designation of sheriffs, coroners, super visum corporis, and the like, who have power to inquire into certain matters.
2. The name, of an officer, among ecclesiastics, who is authorized to inquire into heresies, and the like, and to punish them. Torquemada, reportedly helped convince Queen Isabella to sign the order expelling Jews from Spain. Yet even without Jews, Spain remained the center of Catholic theological Judeophobia. (37)
In Shakespeare's England, roughly a century later, Jews had been banned from the country for 300 years, yet belief that Jews abducted, circumcised, and cannibalized young victims remained as vivid as ever. (38)
The blood libel accusation was kept alive all over Europe by the medieval and early modern Passion Play. Ordinary people who could not read the Church Fathers were transfixed by dramas. As was the case later in Oberammergau in Bavaria, where the villagers put on a seven-hour marathon production every ten years, these plays were truly community affairs. In one popular play, Anima Christi, sinners are saved by the precious "Blood of Christ." There was a ban on the portrayal of sadistic violence in other dramatizations, but in passion plays, torture and even rape were often part of the plot. The characterization of Jews could not be more inflammatory. In the Alsfelder Passionspiel, Caiaphas orders Jesus to: "Take off your clothes.... Lie down on the cross; and stretch out your feet and arms." An executioner then orders three heavy nails, a hammer, and tongs. While Jesus is impaled, the Jews rejoice and mock him. (39)
If crude medieval productions could affect popular imagination to the extent of igniting pogroms and expulsions of Jews, we in the postmodern, post-Holocaust era ought to be even more concerned about the prejudicial, potentially violent impact of state-of-the-art Hollywood productions dramatizing the same, age-old pernicious themes of anti-Jewish hatred.
From Medieval to Modern
The gradual transition to modernity did nothing to shake the hold of the medieval "Christ-killer" image in the Christian world. The Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance and Reformation / Renaissance et Réforme is a bilingual (English and French), multidisciplinary journal devoted to what is currently called the early modern world (see early modern period). opened up deep fault lines in Europe, yet anti-Judaism and antisemitism cut across the Catholic-Protestant divide. It was during this period that such terms as Peuple deicide, Gottesmord, and "Christ killer" rooted themselves in European national cultures. (40)
Martin Luther initially expressed hopes for Jewish conversion in a pamphlet, That Christ Was Born a Jew, yet became bitterly disappointed, and in, The Jews and Their Lies, urged the burning of synagogues. (41) In England and America a few centuries later, even the Quaker William Penn shared "Christ-killer" stereotypes. (42)
In the young United States, the "Christ-killer" dogma was taught in Sunday-School primers such as Elizabeth Peabody's Sabbath Lessons (1813) reviling "the conspiracy of Jewish rulers against Jesus Christ," while a manual for Sunday-School teachers admonished them to "remark on the willfulness and fickleness of the Jews." Later, liberal Protestant ministers purveyed similar notions in more sophisticated fashion. Only agnostic Robert G. Ingersoll Colonel Robert Green Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 – July 21, 1899) was a Civil War veteran, American political leader, and orator during the Golden Age of Freethought, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism. viewed the deicide accusation as a major cause of antisemitism. (43)
As late as the 1950s, American Catholic high-school textbooks offered dais gloss on Jesus's scourging by the Romans: "Since Pilate could not find wrong with Christ, he decided to disfigure disfigure v. to cause permanent change in a person's body, particularly by leaving visible scars which affect a person's appearance. In lawsuits or claims due to injuries caused by another's negligence or intentional actions, such scarring can add considerably to his beautiful body so that even the bloodthirsty Jews would back down and say that Christ had enough." (44)
As Europeans colonized the new world, they brought with them the "Christ-killer" libel, even imparting it to African Americans. Slave masters catechized their slaves like this:
Q. The Wicked Jews grew angry with our Savior and what did they do to him.
A. They crucified him. (45)
Slaves sang spirituals with such verses as:
Virgin Mary had one son. The cruel Jews had him hung. (46)
Regarding growing up in the South around World War I, the novelist Richard Wright recollected:
All of us black people who lived in the neighborhood hated Jews, not because they exploited us, but because we had been taught at home and in Sunday school that Jews were "Christ-killers." (47)
As recently as the 1990s, during a period of intense Black-Jewish tensions, New York's leading African-American newspaper ran a front-page story featuring accusations that the Chasidic community tried to lure a black transient into a synagogue basement in order to kill him, ritual-murder fashion. (48)
As Abraham G. Duker showed, ritual-murder scares were pervasive across the United States during the first third of the 20th century. Duker's interest dated from his second day as a Jewish immigrant to the United States in 1922 when he was cautioned about a recent ritual-murder accusation in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. (49)
Pittsfield had seen a Polish immigrant community accusing Jewish immigrants of planning a ritual murder. Both accusers and accused, not coincidentally, hailed from Eastern Europe where ritual-murder accusations, rife in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminated in 1911 in the Beilis affair in Kiev, Russia. Czar Alexander HI had set the tone for the official response by the authorities to this wave of hysteria by declaring in 1882: "We must never forget that the Jews crucified Christ and shed his precious blood." (50)
Thus in both Europe and the United States, the medieval and early modern accusations of deicide survived into the formative years of the 20th century. The incorporation of age-old hatreds into modernity coincided with the introduction of the new mass medium of motion pictures. After World War I, D. W. Griffith and Cecil B. DeMille Noun 1. Cecil B. DeMille - United States film maker remembered for his extravagant and spectacular epic productions (1881-1959)
Cecil Blount DeMille, DeMille offered Hollywood versions of the New Testament redolent with "Christ-killer" stereotypes. Though toned down somewhat in response to Jewish protests, DeMille's 1927 Biblical epic, The King of Kings, did fuel antisemitism. Multiply to the nth factor, this note, passed between two fourth-grade girls, that found its way into the files of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise: "Martha, I found out who killed our God. The Jews did it. I went to see King of Kings. It showed how the Jews killed him." (51)
The Nazis Embrace the Deicide Accusation
Hider privately called Christianity the product of "sick brains," but his animus Animus - ["Constraint-Based Animation: The Implementation of Temporal Constraints in the Animus System", R. Duisberg, PhD Thesis U Washington 1986]. was directed against "Rabbi Paul," and he purged from the movement Nazis impolitic im·pol·i·tic
Not wise or expedient; not politic: an impolitic approach to a sensitive issue.
im·pol enough to call Jesus "a Jewish coward." His objective was a "Germanic Christianity"--not Aryan atheism. (52)
Whatever Hider's true religious convictions, the Nazi regime used the deicide accusation to great political effect, disarming potential opponents until it was too late for them to protest effectively. An impressive representation of the Nazi elite attended the 300th anniversary of the Oberammergau Passion Play in 1934. "It is vital that the Passion Play be continued at Oberammergau," the Fuhrer declared during the war, "for never has the menace of Jewry been so convincingly portrayed." (33)
Steven T. Katz Steven T. Katz is a Jewish philosopher and scholar. He is the director of the Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies at Boston University in Massachusetts, USA.
He received his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge, England in 1972. has quite rightly point out that: "The Jews survived 1,600 years of Christianity. They almost didn't survive four years of World War II. Something different must have happened." Yet except for the tiny Jehovah's Witnesses, the German churches acquiesced in what did happen during World War II. (54)
In 1938--the year "The White Christ" painted by Marc Chagall showed a crucified Jesus wearing a tallit hovering over a destroyed shtetl--Nazi-orchestrated mobs burned hundreds of Torah scrolls during Kristallnacht, while German churches invited in Nazis to decorate their Sunday services with swastikas. (55)
In Slovakia, a representative of the Catholic Church refused to intervene on behalf of Jewish children slated for deportation because: "There is no innocent blood of Jewish children in the world. All Jewish blood is guilty. You have to die. This is the punishment that has been awaiting you because of that sin [of deicide] ." A few years later at the Dachau death camp, Jewish inmates were subjected to Aufbinden (crucifixion) by Nazis interested in replicating how Jesus died. Often, the last thing Jews heard on the way to the gas chambers was the taunt: "Christ-Killer!" (56)
During World War II, Himmler proposed "pure antisemitic clandestine broadcasts" to Britain and the U.S., reporting that "in locale X a child is missing and is probably another case of Jewish ritual murder." Only the end of the war prevented the carrying out of an order by Hider to make a film dramatizing the 1840 Damascus ritual murder libel that played an important part in aggravating Arab antisemitism. (57)
Then, in the dock in 1945 as a war criminal, was the notorious Nazi Jew-baiter, Julius Streicher. Streicher, in his defense of the Shoah in front of the Nuremberg Tribunal, invoked, in addition to Martin Luther, the Gospel of John--"your father is the devil." In 1958, in Ulm, Germany, a Protestant pastor who had been attached to an SS Einsatzkommando unit defended his wartime crimes by referring his judges to the Gospel of Matthew The Gospel of Matthew is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. It narrates an account of the life and ministry of Jesus. It describes his genealogy, his miraculous birth and childhood, his baptism and temptation, his ministry of healing and (27:25): "[L]et his blood be on us and our children." Were Nazis like Adolf Eichmann, who washed their hands of responsibility for the Holocaust
The Holocaust ended with World War II, but not the murder of Jews for allegations of ritual murder. In 1946, on the basis of a false accusation that a Polish boy had been killed for his blood, 70 Jews were murdered in the town of Kielce. (59)
An Old Libel enters a New Century
After World War II and the Holocaust, the movie studios continued to make Biblical epics, including big pictures about the origins of Christianity The followers of Jesus composed an apocalyptic Jewish sect during the late Second Temple period of the 1st century. Some groups that followed Jesus were strictly Jewish, such as the Ebionites, as were the church leaders in Jerusalem, collectively called Jewish Christians. , such as Samuel Brouston's King of Kings (1961) and George Stevens's The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965). Yet whatever their artistic merits, these films took real pains not to portray the Romans as innocent dupes and Jesus's fellow Jews as murderers primarily and collectively responsible for his death. (60)
Not so Mel Gibson, who disdained any critical feedback or input from interfaith scholars and community leaders concerned about reports that the script and rough cut of his film violate all the advisory guidelines for avoiding inciting antisemitism. (61)
Gibson is an accomplished filmmaker, whose strong suit is "action" films in the violent tradition of Sam Peckinpah and Quentin Tarantino. His Academy Award-winning Braveheart combined magnificent battle sequences with a comic book-like depiction of "good guy" Scots versus "bad guy" English. (62) What sort of Passion can we expect from Mel Gibson? Unless he opens himself to criticism and self-criticism before it is too late, the probable result will be unprecedentedly graphic depictions of Jesus's physical punishment combined with black vs. white portrayals of "well meaning" Romans versus perfidious perfidious
Albion Napoleon’s epithet for England, “perfide Albion.” [Fr. Hist.: Misc.]
See : Treachery Jews. To increase the film's violence quotient, Gibson is using an extrascriptural source, the 19th-century nun, Ann Catharine Emmerich, whose mystical visions of the crucifixion border on "violent pornography." (63)
Gibson has a perfect right to make his film, his way. But he will also have to take responsibility for the ugly consequences that may flow from a 21st-century cinematic crucifixion that taps into two thousand years of "Christ-killer" passions undeservedly targeting Jesus's own people, the Jews.
(1.) Daniel Treiman, "Report on Mel Gibson Movie Splits Jewish, Catholic Groups," Forward (New York), July 4, 2003, p. 1; Paula Fredriksen, "The Gospel According to Mel," The New Republic (July 28, 2003) <http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?pt=80VDpXe%2BtUVYgZguKgNQvB%3D%3D>; Eric J. Greenberg, "Gibson's Passion Termed Anti-Semitic," The Jewish Week, June 10, 2003, p. 1; Greenberg, "Jesus's Death Now Debated by Jews," The Los Angeles Jewish Journal. October 10, 2001, p. 1; Marsha Kranes, "Mel's 'Passion' Put to the Test: Five Diverse Viewers React to Post Preview," The New York Post The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. Since 1976, it has been owned by Australian-born billionaire Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation and is one of the 10 , November 17, 2003, p. 22; Frank Rich, "The Greatest Story Ever Sold," The New York Times, September 21, 2003; Julia Duin, "Mel Looks Right for Movie on Jesus," The Washington Times, July 7, 2003; Peter J. Boyer, "The Jesus War: Mel Gibson and 'The Passion'," The New Yorker, September 15, 2003 < http://www.wcnet.org/~bgcc/gibson.htm>; Nacha Cattan, "Gibson Film Exposes Rift in Vatican Hierarchy," Forward (New York), December 26, 2003 <http://www.forward.com/issues/2003/03.12.26/newsl.html>.
(2.) Kelly Boggs, "First-Person: Mel Gibson's 'Passion'," BP (Baptist Press), Jan 17, 2003 <http://www.baptistpress.org/bpcolumn.asp?ID=859>; Antonio Gaspari, "The Cardinal and the Passion: Gibson's Controversial Movie Gets a Roman Endorsement," National Review On Line, September 18, 2003 <http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentgaspari091803.asp>; Carl Limbacher, "Billy Graham Praises Mel Gibson's 'Passion of Christ'," NewsMax.com, November 26, 2003 <http://www.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2003/11/26/121628.shtml>; Peggy Noonan, "'It Is As It Was'," The Wall steer Journal, December 17, 2003 <http://online.wsj.com/columnists/pnoonan?id=110004442>.
(3.) Michael A. Hayes, "From Nostra Aetate to 'We Remember': A Reflection on the Shoah," in Christian-Jewish Relations through the Centuries, ed. by Stanley E. Porter and Brook W. R. Pearson (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000), pp. 426-45; Church Documents: Nostra Aerate aerate Physiology verb To add air or O2 into a liquid. See Waste treatment. < http://www.newadvent.org/docs/ec21na.htm>.
(4.) Augustin Bea, The Way to Unity after the Council, trans, by Gerard Noel (London: G. Chapman, 1967); Jules Isaac, The Teaching of Contempt: Christian Roots of Anti-Semitism, trans, by Helen Weaver (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1964), pp. 109-23.
(5.) Charles Y. Glock and Rodney Stark, Christian Beliefs and Anti-Semitism (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 62 (quote); Glock and Stark, The Tenacity of Prejudice: Anti-Semitism in Contemporary America (New York: Harper and Row, 1969), p. 110.
(6.) Jim Remsen, "Survey Gauges Anti-Semitism," The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 17, 2003, p. A4.
(7.) "Independent Cartoonist Wins Award," Independent (London), November 27, 2003, p. 2; Melanie Phillips, "Christians Who Hate Jews," The spectator (London), February 15, 2002 <http://pws.prserv.net/mpjr/mp/sp160202.htm>; Karl Ericson, "Follow-up to Creating Paranoia" http://www.primechoice.com/philosophy/shelp/muscreateparanoia.htm.
(8.) Middle East Media and Research Institute (MEMRI MEMRI Middle East Media and Research Institute (Washington, DC)
MEMRI Michigan Electronic Medical Record Initiative ), "The Arab Answer to Schindler's List'," Special Dispatch No. 190 (March 1, 2001) <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP19001>; Abraham Cooper and Harold Brackman, "The Fight Against Holocaust Denial," Midstream (April, 2001), pp. 2-4; Marvin Perry and Frederick M. Schweitzer, Antisemitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the Present (New York: Palgrave, 2002), p. 11; Jon D. Levenson, The Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament, and Historical Criticism: Jews and Christians in Biblical Studies (Louisville, Kentucky:John Knox Press, 1993), p. 41 (quote); Zionist Organization of America (ZOA zo·a
A plural of zoon1. ), "Arafat's Official Media Revive Deicide Charge--Accuse Jews of Killing Jesus," press release, August 9, 2000; <http://www.zoa.org/pressrel/20000809b.htm>; "Jews Used Romans To Kill Jesus=Jews Use The US To Kill Ararat!"
(9.) Josephus, Antiquities, 17.295; Josephus, Jewish War, 5:447-51; John Dominic Crossan John Dominic Crossan (b. Nenagh, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1934) is an Irish-American religious scholar known for co-founding the controversial Jesus Seminar. Crossan is a major figure in the fields of biblical archaeology, anthropology and New Testament textual and higher criticism. , The Historical Jesus (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), p, 369; Richard A. Horsley with John S. Hanson, Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs: Popular Movements in the Times of Jesus (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1985, p. 31. Crucifixion was introduced into Judaea by the Persians, crucifixion was employed by Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(born c. 215—died 164 BC, Tabae, Iran) Seleucid king of the Hellenistic Syrian kingdom (175–164 BC). Son of Antiochus III, he was taken hostage in Rome (189–175), where he learned about Roman institutions. against the Maccabees, by the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus against the Pharisees, and by Judge Simeon ben Shatach against 80 witches at Askelon. Despite or because of these instances, crucifixion went very much against the Jewish grain to the extent that it is uncertain that it was employed by Jewish courts during Roman times. See Martin Hengel, Crucifixion in the Ancient Word (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977), pp. 22-23; Haim Hermann Cohn, "Crucifixion," Encyclopedia Judaica (1996), Vol. 5, pp. 1134-35; Flusser, Judaism and the Origins of Christianity (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988), pp. 575-609; E. P. Sanders, Judaism: Preface and Belief 63 BCE-66 CE (London: SCM (1) (Software Configuration Management, Source Code Management) See configuration management.
(2) See supply chain management. Press, 1992), p. 382; Aryeh Kasher, Jews and Hellenistic Cities in Eretz-Israel (Tubingen, Germany: Mohr, 1990), pp. 318-41; Brown, Death of the Messiah, Vol. 2, p. 1400; Jacob Z. Lauterbach, Mechilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1933-1935), Vol. 2, p. 247.
(10.) E. P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985), p. 407; Richard A. Freund, "The Myth of Jesus in Rabbinic Literature," in The Seductiveness of Jewish Myth: Challenge or Response?, ed. by Daniel Breslauer (Albany: State University of New York Press The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), founded in 1966, is a university press that is part of State University of New York system. External link
(11.) Winter, On the Trial of Jesus, pp. 75-90; cf. David R. Catchpole, The Trials of Jesus: A Study in the Gospels and Jewish Historiography flora 1770 to the Present Day (Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1971), pp. 236-260. The Apostle Stephen and James, the brother of Jesus, were both stoned after controversial Jewish trials. See Acts 7:55-56; Josephus, Antiquities, 20:200-01; Catchpole, Trials of Jesus, pp. 241-254.
(12.) Josephus, Antiquities, 20:97-99, 169-71; Horsley with Hanson, Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs, pp. 162-72.
(13.) Eugene J. Fisher, Faith Without Prejudice: Rebuilding Christian Attitudes Toward Judaism (Crossroad, NY: American Interfaith Council, 1993), pp. 75, 76.
(14.) Never mocking Jesus, the Jewish crowds are portrayed as more sympathetic to him in Luke than in Mark. See David Flusser with R. Steven Notley, Jesus (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1997), pp. 223-225.
(15.) Winter, On the Trial of Jesus, p. 60; Helen K. Bond, Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). , 1998), pp. 174-175.
(16.) Philo, Legatio ad Gaium, 302; Bond, Pontius Pilate, p. 36. Raymond E. Brown can say for him is that he was "not without very serious faults." See Brown, Death of the Messiah, Vol. 1, p. 701.
(17.) Samuel Sandmel, Anti-Semitism in the New Testament? (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978); David Rensberger, "Anti-Judaism in the Gospel of John For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation).
The Gospel of John (literally, According to John; Greek, Κατά Ιωαννην, Kata Iōannēn ," in Anti-Judaism and the Gospels, ed. by William R. Farmer (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press, 1999), p. 148; Adele Reinhartz, "The Gospel of John: How the 'Jews' Became Part of the Plot," in Jesus, Judaism, and Christian Anti-Judaism: Reading the New Testament After the Holocaust
(18.) Louis H. Feldman, Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World: Attitudes and Interaction From Alexander to Justinian (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), pp. 382, 580; Yehoshafat Harkaby, The Bar Kochba Syndrome, trans, by Max D. Ticktin (New York: Rossel Books, 1983), pp. 45-53.
(19.) Jack Miles, Christ: A Crisis in the Life of God (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), pp. 109-118.
(20.) Edward H. Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Anti-Semitism (New York: Paulist Press, 1985), p. 51; St. John Chrysostom, Homilies Against the Jews, 1, 7:6; Robert L. Wilken, John Chrysostum and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late Fourth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press "UC Press" redirects here, but this is also an abbreviation for University of Chicago Press
University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. , 1983).
(21.) Stephen J. Wilson, "Melito and Israel," in Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity, Vol. 2: Separation and Polemic, ed. by Wilson (Ontario, Canada: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1986), pp. 91-93 (quote). See also Eric Werner, "Melito of Sardis: The First Poet of Deicide," Hebrew Union College The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC, HUC-JIR, and The College-Institute) is the oldest Jewish seminary in the New World and the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors, educators and communal workers in Reform Judaism. Annual, Vol. 37 (1966), pp. 191210; Judith M. Lieu, Image and Reality: The Jews in the World of the Christians in the Second Century (Edinburgh: T and T Clark, 1996), pp. 231, 281-282; Robert W. Wilken, "Melito, the Jewish Community at Sardis, and the Sacrifice of Isaac," Theological Studies, Vol. 37 (1976), pp. 53-69; K. W. Noakes, "Melito of Sardis and the Jews," Studies Patristica, Vol. 13 (1975), pp. 244-249.
(22.) Albert Gilbert, The Vatican Council and the Jews (Cleveland: World Publishing Company, 1968), p. 14.
(23.) Jeremy Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , "The Jews as Killers of Christ in the Latin Tradition," Traditio, Vol. 39 (1983), pp. 1-27; Jacob Neusner, Judaism and Christianity in the Age of Constantine (Chicago: University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including , 1987), pp. 1-11: Ruether, Faith and Fratricide frat·ri·cide
1. The killing of one's brother or sister.
2. One who has killed one's brother or sister.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin , p. 129 (quote).
(24.) Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews, p. 51; St. John Chrysostom, Homilies Against the Jews, 1, 7:6.
(25.) St. Augustine, Adversus Judeos, 7:10; Ruether, Faith and Fratricide, p. 130; Gilbert, Vatican Council and the Jews, p. 59.
(26.) Peter Schafer, Judeophobia: Attitudes Toward the Jews in the Ancient World (Cambridge: Harvard University Press The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. It was established on January 13, 1913. In 2005, it published 220 new titles. , 1997), pp. 62-63, 161; John Gager, The Origins of Anti-Semitism" Attitudes Toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), pp. 45-46; Marcel Simon, "Christian Anti-Semitism," in Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict from Late Antiquity to the Reformation, ed. by Jeremy Cohen (New York: New York University Press New York University Press (or NYU Press), founded in 1916, is a university press that is part of New York University. External link
(27.) Chrysostom, Homilies Against the Jews, 1:7, 4:2, 5:6, 6:2, 6:4, 6:6-7; Flannery, Anguish of the Jews, pp. 47-48.
(28.) James Carroll, Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), pp. 216-19, 365. Christian-Jewish relations during the first millennium of the Common Era could not have been worse, and were often better, than one might conclude from reading Church Fathers like Augustine. For example, Christian emperors, such as Honorius, Theodosius I, and Theodosius II, continued to recognize the status of Judaism under Roman law as a religio licita or "legal religion." See Feldman, Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World, p. 102.
(29.) Pinchas E. Lapide, Three Popes and the Jews (New York: Hawthorne Books, 1967), pp. 22-23 (quote); R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250 (Cambridge: B. Blackwen, 1987), pp. 84-85.
(30.) Simon R. Schwarzfuchs, "Crusades," Encyclopedia Judaica (1996), Vol. 5, pp. 1135-36; William Nicholls, Christian Antisemitism: A History of Hate (New York: Jason Aronson, 1993), p. 229; Robert S. Wistrich ? Robert Solomon Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. , Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred (London: Thames Methuen, 1991), p. 24; Robert Chazan cha·zan or haz·zan also chaz·zan
A cantor in a synagogue.
[Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic , In the Year 1096: The Jews and the First Crusade (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996)
(31.) Wolfgang S. Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1970), pp. 1-12; Heinz Schreckenberg, The Jews in Christian Art: An Illustrated History (New York : Continuum, 1996), pp. 155-89; Nicholls, Christian Antisemitism, p. 25; Gustav Aulen, Christus Victor, trans. by A. G. Herbert (New York: Macmillan, 1951).
(32.) Nicholls, Christian Antisemitism, p. 267; the Council of Trent Noun 1. Council of Trent - a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers; redefined the Roman Catholic doctrine and abolished , Article IV <http://www.cin.org/users/james/ebooks/master/trent/tcreed04.htm>.
(33.) Jeremy Cohen, The Friars and the Jews: Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University press, 1982), pp. 238-239 (quote).
(34.) Ernest A. Rapaport, "The Ritual Murder Accusation: Persistence of Doubt and the Repetition Compulsion," in The Blood Libel: A Cosebook in Anti-Semitic Folklore, ed. by Alan Dundes (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press The University of Wisconsin Press (or UW Press), founded in 1936, is a university press that is part of the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States. It published under its own name and the imprint The Popular Press. , 1991), p. 319; Dan Cohn-Sherbok, Anti-Semitism: A History (New York: Sutton Publishing, 2002), p. 80.
(35.) Joshua Trachtenberg, The Devil and the Jews (Cleveland: World Publishing Company, 1943), p. 130 (quote); Gavin Langmuir, Toward a Definition of Antisemitism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), pp. 209-236, 263-298; Langmuir, "Thomas of Monmouth: Detector of Ritual Murder," in Blood Libel Legend, pp. 13, 22-23.
(36.) Trachtenberg, Devil and the Jews, pp. 50, 228.; R. Po-chia Hsia, The Myth of Ritual Murder: Jews and Magic in Reformation Germany (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), Figure 3.
(37.) Joseph Jacobs, "Little St. Hugh of Lincoln: Researches in History, Archeology, and Legend," in Blood Libel Legend, pp. 44-45; Sanford Shepard, "The Present State of the Ritual Crime in Spain," in Blood Libel Legend, pp. 166-171; Frank E. Manuel, The Broken Staff: Judaism through Christian Eyes (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 223.
(38.) Cohn-Sherbok, Anti-Semitism, p. 84; James Shapiro, Shakespeare and the Jews (New York: Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is an academic press based in New York City and affiliated with Columbia University. It is currently directed by James D. Jordan (2004-present) and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, , 1996), pp. 100-102.
(39.) Nicholls, Christian Antisemitism, p. 252; Cohn-Sherbok, Anti-Semitism, pp. 69-70; Rappaport, "The Ritual Murder Accusation," in Blood Libel, pp. 319, 322-23; Saul S. Friedman, The Oberammergau Passion Play: A Lance Against Civilization (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984).
(40.) Jacob Katz, From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism, 1700-1933 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), p. 116.
(41.) Heiko A. Oberman, The Roots of Antisemitism in the Age of Renaissance Age of Renaissance is a board game designed by Don Greenwood and Jared Scarborough and published by Avalon Hill in 1996. The game is for 3-6 players and the box claims that the game should take 2-6 hours to play, though as with any serious multiplayer strategy game, this and Reformation, trans, by James I. Porter (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984), pp. 3841; Jeremy Cohen, "Traditional Prejudice and Religious Reform: The Theological and Historical Foundations of Luther's Anti-Judaism," in Anti-Semitism in Times of Crisis, ed. by Sander L. Gilman and Steven T. Katz (New York: New York University Press, 1991), pp. 81-102.
(42.) Egal Feldman, Dual Destinies: The Jewish Encounter with Protestant America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press The University of Illinois Press (UIP), is a major American university press and part of the University of Illinois. Overview
According to the UIP's website: , 1990), pp. 10; Michael N. Dobkowski, The Tarnished Image: The Basis of American Anti-Semitism (Westwood, CN: Greenwood Press, 1979), p. 13.
(43.) Ibid., 14; Feldman, Dual Destinies, pp. 143-144; George L. Berlin, Defending the Faith: Nineteenth-Century American Jewish Writings on Christianity and Jesus (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), pp. 50-51.
(44.) Gilbert, Vatican Council and the Jews, p. 4; James w. Arnold, "Religious Textbooks: Primers of Bigotry," Ave Maria, October 10, 1964; Judith H. Banki and Eugene J. Fisher, eds., A Prophet for Our Time: An Anthology of the Writings of Rabbi Marc H. Tannenbaum (New York: Fordham University Press The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences. Fordham University Press was established in 1907 and is headquartered in the Canisius Hall building in the Rose Hill Campus of , 2002), p. 36.
(45.) Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in America, p. 198.
(46.) E. A. McIllhenny, Befo' De War Spirituals (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1938), p. 39.
(47.) Richard Wright, Black Boy (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945), p. 70.
(48.) Vinette K. Price, "Was Crown Heights Beating Victim 'Betrayed' by Hasidism?" The New York Amsterdam News, December 12, 1992, pp. 1, 8.
(49.) Abraham Duker, "Twentieth-Century Blood Libels in the United States," in Blood Libel, pp. 233-260; cf. Saul S. Friedlander, The Incident at Massena: The Blood Libel in the United States (New York: Stein and Day, 1978), pp. 61-63.
(30.) Cohn-Sherbok, Anti-Semitism, p. 222; Andrew Handler, Tiszaezlar (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980, pp. 173-187; David I. Kertzer, Three Popes Against the Jews: The Vatican's Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001), pp. 135-136; Frand_ek_ervinka, "The Hilsner Affair," in Blood Libel, pp. 135-164; Charlotte Klein, "From Damascus to Kiev: Civilta Cattolica on Ritual Murder," in Blood Libel, pp. 180-196.
(51.) Richard Maltby, "The King of Kings and the Czar of All the Rushes: The Propriety of the Christ Story," Screen, Vol. 31 (1990), pp. 188-213; Felicia Herman, "'The Most Dangerous Anti-Semitic Photoplay pho·to·play
A play filmed or arranged for filming as a movie. Also called photodrama. in Filmdom': American Jews and The King of Kings," Velvet Light Trap, No. 46 (Fall, 2000), pp. 12-25; Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf trans, by Ralph Mannheim (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999 ), p. 307.
(52.) Norman H. Baynes Professor Norman Hepburn Baynes (1877–1961) was a noted 20th century British historian of the Byzantine Empire. Works
Selected published works
(53.) Ibid., 3; Adolf Hitler, Secret Conversations, 1941-1944 (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1953), p. 457.
(54.) Liz McMillen, "The Uniqueness of the Holocaust," Chronicle of Higher Education, June 22, 1994 (quote); Weiss, Ideology of Death, p. 4; Richard J. C. Gutteridge, Open Thy Mouth For The Dumb!: The German Evangelical Church and the Jews, 1879-1950 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1976); John S. Conway John S. Conway (born 1929) is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of British Columbia. He has specialized in the role of the German churches and the Vatican during the Third Reich, and on Christian-Jewish relations during the 20th century. , "The German Church Struggle and its Aftermath," in Jews and Christians after the Holocaust, ed. by Abraham J. Peck (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982), pp. 30-52; Robert P. Ericksen and Susannah Heschel, eds., Betrayal: German Churches and the Holocaust (Minneapolis: Portress Press, 1999).
(55.) Weiss, Ideology of Death, p. 252.
(56.) Irving Greenberg in Auschwitz, Beginning of a New Era?: Reflections on the Holocaust, ed. by Eva Fleischner. Papers Given At The International Symposium On The Holocaust, Held At The Cathedral Of Saint John The Divine, New York The Cathedral of St. John the Divine, officially the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine in the City and Diocese of New York, is the Cathedral of the Episcopal Diocese of New York. City, June 3 to 6, 1974. New York: Ktav Publishing Company, 1977), pp. 441-442 note 7 (quote);
Pierre Barbet, A Doctor At Calvary (New York: P.J. Kennedy, 1953), pp. 76, 174; Elie Wiesel, Night (New York: Penguin Books, 1960), pp. 75-76; Frank Littell, The Crucifixion of the Jews (New York: Harper and Row, 1975), pp. 149-150; Ron Rosenbaum, Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of HIS Evil (New York: Random House, 1998), p. 296.
(57.) Perry and Schweitzer, Antisemitism, p. 2; Jonathan Frankel, The Damascus Affair 'Ritual Murder; Politics, and the Jews in 1840 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 429.
(58.) Randall L. Bytwerk, Julius Streicher (New York : Stein and Day, 1983), pp. 65-71; Nicholls, Christian Antisemitism, p. 271; Alan Dundes, "The Ritual Murder or Blood Libel Legend," in Blood Libel, p. 349; Lapide, Three Popes, p. 26; Carter Lindberg, "Tainted Greatness: Luther's Attitudes toward Judaism and Their Historical Reception," in Tainted Greatness: Antisemitism and Cultural Heroes, ed. by Nancy A. Harrowitz (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994), pp. 15, 20; Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal (New York: AMS AMS - Andrew Message System Press, 1971 ), Vol. 12; Reimund Bieringer et al., "Wrestling with Johannine Anti-Judaism: Framework for the Analysis of the Current Debate," in Anti-Judaism and the Fourth Gospel, p. 14; Brown, Death of the Messiah, Vol. 1, p. 330; Meir Michaelis, "Italy," in The World Reacts to the Holocaust, ed. by David E. Berkovitz (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University, mainly at Baltimore, Md. Johns Hopkins in 1867 had a group of his associates incorporated as the trustees of a university and a hospital, endowing each with $3.5 million. Daniel C. Press, 1966), p. 533.
(59.) Richard L. Rubenstein, "The Convent at Auschwitz and the Imperative of Pluralism in the Global Electronic Village," in Memory Offended: The Auschwitz Convent Controversy, ed. by Carol Rittner and John K. Roth (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 40.
(60.) W. Barnes Tatum, Jesus at the Movies: A Guide to the First Hundred Years (Santa Rosa, CA: Polebridge Press, 1997), pp. 73-76.
(61.) Frank Rich, "The Greatest Story Ever Sold," The New York Times, September 21, 2003; Duin, "Mel Looks Right for Movie on Jesus," The Washington Times, July 7, 2003; Noxon, "Is the Pope Catholic ... Enough?," The New York Times Magazine, March 9, 2003; Munoz and Wilkinson, "Gibson Seeks a Few More Apostles," The Los Angeles Times Los Angeles Times
Morning daily newspaper. Established in 1881, it was purchased and incorporated in 1884 by Harrison Gray Otis (1837–1917) under The Times-Mirror Co. (the hyphen was later dropped from the name). , December 17, 2003, pp. E1, E4; Christopher Goodwin, "Films about Christ's Death are Always Controversial, But The Passion Has Caused an Almighty Row Months Before It's Due to Be Released," The Sunday Times (London), July 13, 2003, p. 8. Whether or not the ailing Pope, shown a cut of Gibson's movie missing Matthew 27:25 ("let his blood be on us and our children"), said a few words favorable to the film is in dispute. Asked whether the Holocaust occurred, which his father has questioned, Gibson said his father never lied to him, and elaborated: "I have friends and parents of friends who have numbers on their arms. The guy who taught me Spanish was a Holocaust survivor. He worked in a concentration camp in France. Yes, of course. Atrocities happened. War is horrible. The Second World War killed tens of millions of people. Some of them were Jews in concentration camps. Many people lost their lives. In the Ukraine several million starved to death between 1932 and 1933. During the last century, 20 million people died in the Soviet Union." His reply did not satisfy critics. See Waxman, "Gibson to Delete a Scene in 'Passion,'" The New York Times, February 4, 2004.
(62.) Stephen, Prince, Savage Cinema: Sam Peckinpah and the Rise of Ultraviolent Movies (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998); Kenneth Turan, "Blood, No Guts," The Los Angeles Times, November 2, 2003, p. El; Jessica Winter, "Mel Gibson's Jesus Christ Pose," The Village Voice, November 5-11, 2003 <http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0345/winter.php>.
(63.) Marvin Hier and Harold Brackman, "Mel's Passion," The Los Angeles Times, June 22, 2003, p. M1; Allen, Human Christ, pp. 203-07; Raymond A. Schroth, "The Gospel According to Mel," The National Catholic Reporter (November 28, 2003), <http://ncronline.org/NCR_Online/archives2/2003d/112803/112803r.php> (quote).
HAROLD BRACKMAN, Ph.D., is a consultant on intergroup relations for the Simon Wiesenthal Center's Museum of Tolerance The Museum of Tolerance is a multimedia museum in Los Angeles, California, with an associated museum in New York City, designed to examine racism and prejudice in the United States and the world with a strong focus on the history of the Holocaust. in Los Angeles.